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APRIL 9, 1919— OCTOBER 15. 1919 





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fC .6865 11 




American Antiquarian 






WoitCi-STtR, Massachusetts 


Note of Committee of Publication . 
Officers and Members of tiie Society 




Proceedings 1 

Kn'uhr or the Council 7 

Obituaries . 16 

Tin: Increasing Debt of History to Science 

Archer B. Hulbert 29 

Some Papers of Aaron Burr Worthington Chauncey Fu-rd 43 

BtilLlOGiUPUY of American Newspapers, 1090-1820 

Clarence S. Briyhain 129 


Proceedings . 181 

lil.FOItl OK THE CODNCH . 185 

With plate <*f proposed addition 

OftlTU ARILS . 196 

let of tub Treasurer 199 

kt of tub Librarian 209 

(ihAATi.u Ni.w England in THE Middle of the Nineteenth 

CenTURI Frederick J. Turner 222 

A Gl MM.V.OMAN of BOSTON, 1712-1805 Barred Wendell 242 

Tsi Conciliator* Proposition in the Massachusetts 

Convention of 1788 . . George H. Haynes 294 


The twenty-ninth volume of the present series contains the records of 
the Proceedings of April 9, and October 15, 1919. 

The reports of the Council have been presented by George Hubbard 
HIAeslee and Waldo Lincoln. 

Tapers have been received from Archer Butler Hulbert, Worthington 
Ch&uncey Ford, George Henry Haynes, Frederick Jackson Turner and 
H.irn tt Wendell. 

The volume contains the eleventh installment of the Bibliography of 
American Newspapers, 1G90-1S20, covering the States of Ohio, prepared 
by Clarence Saunders Brigham. 

Obituary notices of the following deceased members appear in this 
volume: Samuel Abbott Green, Samuel Swett Green, William Roscoe 
Livermore, Henry Ainsworth Parker, Franklin Tierce Rice, Theodore 
K >0*e> elt, Andrew Dicksou White, and Henry Ernest Woods. 



fhncdtan ffiniiquatian Started 

Elected October 15, 1919. 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 


ANDREW McFARLAND DAVIS, A.M., of Cambridge, 

ARTHUR PRENTICE RUGG, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

GRANVILLE STANLEY HALL, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
SAMUEL UTLEY, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

FRANCIS IIENSHAW DEWEY, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 


N. Y. 
GEORGE PARKER WINSHIP, Litt. D, of Dover, Mass. 
WILLIAM HOWARD TAET, LL.D., of New Haven, Conn. 

HENRY HERBERT EDES, of Cambridge, Mass. 

Secretary foe tfordun Correspondence. 
JAM liS PHINNEY BAXTER, Litt.D., of Portland, Me. 

Secretary for ©omeartc Corresponoence. 

bridge, Mass. 

"Kecoroitifl Secretary. 
cester, Mass. 





Elected October 15, 1919. 

Committee ot publication. 

GEORGE HENRY HAYNES, Ph.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
JOHN HENRY EDMONDS, of Boston, Mass. 


BENJAMIN THOMAS HILL, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
HOMER GAGE, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

Jfinance Committee. 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

FRANCIS HENSHAW DEWEY, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 


Xtbrarg Committee. 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B, of Worcester, Mass. 

CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS, M.D., Litt.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

THOMAS HOVEY GAGE, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

Committee on tbe Iball. 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
SAMUEL UTLEY, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS, M.D., Litt.D., of Worcester, Mass. 


Bealatant Xibtarian. 




April, 1879. 
Franklin Bowditch Dexter, Litt.D., New Haven, Conn. 

October, 1881. 
Henry Cabot Lodge, LL.D., . . . Nahant, Mass. 

April, 1882. 
Andrew McFarland Davis, A.M., . Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1884. 

John Bach McMaster, LL.D., . . Philadelphia, Pa. 

October, 1884. 
William Harden Savannah, Ga. 

April, 18S5. 

Keubkx Colton, A3., Boston, Mass. 

HtNRY Her DEBT Edw, A.M., . . . Cambridge, Mass. 

October, 1885. 
Edward Cuanning, Ph.D., . . . Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1887. 

James Phinney Baxter, Litt.D., . Portland, Me. 
Edward Herbert Thompson, . . Cambridge, Mass. 

, t 


April, 1888. 
Augustus George Bullock, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 

October, 1888. 

Granville Stanley Hall, LL.D., . Worcester, Mass. 
John McKinstry Merriam, A.B., . Framingham,Mass, 

October, 1889. 
William Eaton Foster, Litt.D., . Providence, R. I. 

April, 1890. 

Hannis Taylor, LL.D., Washington, D. C. 

Thomas Lindall Winthrop, . . . Boston, Mass. 

October, 1890. 
John Franklin Jameson, LL.D., . Washington, D. C. 

April, 1891. 

Charles Pickering Bowditch, A.M., Boston, Mass. 
Charles Pelham Greenough, LL.B., Brookline, Mass. 

October, 1891. 

Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 
Rev. Calvin Stebbins, A.B., . . . Framingham,Mass. 

April, 1893 
Wilberforce Eames, A.M., . . . New York, N. Y. 

October, 1893. 

Simeon Eben Baldwin, LL.D., . . New Haven, Conn. 
Henry Phelps Johnston, A.M., . . New York, N. Y. 
Albert Shaw, LL.D., ..... New York, N. Y. 

April, 1895. 

Thomas Corwin Mendenhall, LL.D., Ravenna, Ohio. 
Clarence Bloomfield Moore, A.B., Philadelphia, Pa. 

April, 1896. 

William Trowbridge Forbes, A.B., Worcester, Mass. 
Edwin Augustus Grosvenor, LL.D., Amherst, Mass. 


October, 1896. 

George Henry Haynes, Ph.D., . 
Auim a Loud, A.B., .... 

Worcester, Mass. 
Plymouth, Mass. 

April, 1897. 

JoefcFU Llorimond Loubat, LL.D., . Paris, France. 

i h KULha Lemuel Nichols, M.D., Litt.D., Worcester, Mass. 

April, 1898. 

I.i.wis Winters Gunckel, Ph.B., 
Waldo Lincoln, A.B., . . . . 
Edward Sylvester Morse, Sc.D., 

April, 1899. 

George Burton Adams, Litt.D., 
Alexander Graham Bell, LL.D., 
Abdott Lawrence. Lowell, LL.D., . 
Geohqe Parker Winship, Litt.D. . 

October, 1899. 
Ut. Rev. William Lawrence, LL.D., 

April, 1900. 

Biwjcl Utley, LL.B., 

October, 1900. 

•,u\i Hooker Gilbert, A.B., . 
/iui,-> Kurd Ruod£Sj LL.D., . 

April, 1901. 

Bekjahim Ti!0>u8 Hill, A.B., . . 

IUv. Ilk.NHY FlTCU J EN KB, A.M., 

Allen Clapp Thomas, A.M., . . . 
Htv. Williston Walker, Litt.D., . 

October, 1901. 

George Lyman Kittredge, LL.D., . 
Samuel W'alker McCall, LL.D., 
Albert Matthews, A.B., . . . 

Dayton, Ohio. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Salem, Mass. 

New Haven, Conn, 
Washington, D. C, 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Dover, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Ware, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 
Canton, Mass. 
Haverford, Pa. 
New Haven, Conn 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Winchester, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 



April, 1902. 

William Denison Lyman, A.M., . . WallaWalla, Wash. 

October, 1902. 

William MacDonald, LL.D., . . Berkeley, Cal. 

Roger Bigelow Merriman, Ph.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1904. 

Clarence Winthrop Bowen, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 

Victor Hugo Paltsits, .... New York, N. Y. 

October, 1904. 

Daniel Berkeley Updike, A.M., . Boston, Mass. 

October, 1905. 

Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., Worcester, Mass. 

William Henry Holmes, .... Washington, D. C. 

October, 1906. 

William Keeney Bixby, LL.D., . . St. Louis, Mo. 

Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt, . . . Worcester, Mass. 

April, 1907. 
Worthington Chauncey Ford, Litt.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

October, 1907. 

Charles McLean Andrews, L.H.D. New Haven, Conn. 

Clarence Monroe Burton, A.M., . Detroit, Mich. 

Thomas McAdory Owen, LL.D., . Montgomery, Ala. 

Herbert Putnam, LL.D., .... Washington, D. C. 

James Schouler, LL.D., .... Intervale, N. H. 

Frederick Jackson Turner, LL.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1908. 

William Beer, New Orleans, La. 

Franz Boas, Ph.D., . . . . . New York, N. Y. 

George Lincoln Burr, LL.D., . . Ithaca, N. Y. 
Peter Joseph Hamilton, A.M., . San Juan, Porto Rico 

Charles Henry Hull, Ph.D., . . Ithaca, N. Y. 

William Coolidge Lane, A.B., . . Cambridge, Mass. 


April, 1908. 

ANDREW Cunningham McLaughlin, A.M., Chicago, 111. 
Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 
J i una Herbert Tuttle, .... Dedham, Mass. 
Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., Worcester, Mass. 
Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., . Worcester, Mass. 

October, 1908. 

GlOROC Hubbard Blakeslee, Ph 
Clyde Augustus Duniway, Ph.D., 
Max Farrand, Ph.D., 
Frederick Webb Hodge, . 
William Vail Kellen, LL.D., 
Alfred Louis Kroeber, Ph.D., 
Arthur Prentice Pugg, LL.D., 
Marshall Howard Saville, . 
Alfred Marston Tozzer, Ph.D., 

D., Worcester, Mass. 
Colorado Springs, Colo. 
New Haven, Conn. 
Washington, D. C. 
Boston, Mass. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Worcester, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1909. 

Samuel Morris Conant, . 
Wilfred Harold Munro, L.H.D., 
Ju&tin Harvey Smith, LL.D., 

Pawtucket, It. I. 
Providence, R. I, 

Boston, Mass. 

October, 1909. 

Herman Vandfnburg Ames, Ph.D., 

Edward Kverett Ater, 

Ihtuu BiNQiuifj Ph.D., 

IIrXRI VVlJfi hemek Cunningham 

ROLUTO Herbage Dixon, Ph.D., 

Frank 1 \unlm Dresser, A.M., 

ALBERT lU'rillKELL Hart, LL.D., 
Htv. Shepherd Knapp; D.D., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Chicago, 111. 
New Haven, Conn. 
A.B., Milton, Mass, 
. Cambridge, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 

April, 1910. 

Gaillard Hunt, LL.D Washington, D. C. 

Archer Milton Huntington, Litt.D., New York, N. Y. 
Barrett Wendell, Litt.D., . . Boston, Mass. 

Albert Henry Whitin, . . . Whitinsville, Mass. 


October, 1910. 

Albert Carlos Bates, A.M. . . . Hartford, Conn. 

George Francis Dow, . . . . - ■ . Topsfield, Mass. 

Charles Evans, Chicago, 111. 

Homer Gage, M.D., Worcester, Mass. 

Samuel Verplanck Hoffmann, . . New York, N. Y. 

William Milligan Sloane, LL.D., . Princeton, N. J. 

April, 1911. 

Thomas Willing Balch, L.H.D., . Philadelphia, Pa. 

John Spencer Bassett, Ph.D., Northampton,Mass. 

Archibald Cary Coolidge, LL.D., . Boston, Mass. 

Carl Russell Fish, Ph.D., . . . Madison, Wis. 

John Holladay Latane, Ph.D., . . Baltimore, Md. 

April, 1912. 

Clarence Walworth Alvord, Ph.D., Urbana, 111. 

Livingston Davis, A.B., ..... Milton, Mass. 

Archer Butler Hulbert, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 

Charles Henry Taylor, Jr., . . Boston, Mass. 

October, 1912. 

William Archibald Dunning, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 

William Howard Taft, LL.D., . . New Haven, Conn. 

Lyon Gardiner Tyler, LL.D., . . Williamsburg, Va. 

October, 1913. 

Herbert Eugene Bolton, Ph.D., 
Rev. Herbert Edwin Lombard, . 
Bernard Christian Steiner, Ph.D. 
Woodrow Wilson, LL.D., 

Berkeley, Cal. 
Webster, Mass. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Washington, D. C. 

April, 1914. 

Howard Millar Chapin, A.B., . . Providence, R. I. 
Samuel Eliot Morison, Ph.D., . . Boston, Mass. 
Grenville Howland Norcross, LL.B., Boston, Mass. 
George Arthur Plimpton, LL.D., . New York, N. Y. 
Alexander Samuel Salley, Jr., . Columbia, S. C. 


October, 1914. 

i Walter Fewkes, Ph.D., . . Washington, D. C. 

TliOUAS IIovey Gage, LL.B., . . . Worcester, Mass. 

Ona Gbant Hammond, A.M., . . Concord, N. II. 

Cuarles Francis Jenney, LL.B., . Hyde Park, Mass. 

William Pendleton Palmer, . . Cleveland, Ohio. 

lilLO Milton Quaife, Ph.D., . . Madison, Wis. 

April, 1915. 

John Whittemore Farwell, Litt.B., Boston, Mass. 

llEV. Samuel Hart, LL.D., . . . Middletown, Conn. 

Ira Nelson Hollis, Sc.D., . . . Worcester, Mass. 

Henry Edwards Huntington, . . New York, N. Y. 

Lawrence Waters Jenkins, A.B., . Salem, Mass. 
Itev. Henry Bradford Washburn, D.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

Leonard Wheeler, M.D., . . . Worcester, Mass. 

October, 1915. 

John Woolf Jordan, LL.D., . ... Philadelphia, Pa. 

Alexander George McAdie, A.M., Milton, Mass. 

April, 1916. 

Wiiiiau Crowninshield Endicott, A.B.,' Danvers, Mass. 

NATHANIEL Thayer Kidder, B. A. S., Milton, Mass. 

October, 1916. 

E . \H Jibn;»i BUCK, Ph.D., . . . Minneapolis, Minn. 

Will uu Lawbence Clements, B.S., Bay City, Mich. 

EllC&AJU) Ward Greene, .... Worcester, Mass. 

Lawklmk Park, Groton, Mass. 

RoaEHfl Clark Ballard Thruston, Pu.B., Louisville, Ky. 

April, 1917. 

Henry Farr DePuy, . . . . . New York, N. Y. 

George Anthony Gaskill, A.B., . Worcester, Mass. 

John Thomas Lee, Madison, Wis. 

l!i.v. Charles Edwards Park, D.D., Boston, Mass. 

Isaac Pi and Thomas, Boston, Mass. 


April, 1918. 

James Kendall Hosmer, LL.D., . 
Robert Hendre Kelby, . 
John Woodbury, A.B., 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
New York, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 

October, 1918. 
Alfred Lawrence Aiken, A.M., 
Charles Knowles Bolton, A.B., 
George Watson Cole, 
John Henry Edmonds, .... 
Leonard Leopold Mackall, A.B., 
Samuel Lyman Munson, .... 

April, 1919. 
James Alton James, Ph.D., . 
Frederick William Lehmann, LL.D., 
Alfred Claghorn Potter, A.B., 
Harold Marsh Sewall, LL.B., . 
Robert Kendall Shaw, A.B., 
William Roscoe Thayer, LL.D., 
William Thomas, LL.B., . 

Worcester, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Albany, N. Y. 

Evanston, 111. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Bath, Me. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
San Francisco, Cal. 

October, 1919. 
Robert Digges Wimberly Connor, Ph.B. Raleigh, N. C. 
Isaac Newton Phelps Stokes,A.B., New York, N. Y. 




April, 1910. 

Samuel Alexander Lafone Quevedo, M.A., La Plata. 


April, 1910. 
Manuel Vicente Ballivian, ... La Paz. 


April, 1910. 

Jo.->e Carlos Rodriguez, LL.B., . Rio de Janeiro. 

April, 1919. 

Manlll De Oliveika Lima . . . Rio de Janeiro. 

October, 1917. 
J ami* Rodway, Georgetown. 


April, 1908. 

Narcjsse-Eutroi'E Dionne, LL.D., . Quebec. 

April, 1910. 

Arthur George Doughty, Litt.D., Ottawa. 

William Lawson Grant, A.M., . . Kingston. 

William Wood, D.C.L., .... Quebec. 

October, 1910. 

George McKinnon Wrong, A.M., . Toronto. 



April, 1909. 

Jose Toribio Medina, . . . . . Santiago de Chile. 

April, 1919. 

Anastasio Alfaro, . . . ... . San Jose. 


October, 1896. 
Henry Vignaud, Bagneux, Seine. 

October, 1917. 
Jean Jules Jusserand, LL.D., . . Paris. 

April, 1919. 

Seymour De Ricci, Paris. 


April, 1875. 
Otto Keller, Ph.D., . . . . . Stuttgart. 

April, 1893. 

Johannes Conrad, LL.D., . . . Halle. 

April, 1910. 
Eduard Seler, Ph.D., Berlin. 


April, 1882. 

Rt. Hon. Viscount Bryce, D.C.L. . Sussex. 

October, 1892. 
Charles Harding Firth, Litt.D., . Oxford. 
Paul Vinogradoff, LL.D., . . . Oxford. 

October, 1894. 
Hubert Hall, . . . . . . . London. 

October, 1901. 
Sir Arthur Herbert Church, D.Sc, Shelsley, 

Kew Gardens. 

October, 1910. 
Alfred Percival Maudslay, D.Sc, London 


October, 1913. 
Vere Langford Oliver, .... Sunninghill. 

October, 1915. 
Rt. Hon. Sir George Otto Trevelyan, LL.D., 



October, 1895. 
Johann Christoph Vollgraff, L.H.D., Utrecht. 


October, 1917. 
Alberto Membreno, Tegucigalpa. 


October, 1890. 

Nicolas Leon, Ph.D., Mexico City. 

April, 1907. 

Genaro Garcia, Mexico City. 


October, 1906. 

Roald Amundsen, Christiania. 


October, 1912. 

Federico Alfonso Pezet, LL.D., . Washington, D. C. 


October, 1906. 
Bernardino Machado, Lisbon. 


April, 1912. 
Frank Cundall Kingston, Jamaica. 





George Burton Adams, Litt.D., . New Haven, Conn. 
Alfred Lawrence Aiken, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 
Clarence Walworth Alvord, Ph.D., Urbana, 111. 
Herman Vandenburg Ames, Ph.D., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Charles McLean Andrews, L.H.D., New Haven, Conn. 
Edward Everett Ayer, .... Chicago, 111. 
Thomas Willing Balch, L.H.D. . Philadelphia, Pa. 
Simeon Eben Baldwin, LL.D.,* . New Haven, Conn. 
John Spencer Bassett, Ph.D. . . Northampton, Mass. 
Albert Carlos Bates, A.M.* . . Hartford, Conn. 
James Phinney Baxter, Litt.D., . Portland, Me. 

William Beer, New Orleans, La. 

Alexander Graham Bell, LL.D., . Washington, D. C. 
Hiram Bingham, Ph.D., .... New Haven, Conn. 
William Keeney Bixby, LL.D.,* . St. Louis, Mo. 
George Hubbard Blakeslee, Ph.D., Worcester, Mass. 

Franz Boas, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 

Charles Knowles Bolton, A.B., . Boston, Mass. 
Herbert Eugene Bolton, Ph.D., . Berkeley, Cal. 
Charles Pickering Bowditch, A.M.,* Boston, Mass. 
Clarence Winthrop Bowen, LL.D.,* New York, N. Y. 
Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., Worcester, Mass. 
Solon Justus Buck, Ph.D., . . Minneapolis, Minn. 
Augustus George Bullock, A.M., Worcester, Mass. 

* Signifies life members. 


Ithaca, N. Y. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Providence, R. I. 
Bay City, Mich. 
New York, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 
Pawtucket, R. I. 

George Lincoln Burr, LL.D., 

Clarence Monroe Burton, A.M., 

Edward Ciianning, Ph.D.,* 

Howard Millar Chapin, A.B.,* 

William Lawrence Clements, B.S., 

George Watson Cole, .... 

Reuben Colton, A.B., .... 

Samuel Morris Conant, 

Robert Digges Wimberly Connor, Pii.B., Baleigh,N.C. 

Archibald Cary Coolidge, LL.D.,* Boston, Mass. 

Henry Winchester Cunningham, A.B.,* Milton, Mass. 

Andrew McFarland Davis, A.M.,* Cambridge, Mass. 

Livingston Davis, A.B.,* . . . Milton, Mass. 

Henry Farr DePuy, New York, N. Y. 

Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M.,* Worcester, Mass. 
Franklin Bowditch Dexter, Litt.D.,* New Haven, Conn, 
Roland Burrage Dixon, Ph.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 
George Francis Dow, .... Topsfield, Mass. 
Frank Farnum Dresser, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 
Clyde Augustus Duniway, Ph.D., Colorado Springs, Col. 
William Archibald Dunning, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 
Wilberforce Eames, A.M., . . . New York, N. Y. 
Henry Herbert Edes, A.M.,* . . Cambridge, Mass. 
John Henry Edmonds,* .... Boston, Mass. 
William Crowninshield Endicott, A.B. Danvcrs, Mass. 

Charles Evans, Chicago, 111. 

Max Farrand, Ph.D.,* .... New Haven, Conn. 
John Whittemore Farwell, Litt.B.,* Boston, Mass. 
Jesse Walter Fewkes, Ph.D., . 
Carl Russell Fish, Ph.D., . 
William Trowbridge Forbes, A.B. 
Worthington Chauncey Ford, Litt.D., Cambridge, Mass. 
William Eaton Foster, Litt.D.,* Providence, R. I. 
Homer Gage, M.D., Worcester, Mass. 

Washington, D. C. 
Madison, Wis. 
Worcester, Mass. 

Thomas Hovey Gage, LL.B.,* 
George Anthony Gaskill, A.B., . 
Edward Hooker Gilbert, A.B., . 
Richard Ward Greene, . 
Charles Peliiam Greenough, LL.B. 

Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Ware, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Brookline, Mass. 


Edwin Augustus Grosvenor, LL.D., 
Lewis Winters Gunckel, Ph.B., 
Granville Stanley Hall, LL.D., 
Peter Joseph Hamilton, A.M., ' .8 
Otis Grant Hammond, A.M., . 
William Harden, .... 
Albert Bushnell Hart, LL.D., 
George Henry Haynes, Ph.D.,* 
Benjamin Thomas Hill, A.B., . 
Frederick Webb Hodge, 
Samuel Verplanck Hoffman,* 
Ira Nelson Hollis, Sc.D., . 
William Henry Holmes, 
James Kendall Hosmer, LL.D., 
Archer Butler Hulbert, A.M., 
Charles Henry Hull, Ph.D., . 
Gaillard Hunt, LL.D., . 
Archer Milton Huntington, Litt.D 
Henry Edwards Huntington . 
James Alton James, Ph.D., 
John Franklin Jameson, LL.D., 
Lawrence Waters Jenkins, A.B., 11 
Rev. Henry Fitch Jenks, A.M. 
Charles Francis Jenney, LLB., 
Henry Phelps Johnston, A.M., 
John Woolf Jordan, LL.D., 
Robert Hendre Kelby . 
William Vail Kellen, LL.D., . 
Nathaniel Thayer Kidder, B.A.S. 
Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt,* . 
George Lyman Kittredge, LL.D., 
Rev. Shepherd Knapp, D.D., . 
Alfred Louis Kroeber, Ph.D., 
William Coolidge Lane, A.B., 
John Holladay Latane, Ph.D., 
Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, LL.D, 

John Thomas Lee, 

Frederick William Lehmann, LL.D., 
Waldo Lincoln, A.B.,* . . . 

Amherst, Mass. 

Dayton, Ohio. 

Worcester, Mass. 
an Juan, Porto Rico. 

Concord, N. H. 

Savannah, Ga. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Washington, D. C. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Ithaca, N. Y. 

Washington, D. C. 
,New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Eyanston, 111. 

Washington, D. C. 

Salem, Mass. 

Canton, Mass. 

Hyde Park, Mass. 

New York, N. Y. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York, N. Y. 

Boston, Mass. 

Milton, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Baltimore, Md. 
,,* Boston, Mass. 

Madison, Wis. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Worcester, Mass. 


Cambridge, Mass. 
Walla Walla, Wash. 
Milton, Mass. 
Winchester, Mass. 
Berkeley, Cal. 
New York, N. Y. 

Henry Cabot Lodge, LL.D.,* . . Nahant, Mass. 
Rev. Herbert Edwin Lombard,* . Webster, Mass. 

Arthur Lord, A.B., Plymouth, Mass 

Joseph Florimond Loubat, LL.D.,* Paris, France. 

Abbott Lawrence Lowell, LL.D.,* 

William Denison Lyman, A.M., . 

Alexander George McAdie, A.M., 

Samuel Walker McCall, LL.D., . 

William MacDonald, LL.D., . 

Leonard Leopold Mackall, A.B., 

Andrew Cunningham Mclaughlin, A.M., Chicago, 111. 

John Bach McM aster, LL.D., . Philadelphia, Pa. 

Albert Matthews, A.B., . . . Boston, Mass. 

Thomas Corwin Mendenhall, LL.D., Ravenna, Ohio. 

John McKinstry Merriam, A. B., Framingham, Mass 

Roger Bigelow Merriman, Ph.D.,* Cambridge, Mass. 

Clarence Bloomfield Moore, A.B., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Samuel Eliot Morison, Ph.D.* 

Edward Sylvester Morse, Sc.D., 

Wilfred Harold Munro, L.H.D., 

Samuel Lyman Munson, '. . 

Charles Lemuel NicHOLs,M.D.,LiTT.D.,*Worcester,Mass 

Grenville Howland Norcross, LL.B.,* Boston, Mass. 

Thomas McAdory Owen, LL.D., . Montgomery, Ala. 

William Pendleton Palmer, . . Cleveland, Ohio. 

Victor LIugo Paltsits, .... New York, N. Y. 

Rev. Charles Edwards Park, D.D., Boston, Mass. 

Concord, Mass. 
Salem; Mass. 
Providence, R. I. 
Albany, N. Y. 

Lawrence Park,* 

George Arthur Plimpton, LL.D., 
Alfred Claghorn Potter, A.B., 
Herbert Putnam, LL.D., 
Milo Milton Quaife, Ph.D., . 
James Ford Rhodes, LL.D.,* . 
Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D.,* 
Alexander Samuel Salle y, Jr., 
Marshall Howard Saville, 
James Schouler, LL.D., . 
Harold Marsh Sewall, LL.B., . 
Albert Shaw, LL.D., . . 

Groton, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Washington, D. C. 
Madison, Wis. 
Boston, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Columbia, S. C. 
New York, N. Y. 
Intervale, N. H. 
Bath, Me. 
New York, N. Y. 


Robert Kendall Shaw, A.B., . Worcester, Mass. 

William Milligan Sloane, LL.D., Princeton, N. J. 
Justin Harvey Smith, LL.D., . . Boston, Mass. 
Rev. Calvin Stebbins, A.B.,* .' . Framingham,Mass. 
Bernard Christian Steiner, Ph.D., Baltimore, Md. 
Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 
Isaac Newton Phelps Stokes, A.B., New York, N. Y. 
William Howard Taft, LL.D., . New Haven, Conn. 
Charles Henry Taylor, Jr.,* . Boston, Mass. 
Hannis Taylor, LL.D., .... Washington, D. C. 
William Roscoe Thayer, LL.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 
Allen Clapp Thomas, A.M., . .. Haverford, Pa. 
Isaac Rand Thomas,* . . . . Boston, Mass. 
William Thomas, LL.B., . . San Francisco, Cal. 

Edward Herbert Thompson, . . Cambridge, Mass. 
Rogers Clark Ballard Thruston, Ph.B, Louisville, Ky. 
Alfred Marston Tozzer, Ph.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 
Frederick Jackson Turner, LL.D., Cambridge, Mass. 
Julius Herbert Tuttle,* . . .. Dedham, Mass. 
Lyon Gardiner Tyler, LL.D., . Williamsburg, Va. 
Daniel Berkeley Updike, A.M., . Boston, Mass. 
Samuel Utley, LL.B., .... Worcester, Mass. 
Rev. Williston Walker, Litt.D . New Haven, Conn. 
Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., Worcester, Mass. 
Rev. Henry Bradford Washburn, D.D., 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Barrett Wendell, Litt.D., . . Boston, Mass. 
Leonard Wheeler, M.D., . . . Worcester, Mass. 
Albert Henry Whitin .... Whitinsville Mass. 
Woodrow Wilson, LL.D., . . . Washington, D. C. 
George Parker Winship, Litt.D.,* Dover, Mass. 
Thomas Lindall Winthrop, . . Boston, Mass. 
John Woodbury, A.B.,* . . . Boston, Mass. 
Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., Worcester, Mass. 

1919.] Proceedings. 





The semi-annual meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, April 9, 191.9, in the House of the Ameri- 
can Academy of Arts and Sciences, No. 28 Newbury 
Street, Boston, Massachusetts. The meeting was 
called to order at half-past ten o'clock, President 
Lincoln in the chair. 

There were present: 

• Reuben Colton, Henry Herbert Edes, William 
Eaton Foster, Francis Henshaw Dewey, Arthur Lord, 
Charles Lemuel Nichols, Waldo Lincoln, Edward 
Sylvester Morse, George Parker Winship, Albert 
Matthews, Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Daniel Berke- 
ley Updike, Clarence Saunders Brigham, Lincoln 
Newton Kinnicutt, Worthington Chauncey Ford, 
Frederick Jackson Turner, Edward Luther Stevenson, 
Julius Herbert Tuttle, Charles Grenfill Washburn, 
George Hubbard Blakeslee, Wilfred Harold Munro, 
Justin Harvey Smith, Henry Winchester Cunning- 
ham, Archer Butler Hulbert, Howard Millar Chapin, 
Grenville Howland Norcross, John Whittemore Far- 
well, Lawrence Waters Jenkins, Leonard Wheeler, 
Alexander George McAdie, William Crowninshield 
Endicott, Nathaniel Thayer Kidder, Richard Ward 
Greene, John Woodbury, Charles Knowles Bolton, 
John Henry Edmonds, Leonard Leopold Mackall, 
Samuel Lyman Munson. 

2 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

The call for the meeting having been read, Mr. 
Norcross moved that the reading of the. records of the 
last meeting be dispensed with. 

The report of the Council, prepared by Mr. George 
H. Blakeslee and relating chiefly to the recent devel- 
opment of interests in Latin America, was read and 

In the discussion that followed, Mr. Winship 
referred to the collections of Spanish American litera- 
ture and called attention to the distinction between the 
historical, the bibliographical, and the linguistic 
aspects of the subject. For the purposes of students 
of language, Mr. William E. Gates of Point Lorn a, 
California, possesses what is probably both the most 
extensive and the most intelligently selected collection 
of manuscript material illustrating the dialects in use 
by the native tribes occupying the territory of what is 
now the Mexican Republic. He has been able to 
secure a large proportion of the original manuscripts, 
as well as the printed works, that have come to market 
in the auction room or through private channels 
during the last two decades, and he has supplemented 
these by obtaining photographic-process copies of 
nearly all the important documents which are in 
public repositories. In a spirit of generous scholarly 
co-operation, Mr. Gates has made it possible for other 
collections to secure duplicates of his copies at the 
cost of production. Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, whose 
library is now at the University of Pennsylvania, 
anticipated Mr. Gates both in scheme and scope, but 
the hand-written copies upon which he had to rely are 
so frequently untrustworthy that they have already 
taken their place as historical illustrations of the 
handicaps against which science formerly struggled. 

The two leading public institutions in this field are 
the Bureau of Ethnology, which is supplemented by 
the material in the Library of Congress, at Washing- 

1919.] Proceedings. 3 

ton, and the Peabody Museum Library at Harvard. 
At the latter Dr. Charles I\ Bowditch of this Society 
has rendered important service in securing reproduc- 
tions of manuscripts throwing light upon Maya 
problems. The Peabody Museum also possesses the 
material collected by Bandelier while he was engaged 
on the work of the Hemenway Expeditions, seeking in 
old Mexico the clue to the story of the New Mexican 

The John Carter Brown Library and the Lenox 
Library have long been rivals, so far as the earlier 
printed books are concerned, in this as in kindred 
fields. The former probably secured a lead when 
Mr. Brown purchased the linguistic library of Dr. 
Nicolas Leon, a corresponding member of this Society. 
The library collected by Prince Lucien Bonaparte, 
dealing with language in a broad sense, is said to be 
the nearest competitor abroad. 

The student of Spanish American history will find 
the material he needs scattered among several institu- 
tions, each developing a particular aspect of the sub- 
ject. The Bureau of American Republics presumably 
has most of the twentieth century publications, es- 
pecially those dealing with social and economic phases. 
The John Carter Brown Library has a commanding 
position for those printed before 1800, having added 
largely to its collections since the check-list printed 
ten years ago. Harvard, Yale, and the John Carter 
Brown libraries had at one time a working agreement 
by which the two Universities left the older and more 
costly books to the Providence library, and divided 
the later field, Yale specializing on Peru and the 
northern countries of South America, and Harvard on 
Chili and the South. Mr. Coolidge's purchase of 
the Luis Montt library at Santiago de Chile and Mr. 
Bingham's personal collection on Bolivia and Peru 
established the strength of the two universities in these 
respective fields. Yale added Mexico when Mr. 

4 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Henry E. Wagner presented the books which he had 
collected during his residence in that country. The 
John Carter Brown Library has an important group of 
Peruvian publications dated between 1800 and 1840, 
which were made accessible by the hand-list printed 
in 1908. The Hispanic Society of America has not 
neglected the Spanish colonies, but these have not 
as yet received the comprehensive attention with 
which Mr. Huntington has devoted himself to the 
literature and art of the Peninsula. In Chicago the 
Newberry Library has Mr. Edward E. Ayer's collec- 
tion of books on the American Indian, which contains 
many important early works. The II. H. Bancroft 
collection gave the University of California a good 
start in the way of Mexican books, and both at 
Berkeley and at Stanford efforts have been made to 
emphasize the importance of all the countries border- 
ing on the Pacific. 

The election of members, resident and foreign, being 
next in order, the President appointed Messrs. 
Cunningham, Norcross and Edmonds, as the com- 
mittee to collect and count the ballots. The commit- 
tee reported the following persons elected to member- 

Resident Members 

James Alton James, Evanston, 111. 
Frederick William Lehmann, St. Louis, Mo. 
Alfred Claghorn Potter, Cambridge, Mass. 
Harold Marsh Sewall, Bath, Me. 
Robert Kendall Shaw, Worcester, Mass. 
William Roscoe Thayer, Cambridge, Mass. 
William Thomas, San Francisco, Calif. 

Foreign Members 

Anastasio Alfaro, San Jose, Costa Rica. 
Manuel de Oliveira Lima, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 
Seymour de Ricci, Paris, France. 

1919.] Proceedings. 5 

The President stated that a fellowship in American 
History had been established at Clark University 
through the generosity of members of this Society 
and would continue for two years. He also called 
attention to the new bookplates of the Society, the 
gift of our associate Grenville H. Norcross. 

The first paper was read by Archer B. Hulbert 
formerly of Marietta, Ohio, but now residing in 
Worcester, on "The Increasing Debt of History to 

In the discussion following, Mr. McAdie spoke of 
the value of science in proving and correlating the 
facts of history. Astronomy in particular, he said, is 
of importance in certifying the dates of events by 
eclipses and other observed phenomena— the character 
of the weather, the prevailing tides and winds have 
also been used for verification of the facts of history. 
He exhibited a chart of the life history of a Sequoia 
tree in the state of Washington, cut down in 1864, 
which showed the effects of varying weather and other 
natural phenomena — during its 1244 years of growth. 
He deduced from study of this chart that the amount 
of rainfall and sunshine since the Spanish conquest is 
.about the. same as at the present day. 

Professor Turner remarked that a hyphen between 
history and the various sciences has a much more 
legitimate place than that used between nations. He 
then drew attention to the effect in our own country 
of the various geological formations and varying 
quality of soils upon the development of communities 
and even relation to the politics and the prosperity of 
such communities. 

In the unavoidable absence of Mr. Lombard, whose 
paper was to have been presented at this meeting, the 
Librarian spoke briefly upon the bookplates of the 
Presidents of the United States in our collection. 
The President announced that the paper might be 

6 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

presented at a subsequent meeting and called atten- 
tion to a volume containing a genuine George Wash- 
ington bookplate — belonging to Mr. John Woodbury 
— which he had been requested to exhibit at the 

Mr. Ford then read an interesting paper with 
extracts, on "Some Papers of Aaron Burr." 

The members of the Society were invited by Mr. 
William C. Endicott to luncheon at his residence, No. 
163 Marlborough Street, at the close of the meeting. 

No further business being presented, the meeting was 
then dissolved. 


Recording Secretary 

1919.] Report of the Council. 


In previous reports the Council has pointed out 
from time to time the importance of various special 
collections in our Library. It takes the present 
occasion to call attention to the number and the value 
of the books, pamphlets and newspapers on Latin 
American and Caribbean countries. 

A striking increase of interest in Latin America has 
been taking place in this country during the past 
decade, which was particularly noticeable just before 
our thoughts and energies were absorbed in the world 
war. This interest has been shown in many ways, and 
may be measured in part by definite figures. The 
leading newspapers in the United States, for example, 
according to the reports of the statisticians in the, Pan 
American Union, gave more news space to Latin 
America in a single month of 1915 than the same 
papers gave in the thirty-six months of 1907, 1908 and 
1909; our magazines had more articles on Latin 
America in the first three months of 1916 than in the 
five years from 1907 to 1912; while more books dealing 
with Latin America were published in this country in 
1914 than in the entire period from 1906 to 1910. In 
a bibliography, 1916, of the two hundred best volumes 
on South America, it appears that seven-eighths of 
them were published within the previous five years. 

This increased interest appeared in many other ways. 
There were over seventeen hundred clubs in the 
United States, before the war, making a study of 
Latin America and Pan American relations; while 
three thousand moving picture theatres, it was 
estimated, were every week showing to American 

8 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

audiences the people, the scenery, and the life of the 
republics of South America. At that time Director 
General John Barrett stated that the Pan American 
Union was then receiving on an average between two 
hundred and three hundred letters a day asking for 
information on Latin American affairs, and added that 
it was not unusual to have as many as twenty-five 
cablegrams a day from Latin America, making various 
inquiries concerning the United States. About the 
same time the United States Bureau of Commerce, 
according to statements in the press, was receiving a 
daily average of eight hundred letters from all parts 
of the. country regarding trade openings and economic 
conditions throughout the Latin American world. 

Now that the war is over, public attention is again 
being turned to the Republics to the south of us, as is 
evident from the newspaper space given to Latin 
America; for example, regular sections are being 
devoted to South America in such dailies as the New 
York Sun and the Philadelphia Public Ledger. Our 
commercial and financial relations, too, are more 
intimate than ever before. During the war, and in 
part on account of it, the United States has secured 
almost a monopoly of Latin American exports and 
imports. While in 1914 there was not a single branch 
of a United States or North American bank in any city 
south of Panama, today every important South 
American city has at least one North American bank. 
In 1914 no South American newspaper received Asso- 
ciated Press news; now the most important South 
American dailies are supplied regularly and directly 
with our Associated Press despatches. A rapidly 
increasing number of periodicals in this country deal 
with Latin American affairs. Besides the official 
Bulletin of the Pan American Union may be mentioned 
the South American, the Pan American Review, The 
Americas, Inter- America, El Estudiante Latino-Ameri- 
cano, published for Latin American students in the 
United States, and the recently established Hispanic 

1919.] Report of the Council. 9 

American Historical Revieto, a scholarly quarterly, 
worthy to rank in its special field with the ablest 
publications in this country. 

The appearance of the last two magazines shows that 
the marked increase of interest in Latin America, 
which is fundamentally due to economic and financial 
considerations, is not limited to these fields, nor to 
official Pan Americanism, but is extending to education 
and letters. This is seen most strikingly in the 
teaching of Spanish. Ten or twelve years ago very 
few colleges and almost no secondary schools taught 
Spanish; now nearly all universities, colleges and 
higher institutions in the United States as well as 
over two thousand secondary schools teach Spanish, 
while a few institutions teach Portuguese. But of 
greater significance is the remarkable increase in our 
colleges and universities, during the past half dozen 
years and a little more, of new courses on the history, 
commerce, culture and international relations of the 
States to the south of us. Exchanges of professors 
have been already carried out by a number of the 
larger institutions, including Harvard, Columbia and 
Pennsylvania, while plans [ire being made for extend- 
ing these exchanges to the smaller colleges and uni- 
versities which will arrange for short lecture courses 
from some distinguished Latin American scholar. 
Our colleges, universities and technical schools have 
also shown a genuine desire to attract Latin American 
students; some fifty of our higher institutions have 
offered one or more tuition scholarships for Latin 
Americans, while a few have established money 
fellowships, and one has founded a $500 Latin Ameri- 
can fellowship for graduate work. 

Latin America, on its side, has shown a growing 
appreciation of educational Pan Americanism. There 
are a larger number of Latin American students in the 
United States than ever before; so many in fact that 
they have recently founded a Federation of Latin 
American students with branches in a number of our 

10 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

colleges and universities. To attract and aid students 
from the lands to the south of us the Pan American 
Union has recently established a Section of Education. 
In its last report it states that & number of the fore- 
most Latin American professors are willing to give 
occasional lecture courses in North American univer- 
sities. Dr. Ernesto Nelson, Professor in La Plata 
University, and recently Minister of Education in 
Argentina, has pointed out that since Latin America 
has no educational or literary center, this can be best 
established in the United States, where Latin Ameri- 
cans may come to study the collected literature of all 
the Latin American countries. He makes a strong 
plea that some library in this country should collect 
all Latin American literary and scientific works. 
There is no such educational or literary center in 
Latin America, nor does one seem likely to develop. 
The only probable rival to the United States is France. 

Of especial significance for those interested in 
collections of Hispanic Americana is the recent action 
of the Association of American University Professors 
in organizing a large committee, representing some 
sixteen of our Universities, to promote exchange pro- 
fessorships between the United States and Latin 
America; the establishment of exchange fellowships; 
and scientific co-operation between the professors and 
the universities of the United States and those of 
Latin America. Some of our professors have already 
begun co-operation with professors in Latin America, 
while others are planning to do so in the near future. 
It has been suggested that a history of all the American 
republics be written by the joint work of Spanish, 
Portuguese and American historians. 

It is evident that the interest in Pan Americanism, 
which from merely popular, economic and diplomatic 
fields has now reached the domain of education and of 
genuine scholarship, will soon make a greatly increased 
demand for library material dealing with Latin 
America. In fact, this demand is already being felt. 

1919.] Report of the Council. 11 

To what extent American scholars in history, inter- 
national relations and international politics are 
already turning to Latin American subjects, cannot be 
stated statistically, but it may be mentioned as a mere 
indication of this trend that during the past five years 
in Clark University, two Doctors' dissertations and 
seven Masters' theses have been written upon phases 
of Latin America and its relations to the United States. 

It is very natural therefore that attention is now 
being directed to the value of special collections of 
Hispanic Americana. 1 There appeared in the last 
number of the Hispanic American Historical Review 
an article upon the Latin American collection in the 
Library of Congress. The increase in this collection 
may be judged from the fact that the number of books 
and pamphlets in the strictly historical section alone, 
has grown from 3,893 in 1901, to 15,116 in 1918. 
But the Library of Congress arrived late in the field, 
and its collection, while excellent in material published 
during the past half century, and strong in European 
Americana dealing with the early period, is "not 
preeminent in primary sources, original and rare 
editions." The Columbus Memorial Library of the 
Pan American Union has a large collection which 
contains 40,000 volumes and pamphlets, 21,000 photo- 
graphs, 1500 maps, and 1300 Latin American news- 
papers, magazines and other publications. But the 
value of this Library is very largely in the material of 
the past few decades. 

Among other libraries which are emphasizing their 
Latin American collections, should be mentioned that 
at Yale University which, under the guidance of 
Professor Hiram Bingham, has secured probably the 
best single collection of South American material in 
this country; the New York Public Library, with the 

J The April 1919 issue of the "Library Journal" is devoted chiefly to the subject 
of Latin American libraries. It describes, with illustrations, the national libraries at 
Buenos Aires, Mexico and Santiago de Chile, and gives sketches of the collections in 
eight American libraries. 

12 American Antiquarian Society. [^.pr., 

largest manuscript material relating to the colonial 
times; the Harvard University Library, with an ex- 
cellent general collection; the John Carter Brown 
Library, with many manuscripts and early printed 
books, particularly dealing with exploration and 
discovery; the important collections of the Hispanic 
Society, and of Mr. Wm. E. Gates in California; and 
the large private library of Dr. Manuel de Oliveira 
Lima, of Brazil, which is soon to be placed, under 
Dr. Lima's supervision, in the Catholic University of 
America at Washington. 

It is a pleasure to know that the American Anti- 
quarian Society has a collection on Latin America 
which ranks well with those in other important 
libraries. Our Librarian states that we have probably 
a larger collection of Hispanic American imprints for 
the early period than can be found elsewhere in this 
country. It comprises about 700 examples of printing 
from 1555 to 1800, chiefly of Mexico City and Puebla, 
but with many from Guatemala and a few from Lima 
and other South American towns. 

While the printing press was introduced into Mexico 
about 1539, it was difficult to publish in the Spanish 
colonies, due especially to the strict enforcement of 
both civil and ecclesiastical censorship. Books 
printed in Latin America therefore, in the early period, 
aside from such works as catechisms and linguistic 
material, were few in number, and are now rare. 
Our collection is thus of especial value and should be 
particularly featured, since no other library has 
apparently covered this field so extensively, and since 
it is in line with our notable collection of early Ameri- 
can imprints. 

The foundation of the fund for Hispanic Americana 
was laid by Isaac Davis, who in 1868 gave to the 
Society $500, the income of which was "to be applied 
to the purchase of books, maps, charts, and works of 
art, relating to that portion of North America lying 
south of the United States." With a subsequent gift 

1919.] Report of the Council. 13 

of $1,000 from Isaac Davis, and gifts of $5,000 in 
1891, and $5,000 in 1910 from Edward L. Davis, 
together with accrued income, the fund now amounts 
to $23,000. The scope of the fund was later enlarged 
to admit of the purchases of works relating to South 
America, and, in 1910, at the suggestion of Edward 
L. Davis, the Society was allowed to spend the income 
for general purposes of the Society, if any part of it 
was not required for the original object of the fund. 

Another source of additions to the collection of 
Hispanic Americana were the frequent gifts of books 
from Stephen Salisbury, Jr. From the days of his 
college friendship for David Casares, of Merida, 
Yucatan, Mr. Salisbury always evinced a decided 
interest in the archaeology and history of Central 
America and some of the rarest of our early w r orks on 
this subject were presented by him. 

Today the Hispanic American collection numbers 
over 4500 books and pamphlets, mostly of the early 
period. There has been little attempt to secure the 
material of the last fifty years except as it may throw 
light upon the older literature. 

Of the bibliographical works the Society has a 
large collection including nearly all of the valuable 
monographs compiled by J. T. Medina of Santiago 
de Chile, and the bibliographies of Vinaza, Montt, 
Trelles, Leclerc, Leon, Beristain, Garraux, Andrade, 
Icazbalceta, and other workers in this field. 

The narratives of the early voyagers, travellers and 
commentators are well represented, including original 
editions of Acosta, Benzoin, Las Casas, Dampier, 
Drake, Hakluyt, Herrera, Laet, Linschoten, Martyr, 
Oviedo and La Vega. In consideration of the greatly 
increased values of most of these editions, it is for- 
tunate that they were obtained for the Library a 
number of years ago. 

The source-books for the study of linguistics have 
been almost all obtained in the last ten years, chiefly 
through the aid of Miss Alice W. Kurtz, who has 

14 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

travelled throughout Mexico and Guatemala acquiring 
these rare volumes from monastic and private libraries. 
The artes, coiifesionarios, and vocabularies published 
from the sixteenth to the early, eighteenth centuries 

Molina, Vocabulario en la Lengua Castellana y 
Mexicana, Mexico, 1555. 

Molina, Confessionario Mayor, Mexico, 1565. 

Molina, Arte de la Lengua Mexicana y Castellana, 
Mexico, 1571. 

Lorra Baquio, Manual Mexicano, Mexico, 1634. 

Carochi, Arte de la Lengua Mexicana, Mexico, 1615. 

Marban, Arte de la Lengua Moxa, Lima, 1702. 

Perez, Farol Indiano, Mexico, 1713. 

Avila, Arte de la Lengua Mexicana, Mexico, 1717. 

Perez, Catecismo Romano, Mexico, 1723. 

Gastelu, Arte de la Lengua Mexicana, Puebla, 1726. 

Serra, Manual de administrar los Sacramentos, 
Mexico, 1731. 

Quintana, Confessonario en Lengua Mixe, Puebla, 

Rinaldini, Arte de la Lengua Tepeguana, Mexico, 

Flores, Arte de la Lengua Metropolitana, Guate- 
mala, 1753. 

Torres, Arte de la Lengua Quichua, Lima, 1754. 

Ripalda, Catecismo Mexicano, Mexico, 1758. 

Paredes, Promptuario manual Mexicano, Mexico, 

Aguirre, Doctrina Christiana en Lengua Opata, 
Mexico, 1765. 

Febres, Arte de la Lengua Chileno, Lima, 1765. 

Moreno, Vida del Vasco de Quiroga, Mexico, 1766. 

Tapia Zenteno, Noticia de , la Lengua Huasteca, 
Mexico, 1767. 

Arenas, Vocabulario Manual de las Lenguas Castel- 
lana y Mexicana, Puebla, 1793. 

The collection of Mexican, South American and 
West Indian newspapers has been given especial 

1919.] Report of the Council. 15 

attention, and most of the longer files have been noted 
in the Librarian's Reports of the past ten years. 
This has been chiefly strengthened by the purchase of 
a large number of South American newspapers in 1915, 
of numerous Mexican and Guatemalan files from Miss 
Kurtz, and by the acquisitions made by the President 
of the Society on a trip to the West Indies in 1913. 

The value of this collection has inspired several 
gifts of importance. During the past winter Mrs. F. 
Spencer Wigley of St. Christopher visited the Library 
and as a result presented us with the rare "Laws of the 
Island of St. Christopher" printed in the Island in 
1791, a valuable example of West Indian printing. 
Also within the past month the Society has purchased 
the London 1739 edition of the Acts of the Island of 
St. Christopher, and the 1740 edition of the Acts of the 
Charibbee Leeward Islands. 

In closing its report the Council would call attention 
to the following somewhat unusually large number of 
deaths among the members: — 

Andrew Dickson White (elected 1884) died Novem- 
ber 4, 1918. 

Samuel Abbott Green (elected 1865) died December 
5, 1918. 

Samuel Swett Green (elected 1880) died December 
8, 1918. 

Franklin Pierce Rice (elected 1906) died January 
4, 1919. 

Theodore Roosevelt (elected 1918) died January 6, 

Henry Ains worth Parker (elected 1910) died Feb- 
ruary 17, 1919. 

Mr. Samuel Abbott Green and Mr. Samuel Swett 
Green were the senior members of the Society. 

Biographical notices will be prepared to be published 
in the Proceedings. 


For the Council. 

16 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 



Dr. Samuel Abbott Green died in Boston, on 
December 5, 1918, in the 89th year of his age. He was 
the son of Dr. Joshua Green and Eliza Lawrence 
Green. He was born in Groton on March 10, 1830, 
and always lived there for part of the year. He fitted 
for college at Groton Academy and was graduated 
from Harvard College in the class of 1851, of which he 
was the last surviving member. He was graduated 
from the Harvard Medical School in 1854. He 
continued his medical studies in Paris, and then 
returned to Boston to practice his profession. 

On May 19, 1858, he was commissioned surgeon of 
the 2d Massachusetts militia regiment by Governor 
Banks. On the breaking out of the Civil war he 
entered the service as assistant surgeon of the 1st 
Massachusetts regiment and was the first medical 
officer of the state to be mustered into the three years' 
service, tie was promoted to be surgeon of the 24th 
Massachusetts regiment, September 2, 1861, and had 
charge of the hospital ship Recruit in General Burn- 
side's expedition to North Carolina, and later of the 
hospital steamer Cosmopolitan on the coast of South 
Carolina. He was chief medical officer at Morris 
Island during the siege of Fort Wagner in the summer 
of 1863, and was post surgeon at St. Augustine, Fla., 
in October, 1863, and at Jacksonville in March, 
1864. He was with the army at the capture of 
Bermuda Hundred in May, 1864, and was acting 
staff surgeon in Richmond, for three months following 
the surrender of that city in April, 1865. In 1864 he 
was breveted lieutenant-colonel for "gallant and dis- 
tinguished services in the field." 

1919.] Obituaries. 17 

Upon his return to Boston in 1865, Doctor Green 
became superintendent of the Boston dispensary. In 
1871 he was appointed city physician and tilled that 
office until he \yas elected mayor in 1882. He had 
been a member of the school board, 1860-62 and 1866- 
72, trustee of the Boston Public Library 1868-78, and 
acting librarian from October, 1877, to October, 1878. 
He was a trustee of the Peabody Education Fund. 

Doctor Green was overseer of Harvard University 
from 1869 to 1880. In 1870 he was appointed by 
Governor Claflin one of a commission to care for 
disabled soldiers. In 1878 he was a member of the 
board of experts authorized by Congress to investi- 
gate the causes and prevention of yellow fever, and a 
member of the board of commissioners to investigate 
the condition of the records, files, papers, and docu- 
ments in the State department of Massachusetts. 
From 1871 to 1891 he was also one of the editors of 
the American Journal of Numismatics. 

Doctor Green had written many books and pam- 
phlets, among them: "My Campaign in America, a 
Journal kept by Count William de Deux-Ponts, 
1780-81, translated from the French manuscript, with 
and introduction and notes;" "The story of a Famous 
Book;" an account of Dr. Benjamin Franklin's 
autobiography; " School Histories and Some Errors in 
Them;" "Epitaphs from the old Burying Ground in 
Groton;" "Early Records of Groton, 1662-1678;" 
"History of Medicine in Massachusetts;" "Groton 
during the Indians Wars;" "Groton During the 
Witchcraft Times;" "Boundary Lines of old Groton;" 
"The Geography of Groton," prepared for the use of 
the Appalachian mountain club; "Groton Historical 
Series," three volumes; "An Account of the Physi- 
cians and Dentists of Groton;" "An Account of the 
Lawyers of Groton;" "The Career of Benjamin 
Franklin," a paper read before the American Philo- 
sophical Society, Philadelphia, May 25, 1893, on the 
150th anniversary of its foundation; "An Address 

18 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

before the Old Residents' Historical Association of 
Lowell;" "An Account of the Library of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society;" a "List of the Early 
American Imprints" in the library of that society; 
and "An Historical Sketch of Groton, 1655-1890." 

In May, 1896, the University of Nashville con- 
ferred on Doctor Green the honorary degree of 

He was for nineteen years first vice-president of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, and librarian at 
the time of his death. He was a constant attendant 
at the meetings, even when his physical disability 
was so great that he was brought into the room in a 
wheel-chair, which was always placed on the left of 
the presiding officer. Doctor Green was elected a 
member of this Societ}^ in 1865, was a member of the 
council from 1874 until 1904, when he was elected 
vice-president. The last meeting of the council that 
he attended was in 1911. 

Doctor Green's life was most unusual, exhibiting in 
a high degree great industry, a prodigious capacity for 
work, and conspicuous service in many varied fields 
of activity. He will long remain in the memory of 
his associates, who will miss the companionship, now 
ended, of so many years. 

C. G. W. 


Samuel Swett Green, son of James and Elizabeth 
(Swett) Green of Worcester, was descended in the 
eighth generation from Thomas Green, who settled 
in Maiden about the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. He was born in Worcester, February 20, 1837, 
and died there December 28, 1918. Entering Har- 
vard College at the age of seventeen, he was graduated 
in the Class of 1858, and immediately entered the 
Harvard Divinity School, but his health failing he was 
obliged to give up study temporarily, and took a sea 

1919.] Obituaries. 19 

voyage on a sailing vessel to the Levant, visiting 
Smyrna and Constantinople. Returning home he 
re-entered the Divinity School in September, 1861, 
and was graduated in 1864, intending to become a 
Unitarian minister. Partly by reason of his health 
and partly because he found that his religious views 
were too advanced for the times, he abandoned 
preaching and entered the Mechanics National Bank 
as bookkeeper in December, 1864. . The following 
year he was made teller in the Worcester National 
Bank, which position he held until May, 1868, and in 
January, 1871, he was called to his life work as 
librarian of the Worcester Free Public Library, in 
which position he made for himself and the library a 
world wide reputation for progress and efficiency. 

This was due largely to the simple application of 
the principle that books are made for the use of those 
desiring information and instruction, and that all 
such are to have every facility for study supplied to 
them. The old idea that a librarian's duties should 
be principally confined to the safe preservation of his 
books was no longer to rule. Students were wel- 
comed, the whole working force of the library was at 
their service, and desired books, if not in the library 
were either purchased or borrowed. Particular atten- 
tion was paid to the requirements of young people, 
and both the teachers and the students of the public 
and private schools of the city, were encouraged in 
their use of the library. The success accompanying 
this method of library work attracted general attention 
among educators as well as librarians, and the example 
set in Worcester was followed by most libraries in this 
country and by several in Europe. 

In 1890 Mr. Green was appointed an original mem- 
ber of the Free Public Library Commission of this 
Commonwealth, and held the office by successive 
appointments until 1909. He was one of the founders 
of the American Library Association, of which he was 
vice-president 1887-1889 and 1892-1893, and president 

20 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

in 1891; founder and first vice-president of the 
Massachusetts Library Club; member of the Ameri- 
can Library Institute; and honorary fellow of the 
Library Association of the United Kingdom. He was 
delegate to the International Congress of Librarians 
at London in 1877 and a member of its council, vice- 
president of a similar congress in 1897, and in 1893 
presided over the World's Congress of Librarians at 

He was a member of many historical societies and 
associations, the most important being the Royal 
Historical Society, the American Historical Associa- 
tion, the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, the New 
England Historic Genealogical Society, the American 
Social Science Association, and the Wisconsin Histori- 
cal Society. He was trustee of Leicester Academy and 
belonged to several social clubs both in Boston and 

He was elected to membership in this society in 
April, 1880, and in 1883 was made a member of the 
Council of which he continued to be a member until a 
month before his death. During all of this long 
period he was, until the last few years when advanc- 
ing age and failing eyesight impaired his activities, a 
constant attendant of the meetings of the Society, a 
frequent participant in its debates and contributor to 
its Proceedings, and a valued and useful member of 
the Council. He prepared several Council reports, 
many memoirs and obituary notices of deceased 
members, and eight papers for the Proceedings, the 
most important subjects treated by him being: — 
" Gleanings from the Sources of the History of the 
Second Parish, Worcester;" "The Use of the Volun- 
tary System in the Maintenance of Ministers in the 
Colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay;" 
"The Scotch-Irish in America ;" and "-The Craigie 
House, Cambridge, during its Occupancy by Andrew 
Craigie and his Widow." In connection with his 
library work he published: " Libraries and Schools;" 

1919.] Obituaries. 21 

"Library Aids;" and "The Public Library Movement 
in the United States, 1853-1893." 

In 1909, his eyesight failing he retired from active 
work at the library and was made librarian emeritus. 
He devoted the remainder of his life to study, es- 
pecially interesting himself in British archaeology, but 
continuing his interest in all the lines which had 
previously engaged his attention and making a daily 
visit to the library until a few months before his 

W. L. 


Henry Ainsworth Parker was born in Philadelphia, 
October, 19, 1841, the son of William Ainsworth and 
Mary (Iddings) Parker. He was graduated from 
Harvard with the Class of 1864 and then entered the 
General Theological Seminary in New York. After 
four years spent in preparing for the ministry and in 
tutoring private pupils, he took charge of the Parish 
of St. Luke at Philadelphia in 1871. In 1875 he 
became rector of Christ Church at North Conway, 
N. H., where he remained until 1886. He then 
removed to Cambridge, Mass., where he lived until 
his death, holding religious service in various places 
as his help was required, and pursuing studies in 
theology and history. He was married December 6, 
1870, to Mary, daughter of Rev. Samuel Seabury of 
New York, and had five children. His death occurred 
February 17, 1919. 

Rev. Mr. Parker was much interested in historical 
research and was an occasional contributor to the 
Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, 
of which he was one of the earliest members. He was 
elected to the Antiquarian Society in 1910, and showed 
his interest by his frequent attendance at the meetings 
and by the gift of historical books and pamphlets to 
the Library. 

C. S. B. 

22 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 


Franklin Pierce Rice was born in Marlborough, 
Mass., July 29, 1852. His family moved to Worcester 
in 1856 and he was educated in the public schools of 
this city. He did not enter college, but began soon 
after leaving the High School the study of the sciences 
and the elements of medicine in order to prepare for 
the medical profession which he had chosen as his life 
work. The long illness of his father and the conse- 
quent care of the home which devolved upon him 
prevented the fulfilment of this plan. After ten years 
of expectation and recurring hope, he relinquished this 
cherished object, but the training gained through these 
waiting years gave him the strong interest in the 
scientific and literary fields which governed his later 

In 1871 he purchased a small press and a few pounds 
of type and without an hour's instruction from any 
member of the craft either at that time or later, he 
began printing as an avocation and accomplished 
during his life more than has been recorded of many 
who made a business of this art. A catalogue of his 
imprints issued in 1915 gives a list of 122 titles of 
books which came from his press as well as 50 others 
which he compiled or edited to be printed elsewhere. 

His early life was influenced by a radical or liberal 
movement which started in Worcester in the year 
1868, but he finally outgrew it and its evil effects were 
overcome by the influence of two friends, the Rev. 
George Allen, a refined literary character with strong 
antiquarian taste, and Hon. Eli Thayer, whose robust 
manhood and virile Americanism drew out of Mr. 
Rice all that was best in him. These men remained 
his firm friends during their lives and his obligation to 
them was shown in the memoirs prepared by him in 
later years. 

He was one of the four founders of the Worcester 
Society of Antiquity and it is significant of his charac- 
ter that at the initial meeting he urged, in place of that 

1919.1 Obituaries. 23 

title, the name of The Worcester Historical Society, 
as it is now called, in order to avoid interference with 
the older society, a fact which has more than once 
caused embarrassment to each organization. For 
twenty years, not only was he active in that society as 
a member, but from 1879 to 1895 he printed its pro- 
ceedings. His attention was early attracted to the 
desirability of taking some action for the preservation 
of the vital records of our New England towns and in 
1879 he printed the first volume of the Town Records 
of Worcester, seven volumes of these records coming 
from his press before 1895. In order to carry on this 
important work more effectively he started in 1892 the 
Massachusetts Record Society and printed two vol- 
umes of the New England Town Series. This plan 
not proving efficient he formed in 1898 the Systematic 
History Fund and in the next four years he printed 
seven volumes of Massachusetts Town Records. In 
1902 he was induced to transfer his energies in this 
line to the same work under the State Vital Records 
Act of that year and under which he worked for nine 
years. More than forty volumes have been published 
by him in this field but not printed on his press. This 
part of his life work will prove of increasing importance 
as these records are used, because his extreme accuracy 
and his broad historical knowledge were both em- 
ployed to verify each one of the data collected. 

In October, 1906, Mr. Rice was elected a member 
of this Society and from that time until his decease on 
January 4, 1919, he was chairman of the Committee 
of Publication to which office he brought all of his 
personal interest and large experience as a printer and 
a man of letters. The debt of this Society to him is 
very great, not only because of the burden which he 
bore but because of the elevation of the standard of 
our publications in consequence of his unremitting- 
labors. For many years it had been his custom to cut 
from the daily papers items of biographical and histor- 
ical interest and obituary notices of national or local 

24 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

importance. This material, consisting of more than 
20,000 clippings and arranged in such form as to make 
it always accessible, he presented to the Society in 
1917. The gift was a very valuable addition to our 
archives as it supplemented the collection of William 
Jennison along similar lines but of an earlier generation. 
Quiet in manner and self-contained Mr. Rice was 
thought by some to be almost eccentric, although this 
was far from the truth. While the many vicissitudes 
of his life caused a sensitive nature to withdraw some- 
what within himself, to his friends Mr. Rice showed a 
warm heart and a staunch loyalty, which appealed to 
them as strongly as his literary and historical ability 
attracted all others who came to know him. : 

C. L. N. 


Theodore Roosevelt — born October 27, 1858, died 
January 6, 1919 — was elected a member of this Society 
in April, 1918. What is said of him here will relate 
exclusively to his work as a writer of ximerican history, 
although, as is well known, this forms but a small part 
of his contribution to literature, and great as his 
accomplishments have been in the broader held, they 
were only a part of his prodigious activities. 

His first history was the first book he wrote, "The 
Naval War of 1812," in 1882, when he was twenty- 
four years old. In 1886 he wrote the "Life of Thomas 
H. Benton," in 1888, "Gouverneur Morris," and in 

1889, "The Winning of the West." In November, 

1890, he published "New York," a history of the 
City; and in April, 1895, in conjunction with Senator 
Henry Cabot Lodge, "Hero Tales from American 
History." While Governor of New York, he pub- 
lished "The Rough Riders, a history of the First 
United States Volunteer Cavalry, in the war with 
Spain," and in 1913 his Autobiography. 

1919.] Obituaries. 25 

In the " Naval War of 1812", Roosevelt began to 
preach the doctrine of which he was the aggressive 
champion all his life: — 

That a miserly economy in preparation (for war) may in the 
end involve a lavish outlay of men and money, which, after all, 
comes too late to more than partially offset the evils produced 
by the original short-sighted parsimony. 

Roosevelt admired Benton as the man who stood by 
the nation against his own section and refused to 
abandon his principles. 

"The Winning of the West" is by far his most 
important work, and the one which will determine his 
place as an historian. He was no doubt led to write 
it because of his experience on the frontier. He says 
in the preface: — 

In conclusion, I would say that it has been to me emphati- 
cally a labor of love to write of the great deeds of the border 
people. I am not blind to their manifold shortcomings, nor 
yet am I ignorant of their many strong and good qualities. 
For a number of years I spent most, of my time on the frontier, 
and lived and worked like any other frontiersman. The wild 
country in which we dwelt and across which we wandered was 
in the Far West; and there were, of course, many features in 
which the life of a cattleman on the great plains and among the 
Rockies differed from that led by a backwoodsman in the 
Alleghany forests a century before. Yet the points of 
resemblance were far more numerous and striking. We 
guarded our herds of branded cattle and shaggy horses, hunted 
bear, bison, elk, and deer, established civil government, and 
put down evildoers, white and red, on the banks of the kittle 
Missouri, and among the wooded, precipitous foothills of the 
Bighorn, exactly as did the pioneers who a hundred years 
previously built their log cabins beside the Kentucky or in 
the valleys of the Great Smokies. The men who have shared 
in the fast vanishing frontier life of the present feel a peculiar 
sympathy with the already long vanished frontier life of the 

In the history of the City of New York, appears the 
same intense Americanism which he constantly 
preached so vigorously to the very end of his life. In 
this book, written nearly thirty years ago, he said: 

26 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Above all, the one essential for success in every political 
movement which is to do lasting good, is that our citizens 
should act as Americans; not as Americans with a prefix and 
qualification — not as Irish-Americans, German-Americans, 
Native-Americans— but as Americans pure and simple. 

To "Hero Tales from American History, " written 
in conjunction with Senator Lodge, Roosevelt con- 
tributed: Daniel Boone and the Founding of Ken- 
tucky; George Rogers Clark and the Conquest of the 
Northwest; King's Mountain; The Storming of 
Stony Point; The Cruise of the Wasp; The General 
Armstrong Privateer; The Battle of New Orleans; 
' ' Remember the Alamo ; ' ' Hampton Roads ; The Flag 
Bearer; Death of Stonewall Jackson; The Charge of 
Gettysburg; Lieutenant Cushing and the Ram Albe- 
marle; Farragut at Mobile Bay. 

I once asked Mr. Roosevelt what he considered the 
best things be had ever written, and the following are 
the references he gave me to the books here mentioned: 
The Foreword in his Autobiography. Page 103 2nd 
paragraph. Pages 342, 343, to the- middle of page 
345. Page 355, last paragraph. Page 364, last para- 
graph, and to its end on the next page. Page 377, 
last paragraph to end. Page 575. He said of 
Chapter 9, including pages 342-347: "This chapter 
is the best I ever wrote." In "The Winning of the 
West" the references were: Vol. I, pages 1-10. Vol. 
Ill, pages 51-53. The editions referred to are those 
existing in 1915. 

When Roosevelt graduated from College it seemed 
probable that he would devote his life either to science 
or literature; later the choice appeared to be between 
politics and letters, for in 1900 he said, speaking of 
continuing in politics: 

I am by no means sure that I ought to go into public life at 
all, provided some remunerative work offered itself. The 
only reason I would like to go on is that as I have not been a 
money maker, I feel rather in honor bound to leave my children 
the equivalent in a way of a substantial sum of actual achieve- 
ment in politics or letters. 

1919.] Obituaries. 27 

He was an omnivorous reader and a most volum- 
inous writer. I was a good deal surprised when he 
said to me about six years ago: "I am not a very 
ready writer. No one knows how much time I put 
into my articles for the Outlook." He then pulled a 
typewritten manuscript from his pocket and said — 
"Here is an article that I am going over, as I have 
opportunity, correcting and recasting it," and then he 
added, "but my work is done three months ahead." 

This was one reason whey he was able to accomplish 
so much; he was always doing the work of tomorrow, 
of next week, or of next year. During the winter of 
1909, Roosevelt was at work on the addresses he was 
to deliver after his African trip and while in Europe. 
This characteristic of always being ahead of his work, 
coupled with untiring industry was what enabled him 
to accomplish so much. 

He was a scientific naturalist and famous hunter. 
He has a place among the explorers of the world. 
His military career, while brief, was highly honorable 
and effective. As a statesman, patriot and leader of 
men, he stood preeminent, while the number of his 
books and their quality would satisfy the ambition of 
one who wished only to be distinguished as an his- 
torian and in letters. 

C.G. W. 


Andrew Dickson White was born at Homer, N. Y., 
November 7, 1832, and died at Ithaca, November 4, 
1918. He was the son of Horace and Clara Dickson 
White, and his father was a pioneer in Western rail- 
road building. He was graduated from Yale in 1853, 
receiving the degree of A. M. in 1856. In 1857 he 
became Professor of history and English literature at 
the University of Michigan, but in 18G3 he returned to 
New York, where he became prominent in Republican 
politics and was elected to the New York legislature. 

28 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

He became associated with Ezra Cornell and assisted 
in the founding of Cornell University in 1867. Doctor 
White became the first President, personally contri- 
buted $300,000 to the establishment of the University, 
and in 1887 presented to it his library of 40,000 
volumes. He retained his interest in political and 
diplomatic life, being President of the State Republi- 
can convention in 1871, Commissioner to Santo 
Domingo in 1871, Commissioner to the Paris Exposi- 
tion in 1878, Minister to Germany 1879-1881, Minister 
to Russia 1892-1894, member of the Venezuela 
Commission in 1896, Ambassador to Germany, 1897- 
1902, and member of the International Peace Com- 
mission at the Plague in 1899. He received many 
honors from this and other countries, and was given 
honorary degrees by a dozen colleges. Pie retained 
the Presidency of Cornell until 1885. 

Doctor White was the writer of many books, the 
most famous of which were " A History of the Warfare 
of Science with Theology" and his own "Autobio- 
graphy." He was elected to this Society in 1884, and 
although because of distance he did not attend the 
Society's meetings, yet he sent to the Library many of 
his books and kept in frequent touch through corres- 

C. S. B 

1919.] Increasing Debt of History to Science. 29 


By Archer B. Hulbert 

A generation ago Professor Macy said "The scientist 
wrecks his high ideal, truth-loving and truth-telling, 
the instant he enters politics and history, where 
beliefs and not external phenomena are the dominant 

Since those words were uttered the natural sciences 
have been putting historical theories under the 
magnifying-glass and in the test tube to a degree that 
is worthy of remark; from what has been accomplished 
and is on the eve of accomplishment, it seems plain 
that on several sides American history is undergoing 
a scientific clarification that will tend toward an 
accuracy not hitherto attained. A glance over this 
field of activity is reassuring and provokes interesting 
speculation as to the future. 

In the generation mentioned we have seen a marked 
advance in the science of geography and geographical 
interpretations of history. This phase of activity may 
well be mentioned first because of the lesson it carries. 

The Royal Geographical Society of Great Britain 
was formed in the middle of the Nineteenth Century 
as the result of colonial trade expansion and the new 
problems which that expansion brought forward. At 
about the same time came the formation of our 
American Geographical and Statistical Society, of 
which George Bancroft was elected first president in 
1851. The original purpose of these organizations, 
as indicated, was the study of geography and its 
application to the development of commerce, the 
distribution of animal and vegetable productions and 
of the human race. The first paper read before our 

30 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

American society was on "The Productions and Trade 
of Paraguay.'' The importance of such studies as 
these from a commercial standpoint was soon recog- 
nized, and the societies mentioned' became clearing- 
houses too important in their relationship to national 
growth to remain the monopoly of scientific bodies. 
Government departments took up the work and 
official bulletins and consular reports became the 
mediums of information. This first service of the 
geographer was a notable one. 

At the beginning of the present century we find 
geologist and geographer combining to give us geo- 
graphical interpretations of history, and the appear- 
ance of studies on " Geographic Conditions" and 
11 Geographic Influences." The Humes of American 
history were being enlightened by the Mahaffys. 
Perhaps these enthusiasts proved too much; in any 
event the reaction came in academic circles, led 
informally by Professor Burr, that master of winning 
and polite, but no less caustic analysis, and resulted in 
a number of valuable conferences in the American 
Historical Association. The conference on the rela- 
tion of geography to history presided over by Professor 
Turner in 1907 was constructive and of. especial 
clarifying value. Here Professor Burr and Professor 
George B. Adams pointed out that geography was but 
one factor in explaining history, and that no more in 
history than in mathematics can the outcome be 
inferred from one factor alone. Emphasis was laid 
on the fact that geographers were using ambiguous and 
inexact phraseology — as in the word " location, " which 
might denote either an act, or the result of an act. 
"To impute action or causation, influence or control, " 
Professor Burr was quoted, "to things which are inert 
is a figure of speech which gives vigor to style but 
which always involves a fallacy; and when to Nature 
is imputed what is planned and achieved by man, the 
sufferer from the fallacy is history." Most of the 
matters, said Professor Adams, which the geographers 

1919.] Increasing Debt of History to Science. 31 

call upon us to include in history are conditions not 
causes; he warned all and sundry not to be deceived 
into thinking that it was the waterfall which ground 
the wheat. 

Two results from these discussions may be noted; 
one, an immediate result, was the common recognition 
of the lack of cartographical material for the teaching 
of history and the undertaking on the part of the 
American Historical Association of the preparation of 
an historical atlas; the other result, of more funda- 
mental importance, was the recognition of the fact 
that when dealing in generalities, and embracing too 
wide a scope, geographical interpretations quite 
failed to elicit confidence. In illustration may be 
cited a chapter of a book which treats of a certain 
river valley as the gateway to the continent. Geo- 
logically the thesis is sound; historically it gives a most 
erroneous impression. Commonwealths beyond the 
Alleghenies were admitted to the Union almost, if not 
quite, a decade before the route mentioned began to 
resemble a thoroughfare of migration, and Lewis and 
Clark had gone to the Pacific before it became well- 
known; in the canal and railway era the passage-way 
rose to first importance and still maintains its prestige; 
but for the fifty crucial years of expansion into the 
West (1750-1800) it was, historically, the most effec- 
tually barred door in the eastern half of the country. 

At the present time we find the study of geographi- 
cal influences, refined in the lire of criticism, making 
enormous strides as applied locally to specific prob- 
lems; types of such studies of great value are repre- 
sented by such papers as Professor Posey's, "The 
Influence of Geographic Factors in the Development 
of Minnesota" 1 and Professor Sioussat's "Memphis 
as a Gateway to the West." 2 One needs but to scan 
the bibliography in Vol. Ill of the Annals of the New 
York Academy of Sciences to be impressed with the 

J Minnesota History Bulletin. II. Aug. 19 IS. 
^Tennessee Historical Magazine, III. Mar , Juno H)17. 

32 American Antiquarian Society, [Apr., 

value to historians of the work being done by such 
men as Brigham, Tarr, Tower, and others. From this 
brief review of the influence of the study of physio- 
graphic factors on the teaching and' understanding of 
history we see clearly the debt we owe to scientists 
who adhere closely to the fine art of truth-loving and 
truth-telling; their factors are of genuine importance 
so long as they are treated as factors; the conditions 
they present greatly enrich our understanding until 
they are confounded with causes. Historians of the 
Parkman type, who can command the insight of the 
geologist and topographer, may rewrite many sections 
of American history; the study of the relationship of 
the navigability of our rivers with reference to the 
inland advance of agriculture; the relationship of such 
barriers as the Berkshires to New England expansion; 
the rivalry of Memphis, St. Louis and Chicago as 
trans-continental railway termini, suggest types of 
study of local conditions which are being made on 
truly scientific lines. It is only when the historian 
turns tyro topographist, climatologist, botanist or 
hydrographer and becomes "possessed with the devil 
of one idea," as Professor Parks of Andover once said 
of the abolitionists, that we are in danger of believing 
that the multiplicand, by some sudden art of necro- 
mancy, has become the product. 

'In the triple alliance of the climatologist, botanist, 
and geologist we have a combination that will go far 
in clarifying our understanding of American expansion 
and the distribution of population. The stock ex- 
ample of settling a long-disputed historical problem 
with a magnifying-glass is, perhaps, too well known to 
bear repetition. Its value as a type of scientific 
checking of historical interpretation is too great, how- 
ever, to be overlooked here. Dr. Fernald of the 
Gray Herbarium was too ardent a lover of truth- 
loving and truth-telling to swallow the story, per- 
petuated by a long line of historians, of Norsemen 
filling their ships with grapes on the New England 

1919.] Increasing Debt of History to Science. 


coast in springtime. Una wed by the array of Norse 
"towers" and other monuments, this scientist took 
hack to Iceland the words of the Norse sagas and 
found that "vinber" meant mountain cranberries, 
not grapes; that "hveiti" meant strand wheat, not 
Indian corn; and that "mosurr" meant canoe-birch, 
not maple. 3 In such a way was Bancroft's ancient 
contempt and James P. Dexter's earnest groping in 
his etymological laboratory marie honourable by a 
scientist who located "Wineland the Good" between 
Labrador and the lower St. Lawrence. It is interest- 
ing to note, as a matter of professional gossip, that 
Dr. Fernald, so far from becoming "possessed with 
the devil of one idea" and continuing the ravages of 
his historical research, has rather made light of his 
valuable contribution to history and refused election 
to a very prominent historical society on the plea that 
he was a scientist and not in the least an historian. 

The fact remains, however, that climatic conditions, 
plant life and agriculture are being taken into account 
today as never before, and to these we may well look, 
if not for such brilliant checking as was afforded by 
Dr. Fernald, at least for many fresh and reliable 
explanations for the distribution of pioneer populations. 
' The work of Ellsworth Huntington has commanded 
wide attention despite the criticism which it has 
attracted. In his Civilization and Climate he shows, 
for instance, how the advancement of the American 
Indians was checked by the fact that the regions which 
were otherwise best for them were also best for grass. 
This seemingly slight climatic coincidence, joined 
with the fact that the Indians had no tools of iron and 
no beasts of burden, prevented the growth of a stable 
civilization in the northern United States. Another 
set of climatic conditions, which today, strangely 
enough, are far from the most favorable, caused the 
vegetation of regions farther south to be much more 

3 M. L, Fernald, "Notea on the Plants of Winelund the Good." Rbodora, XII 
(Feb. 1910; 17-38. 

34 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

tractable, for no tough sod could grow. Hence 
agriculture was possible in southern regions, and our 
forerunners in America were able to have a much more 
noteworthy flowering of civilization in the southern 
United States than in the northern, and a still greater 
in Mexico. 

In the same author's Civilization and Climate and 
The Bed Man's Continent he shows how the Indians 
reached their highest pitch of advancement in three 
highly diverse ways corresponding to three equally 
diverse types of environment. The first was the 
irrigation civilization of the Southwest and Mexico. 
The second found its chief exponent in the Haidas of 
the Pacific coast near Vancouver Islands, where there 
grew up a type of culture dependent upon an abundant 
supply of fish for food and the easy lines of communica- 
tion furnished by safe and easy waterways among the 
islands. The third was the cruel, but highly vigorous 
culture of the Iroquois, centering in a region which 
stimulates intense activity, but which at the same 
time had the great handicap of having a climate which 
made permanent agriculture almost impossible for the 
Indians because the growth of grass in their fields 
compelled them to move at frequent intervals. 

The second instance to which he refers is in World 
Power and Evolution where he shows the remarkable 
agreement between the curve of climatic pulsations as 
worked out in Asia, the Mediterranean regions, and 
California on the one hand, and the rise and fall of 
prosperity and activity in Rome on the other. In his 
opinion this parallelism is one of the most interesting 
features of the investigation of climatic changes. 

Another coincidence of this sanie kind is that the 
Mohammedan outburst, as Professor Huntington has 
shown in " Palestine and its Transformation/' came 
just at the driest time known to history, while the 
out pouring from Central Asia under G hengis Khan came 
at another extremely dry time. Doubtless other 
causes would have led to a stirring of the nations under 

1919.] Increasing Debt of History to Science. 35 

the impulse of Mohammed and Ghengis, but the 
extreme dryness and consequent hunger seem to have 
played an important part in making these particular 
outbursts from the desert so much more serious t^im - <•*{#*»* 
any other. mvXum #1 

Enthusiasms, such as shown by Professor Hunting- 
ton, must be' excused because they are explorations 
into new fields and hold a modicum of plausibility. 
It is easy to say that he builds too great an edifice on 
a small array of foundation facts. But many of his 
leads are valuable, and from them we may come to profit 
to a degree unguessed by those who minimize the net 
results to date. 

While too much attention should not be given to the 
atmospheric pressure in the halls of political conven- 
tions, not even the Constitutional Convention of 1787, 
climatic and soil conditions which favored the growth 
of certain trees, plants, and grasses will give us 
clearer explanations of westward American migration 
than we now have. When the Watauga Region in the 
Southern Alleghenies was found, to be a second New 
York State as a butter and cream region, but removed 
so far southward that cattle would winter unharmed 
in the open, it became a magnet of migration; the 
strong argument in building the Ohio canals (which 
benefited all the Great Lake States equally with 
Ohio) was that they gave a northward outlet for 
grains which frequently turned sour in the long voyage 
to semi-tropic New Orleans; the position of the most 
northerly ice-free port on the Mississippi River was a 
dominant factor in railway building in the Middle 
West in much the way Port Arthur dominated 
Russian advance upon Manchuria. 

Professor Turner, a generation ago, called attention 
to the limestone pathways leading southward from the 
old granary of America, Pennsylvania, to the limestone 
oases of Tennessee and Kentucky. The plant; life of 
these limestone districts exerted far-reaching in- 
fluences. In the wheat-iields of Pennsylvania the 

30 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

English hunter was crossed with the "dog-horses" 
(as one of General Braddock's officers described them) 
of Virginia, giving us first the sturdy packhorse of the 
Indian traders and then the strong wagon-and-coach- 
horse. These animals arose from out these wheat 
fields as naturally as did the McCormick reaper. 
Here, too, was first seen that lumbering vehicle of 
American migration, the Conestoga wagon, as different 
from the Concord coach as the civilizations which lay 
back of them. The place of this limestone zone in the 
history of American transportation is worthy of 
emphasis; here was built the first American canal; 
here plied Fitch's first steamboat; here was built the 
first steam engine to run on a highway; here was built 
the first American stone road. 

Migration westward followed unconciously vegeta- 
tive zones, soils producing nut -bearing trees and mast, 
the pea-vine valleys and blue grass meadows and 
balds; the Shenandoah Valley in turn became the 
granary of Virginia and the pathway of migration on 
its centripetal route by Cumberland Gap to the 
Kentucky blue grass zone. When this movement 
reached Staunton and the blue grass regions of the 
New and Greenbriar valleys it would naturally have 
struck straight to its evident goal the Ohio Valley. 
But the coal measures of the Great Kanawha and Big 
Sandy blocked the road, sending the movement on the 
line of greatest vegetative attraction across both the 
James and New rivers to the five limestone valley 
tributaries of the Tennessee and thus to Nashville and 
Boonesboro. Kephart has cited the razorback hog as 
a pilot of this migrating army which made possible the 
timely occupation of Kentucky on the eve of the 
Revolution. He gives good proof that you could not 
drive that dogmatic, four-legged Calvinist out of his 
vegetative zone of least resistance and emphasizes 
that his flesh was the mainstay of the migratory horde. 

In proof of the domination of these influences of 
plant life one needs only to turn to the formal and 

1919.] Increasing Debt of History to Science. 37 

informal propaganda of promoters and land com- 
panies of the era of expansion into the trans- Allegheny 
wilderness. Weather conditions, length of seasons, 
soils, and kinds and dimensions of shrubs and trees 
were uniformly cited in proof of the excellence of one 
region over another. Washington's measurement of 
the giant sycamore on the Ohio in 1770 (done at the 
risk of his reputation for truth-telling) was intended 
to indicate merely that such was the fertility of the 
soil (which he desired to rent for 999 years at a good 
rental) that it could produce trees forty-five feet in 

The fact that land companies rivalled each other in 
pointing out the pharmaceutical superiority of the 
growths on lands offered for sale reminds us that the 
relationship of migration to disease and choice of 
settlements has not been scientifically developed. 
The effects of malaria, miasma, and kindred diseases 
to settlement making and pioneering is practically an 
untouched field; the failure of many a prospector and 
colonizing enterprise, the rise and decay of numerous 
towns in unhealthy environments, and possibly much 
of the so-called wanderlust of the rovers who led the 
pioneer advance, might be explained more fully by the 
student of bacteria than by the historian. These 
insidious influences had farther reaching effects than 
have been recognized, influencing mind as well as 
body, religion as well as diet, politics as well as 

The hysteria, for instance, which accompanied 
periods of religious excitement along our frontiers was 
part and parcel with the fanaticism which led the 
Indian "medicine men" to exert such ghoulish control 
upon their morbid, distraught proselytes, attaining a 
terrible success that, in one instance, at least, affected 
a stolid representative of the white race. The 
monotony of life in the half-lights of the forests, with 
its perpetual tendency to provoke the ailments uni- 
versal to the Indian, pulmonary disorder, together 

38 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

with the inroads of malarial germs, gave to the pioneer 
race sallowness of complexion and, together with a 
limited diet, a gauntness of frame, which character- 
ized them so commonly that the Highlander of today 
in Appalachia feels disgraced by a fat son. The 
oppressiveness of the monotonous silence of forest 
life affected mind and, without doubt, body; this was 
particularly true of women, the mothers of the children 
of the wilderness, and their sons were the weaker for 
it; this, perhaps as much as the toil of wilderness 
existence, may account for the lessened longevity on 
the part of the pioneer crusaders of our young West. 

The lack of zoological maps of the west likewise 
hinders our understanding of the distribution of 
earliest populations. Maps showing clear lines mark- 
ing the habitat of the valuable fur-bearing animals 
will measurably add to our understanding of fur 
company and international rivalries and the retarda- 
tions in occupation of zones which did not exert that 
magnetic influence. Such maps will make much 
clearer the explanation of the artificial tangents on 
which numerous migrations struck out and the 
curiosities of the haphazard occupation of our north- 
west; the mapping of these zones with reference to the 
fertile agricultural regions on the one hand, and of the 
gold and silver areas on the other, will clear up much 
of the haziness in our understanding ol the social 
movements from the former to the latter. 

In the realm of hydrography and aerography the 
progress made in the past decade is instinct with 
promise. Those of us who have scripturally believed 
the winds fitting symbols of fickleness are a little 
confused- to hear them classed among stable and 
dependable natural phenomena. Certain trade winds 
we have known are as regular as the seasons, but 
to be told that the great air currents can be relied upon 
generally to aid in explaining the seemingly whimsical 
routes of early explorers and help us to understand 


1919.] Increasing Debt of History to Science. 39 

their landfalls and omissions as well as commissions 
is altogether new. 

This work, begun by Professor George Davidson of 
the University of California, is being continued by 
Director Alexander McAdie of the Blue Hill Observa- 
tory. The work of these men has already made much 
clearer the facts concerning the discoveries of Van- 
couver, Drake, and Cooke on the Pacific Coast. By 
a careful comparison of the original logs kept by these 
explorers with our present knowledge of air currents, 
tides, fogs, sea-floor, and coast-lines, these scientists 
have proven that the "Golden Hinde, " for instance, 
could not have reached the latitude of 48° North as has 
been uniformly stated and repeated in as late an 
authority as the last edition of the Britannica. They 
give us certain proof of scientific accuracy that the 
farthest point reached was 43° North; that Drake 
could not have discovered San Francisco Bay but, 
rather, found his anchorage behind Point Reyes, which 
region he christened "Nova Albion." 4 

It is not unlikely that many of the voyages of the 
old explorers will be examined in the light of our 
growing knowledge of air and ocean currents, tides, 
fogs, and sea-floor, and that many old-time puzzles, 
such as Cartier's missing the mouth of the St. Law- 
rence in his first voyage, will be scientifically explained. 

As factors in this recasting of opinions the progress 
in study of marine life will not be without its value; 
we know vaguely that forms of life frequenting the 
Gulf Stream differ entirely from those which are 
found in the submerged Arctic Current on the one 
hand or in the Sargasso Sea, on the other. The 
proof that Columbus and other explorers were depend- 
ent, or the reverse, on the Gulf Stream for finding the 
Caribbeans, lies largely with the biologists and orni- 
thologists as well as with the hydrographers. 

4 "An examination of the Early Voyages . . . 1539 to 1003," U. S. Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, Appendix No. 7; "Nova Albion — 1579," Proceedings of the American 
Antiquarian Society, v. 28. 1918. 

40 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

More than a decade ago Professor Bassett showed 
clearly how the study of the coast of the Carolinas 
could be made to clarify historical interpretation. 
Probably it will not be long before the science of 
hydrography will establish a comparison, for instance, 
between our two great gulfs, the Gulf of Mexico and 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence with reference to tides, 
currents and sea-floor. No history with which I am 
acquainted compares those two great waterway 
avenues into the heart of America ; we know in general 
that the ocean tides sweep a thousand miles up one 
river and only about a dozen miles up the other; that 
one river flows clear from a rocky archean highland 
leaving no deposit at its mouth, while the other brings 
down its alluvial valley four hundred million tons of 
silt and clay annually to block and metamorphose its 
innumerable mouths. These vague outstanding facts 
when scientifically developed by men fitted to speak 
with accuracy, will make plain why the St. Lawrence 
became the key to the interior and would have done so 
had there been no Great Lakes at its head; also why 
the Mississippi was such an enigma to explorers and 
was never ascended by Europeans even in small 
craft until thirty years after the Great Lakes were 
comparatively well known. 

In this connection the soil-carrying power of water 
has produced sociological results in the way of town 
and city planting that are worthy of study in numer- 
ous instances. The more rapid a stream's current the 
larger are the soil particles which can be carried in 
suspension. If the current is moving three inches per 
second, fine clay and silt will be deposited; at eight 
inches a second, sand the size of linseed will be de- 
posited. At a rate of sixteen inches a second pebbles 
an inch in diameter will be transported, while water 
flowing two feet per second will carry stones the size 
of a hen's egg. 

This study of the relation of soil to velocity of 
streams explains why alluvial lands have varied 

1919.] Increasing Debt of History to Science. 41 

stratified deposits as the currents have varied, and 
why the richest of soils are likely to be deposited in 
the backwaters and the coarser near river banks; thus 
the draining of inland lagoons and swamps discovers 
exceedingly rich soil. Deltas are usually most pro- 
ductive. If streams at flood tide, bearing much 
deposit, are blocked from entering other streams to 
which they are tributary, they become still water and 
deposit their soil-burden in their channel or upon the 
surrounding bottom lands. These channel deposits 
are washed into the main river when the blockade is 
removed, and, sinking, form bars. 

Excellent soils at all deltas had a direct bearing on 
making such spots choice land for the squatter or 
prospector. The bars in the main river added to the 
strategic character of the mouths of streams as sites 
of settlements and, often, of towns. The bars in the 
main stream lessened its depth and made fording 
safer. The main fords were located by the larger 
game animals at such points, and men, following their 
well-laid paths, found and used these fords. Fre- 
quently high water rendered the ford impassable 
especially after vehicles came into use. Thus the 
ferry-boat was needed and the business of ferrying was 
a* profitable one. Ownership of land at such points 
was, therefore, doubly advantageous, giving the 
owner a lucrative employment at odd hours. As 
vehicle travel became common, the ferry was usually 
moved to a point above the shifting bars where there 
was a steady depth of water. Railwaj^s came later, 
following streams with monotonous regularity, and 
bridged streams on the site of the ancient ford. 
Hundreds of farms in these strategic locations became 
hamlets in the era of the stage and wagon, and blos- 
somed into cities on the advent of the railways. 
Behind this interesting evolution we see its secret — 
the soil-transporting power of w r atcr. Studies of this 
type founded on sound scientific reasoning, give a 

42 American Antiquarian Society, [Apr., 

basis frequently for the explanation of facts never 
otherwise understood. 

Before closing, the very recent and important devel- 
opment of aerial photography which will be invaluable 
to the writers of the histories of the late war, should 
be mentioned. When one considers the endless 
discussion of the past over positions of lines held and 
advances made it is not without a feeling of gratitude 
to these faithful men of daring that we recognize the 
basis they have laid for correct physiographical studies 
of the war, sector by sector. 

As no one factor explains a result, so no result is 
understood without the proper recognition of all 
factors which exert a control over it. The spirit of 
the day — our admiration for, and devotion to, truth- 
loving and- truth-telling — demands a catholicity of 
temperament and a loathing of bias on the part 
of our historical writers. As never before the natural 
sciences have become the handmaidens of history, and 
every clarifying influence they exert, or suggestion 
they offer, must be hailed with attention and gratitude. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 43 



The history of this collection of some ninety letters 
is this. Matthew L. Davis, for many years the friend 
and trusted adviser of Burr, to whom he left his papers 
in order that a memoir — a euphemism for a defence — 
might be prepared, in 1839 gave to Mrs. John Davis 
of Massachusetts, at her request, some "autographs" 
selected from the Burr papers. An autograph may be 
an historical paper, but usually it is not. The 
autograph hunter is contented to possess a signature, 
a legal document with seal and signature, or a portion 
of a letter cut or torn from its context, although in the 
process the ruin of a fine historical paper might be 
caused. What the Grangerizer is to books the auto- 
graph hunter is to manuscripts — a pest to be educated 
out of his destructive courses or to be restrained from 
access to collections of papers. Davis, judging by his 
compilation, had no just idea of the value or relation 
of what had been entrusted to him. The name at the 
foot of the writing he judged according to the popular 
conception of individuals in history entertained in 
1839, and that conception was wholly wrong. There 
were as many collectors of hair, last words, buttons, 
and buckles as of historical papers, and a letter of 
Washington had no more value than a letter of one of 
his generals or aides — which was no value at all. So 
limited was the market for such objects, so easily 
satisfied, and so little the discrimination of so-called 
collectors that the best of family records suffered by 
attrition, and years after Davis so light-heartedly 
drew on the Burr bequest to gratify the caprice of a 
namesake, Jared Sparks could distribute on request a 
state paper of Washington leaf by leaf. It was as 

44 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

intelligent and praiseworthy as a mutual distribution 
of photographs — a later fancy which somewhat relieved 
the growing pressure for autographs. 

If it is assumed that Davis had no true idea of what 
a manuscript should be, valuable for its content — and 
nowhere has he given evidence of possessing such an 
idea — then the righteous indignation of every student 
of the Burr period is fittingly directed against him. 
To dip casually into a collection and select almost ac- 
cidentally a few papers would be a procedure to shame 
a modern investigator. Like the haruspex of old he 
must most carefully examine the entrails of the victim 
to determine the course of fate. Only on a careful 
search can the best of a collection be found. What 
must have been the Burr papers if any judgment can 
be based on the haphazard selection of these auto- 
graphs! Name some of these pieces: the letter of 
Roger Sherman announcing the appointment by 
Congress of general officers in the Continental army in 
1775, with the reasons; an important letter from 
General Schuyler to General Montgomery (1775), 
letters from Charles Lee, Chase and Carroll, Lincoln, 
Hull and Duer to General Wooster; an address in 
French to the inhabitants of Quebec signed by 
Benedict Arnold, enjoining them to accept the paper 
bills of credit of the Continental Congress; a holograph 
letter of Israel Putnam to Margaret Moncrieffe, and 
Putnam's letters are so few in number as to be a most 
sought acquisition, and in them the spelling is accord- 
ing to Putnam not to Johnson — or anywhere near it; 
a long letter on military matters from Alexander 
Macdougall and a short note from James Rivington — 
was he a tory or a good rebel, or both? another from 
James Wilkinson — is there any doubt as to what he 
was or deserved? a letter from Gallatin and a few lines 
from Hamilton; political sheets from Caesar A. 
Rodney, Thomas Jefferson, Jonathan Russell, Isaiah 
Bloomfield, Alexander J. Dallas, Willett, Thomas 
Truxtun, John Taylor of Caroline; a fine letter from 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 45 

Luther Martin to Joseph Alston on Burr's imprison- 
ment in Richmond, and examples of Theodosia and 
her husband, of the Prevosts and of Burr himself. If 
such are sample pieces, what must the whole Burr 
collection have been? Did it contain the papers of 
the unfortunate — yet fortunate General Wooster, who 
did not live to meet certain defeat? Did it contain 
the records of that rash and ill-considered expedition 
of 1775-76 to Canada? The sense of indignation 
against Davis increases as each piece is noted. How 
account for his criminal carelessness in permitting such 
a collection to be lost? It was a crime against Burr, 
his friend and benefactor, and it was a crime against 
posterity. The incident gives a proper measure of 
Matthew L. Davis. 1 Fortunately the Ms. of Burr's 
Journal, when in Europe, 1808-1810, escaped destruc- 
tion and has been adequately printed by the generous 
interest of Mr. William K. Bixby, of St. Louis. The 
Burr papers as they were can only be fancied from the 
few samples that have survived. This volume made 
up for Mrs. John Davis thus becomes precious, for it is 
more characteristic of Burr than any I have met, yet, 
I insist, the selection must have been accidental. 

In another way these letters form an indictment 
against Davis and all his kind. He took unpardonable 
liberties with the text of some which he did print. I 
have in another place 2 tried to show the gradual 
development of the editorial function, so largely a 
matter of conscience, and free speech, and need not 
again specify the various sins which were in favor 
when Davis too successfully edited his trust into 
nothingness. He was guilty of all of them. Whatever 
was .thought of Burr in his public and in his private 
relations— and the opinion held of him in the nine- 

Un none of the biographical dictionaries is his middle name spelled out and he is 
invariably referred to as Matthew L. Davis. Mr. A. J. Wall of the N. Y. Historical, 
Society, in answering a letter of inquiry on the subject, finds that his name was Matthew 
Livingston Davis, that he was born Oct. 28, 1773, the son of Matthew Davis and Phebe 
Wells, and that he was buried in Trinity Church cemetery. 

a Ainerican Historical Review, XXIII, 273. 

46 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

tecnth century was quite impressively unanimous — 
was due to Davis, described as his sole friend for a 
almost a generation. The worst breach of trust is 
that which involves the reputation of a benefactor, of 
one who has bestowed favors and consideration with 
or without selfish purpose. Burr did not live or die in 
the odor of sanctity — he could not, in spite of the 
accumulated credit of his ancestry, in spite of much 
in extenuation he could himself have supplied. But 
the bad odor which contemporary conditions aggra- 
vated might have been partially deodorized by a 
judicious statement of truth, for which, from his point 
of view, the papers left by Burr would, have been 

Of this responsibility Davis had not the slightest 
consciousness. With his friend's repute solemnly 
entrusted to him he went out of his way to destroy it. 
The deliberate stab which was as needless as it was 
fatal, is contained in Davis' introduction and again in 
the text of the Memoirs, 3 where the morals of Burr 
were blackened beyond recovery. The opening given 
to explain or even to excuse his public career was as 
deliberately neglected. Burr, the man, was stripped 
naked for public exposure, and this was done by the 
one person whom he had long known, favored and 
looked upon as his defender to be. Even royalty 
cannot stand such a test. "The generality of princes,' ; 
says Gibbon, and it is as true now as 1000 years ago, 
"if they were stripped of their purple and cast naked 
into the world, would immediately sink to the lowest 
rank of society, without a hope of emerging from their 
obscurity." 1 We are asked to believe that Davis was 
a creditable correspondent of the New York "Courier 
and Enquirer" and of the London "Times." Such 
an experience should have developed a journalistic 
habit useful in biography, a sense of what is important, 
or striking, or informing. In fact he took a diamond 

^Memoirs, I. 91, 181. 

^Gibbon, Decline and Fall (Milrnan eel.), 10. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 47 

and reduced it to paste. He blabbed and destroyed 
the evidence. Could there be greater or more 
cowardly disloyalty? 

If this journalist, of whose merits so low an opinion 
must be formed, was responsible for the quite uncalled 
for exposure of Burr's personal weaknesses, another 
journalist sought to remedy the fault. James Par ton, 
was, in my early days, somewhat unjustly described 
as the " great American romancer." Imagination is 
a desirable quality in biography, especially where the 
writer is "short" of knowledge or material and a little 
"long" on temperament. The most successful bit of 
biographical writing in America was Weems' Washing- 
ton, which savors of qualities to be found in a mediaeval 
romance of knighthood or of sainthood. What 
Weems was in little Parton was in large, and his 
relations are picturesque, highly colored and keenly 
journalistic — still not unreadable and quite mis- 
leading. He was incapable of sounding the depths of 
character, of analyzing motives and following the 
turnings of that self-deception which so largely 
constitutes political life. His Burr is a more winning 
personality and a more important actor in the drama 
of history than the Burr of Davis; but in seeking to 
accomplish this result he so disposed the lights and 
shadows as to produce a picture which was not a 
portrait. Even his industry could not manufacture 
the necessary material, and his use of what he had is 
often open to question. It should also be remembered 
that the Burr was Barton's second attempt at biog- 
raphy and his first on a national scale. For Horace 
Greeley before 1855 was not a figure to be evoked from 
its partial obscurity except by an aspiring journalist. 5 
Generally speaking for a newspaper man to write of a 
living master journalist smacks of the biography 
condemned by the description of a "campaign biog- 
raphy." Parton's Burr was a great improvement on 

tParton's Life of Greeley appeared in 1S5">; hia Burr in 1858. 

48 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

that of Davis, but yet much was required before 
proper estimation could be had. What could he have 
turned out had he been in the possession of the wealth 
thrown away upon Davis! 

The historian who discovered Aaron Burr was 
Henry Adams. Alone, Burr had been studied chiefly 
in the shadows of the duel with Hamilton, his success- 
ful opponent rather than rival; in relation, Mr. Adams 
placed him in a series of dramatic tableaux where the 
high light developed positions which, analyzed, proved 
hitherto unrecognized qualities and possibilities. His- 
tory is not merciless, but only true. Partisan history 
is not only merciless but untrue, and Burr, a politician, 
pictured by writers of pronounced political leanings, 
suffered through personal qualities which demanded 
S3mipathy without having deserved it. The most 
complex combination of elements yields to chemical 
analysis; it may be measured, weighed and broken into 
its constituents. The simplest character defies analy- 
sis, because there are no absolutes, no definite weights, 
no uniform, inexorable combinations. Unconsciously 
we use false weights and measures, for we use our own 
equipment and seek to apply it to other times and 
other persons. Could anything be more misleading? 

Let us summarize the Adams presentation. He 
describes Burr as of "pure Connecticut Calvinistic 
blood" 6 as having succeeded in lowering the standard 
of New York politics, 7 something that to our more 
experienced generation would seem impossible. And 
then passing over the detail of twenty active years — 
Burr was forty-five 3^ears of age in 1801 — he places 
him in the United States Senate, on March 4, about to 
take the oath as Vice-President of the United States, 
but one step below the office which the interested 
flattery and trained garrulity of midwives have 
predicted for every male child born in the country 

•History, I. 109. Mr. Chapin, of the Rhode Island Historical Society, tells me that 
the term is one implying reproach, 
'lb., 112. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 49 

since Washington first took the oatli of the Presidency, 
and for which Lincoln and Garfield kept alive the 
traditions of humble beginnings and glorious endings, 
and the voice of pure democracy preaches the gospel 
of equality of opportunity. Here is the picture: 

" Another person, with individuality not less marked, 
took the oath of office the same day. When the 
Senate met at ten o'clock on the morning of March 4, 
1801, Aaron Burr stood at the desk, and having duly 
sworn to support the Constitution, took his scat in the 
chair as Vice-President. This quiet, gentlemanly, 
and rather dignified figure, hardly taller than Madison, 
and dressed in much the same manner, impressed with 
favor all who first met him. An aristocrat imbued in 
the morality of Lord Chesterfield and Napoleon 
Bonaparte, Colonel Burr was the chosen head of 
Northern democrac}^ idol of the wards of New York 
city, and aspirant to the highest offices he could reach 
by means legal or beyond the law; for as he pleased 
himself with saying, after the manner of the First 
Consul of the French Republic, ' Great souls care little 
for small morals.' Among the other party leaders 
who have been mentioned, — Jefferson, Madison, 
Gallatin, Marshall, — not one was dishonest. The 
exaggerations or equivocations that Jefferson allowed 
himself, which led to the deep-rooted conviction of 
Marshall that he did not tell the truth and must 
therefore be dangerous, amounted to nothing when 
compared with the dishonesty of a corrupt man. Had 
the worst political charges against Jefferson been true, 
he would not have been necessarily corrupt. The 
self-deception inherent in every struggle for personal 
power was not the kind of immorality which charac- 
terized Colonel Burr. Jefferson, if his enemies were 
to be believed, might occasionally make misstatements 
of fact; yet he was true to the faith of his life, and 
would rather have abdicated his office and foregone 
his honors than have compassed even an imaginary 
wrong against the principles he professed. His life, 

50 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

both private and public, was pure. His associates, 
like Madison, Gallatin, and Monroe, were men upon 
whose reputations no breath of scandal rested. The 
standard of morality at Washington, both in private 
society and in politics, was respectable. For this 
reason Colonel Burr was a new power in the govern- 
ment; for being in public and in private life an 
adventurer of the same school as scores who were then 
seeking fortune in the antechambers of Bonaparte and 
Pitt, he became a loadstone for every other adventurer 
who frequented New York or whom the chances of 
politics might throw into office. The Vice-President 
wielded power, for he was the certain centre of 
corruption.' ' 

Events soon showed that Jefferson could wield the 
national patronage in such a manner as to paralyze 
Burr's motions to strengthen a political position in 
New York. Local appointments tipped the scales in 
favor of Burr's rivals — the Clintons — or purchased the 
desertion of his supporters — the Livingstons; and 
scarcely had the summer of 1801 passed before 
Jefferson's own party in New York had been hopelessly 
split and Burr was well-advanced on the road of 
opposition. His personal dislike of Jefferson, which 
was cordially reciprocated, soon led to open insub- 
ordination. Under dictation, but not reluctantly, 
the press of party began to hound Burr from public 
life. 8 So successful was the attack that in 1804, with 
retirement from the Vice-Presidency in sight, Burr, 
" bankrupt in public and private character, abandoned 
by his own party as a man who no longer deserved 
confidence," turned to the Federalists for support. 
He gained recognition, aroused the jealousy of 
Hamilton and — we all know what followed. It is not 
so much the death of Hamilton on which we would 
dwell; it is that from the Federalists Burr gained the 
idea of disunion. Ambition and revenge, directed 

•Adams's History, I, 279-283. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 51 

against the equally ambitious leader of the Federalists 
and the even more astute and powerful leader of the 
Republicans, were his undoing. In the flash of the 
pistol on Weehawken heights Burr ended all chance of 
regaining by legitimate means power the future might 
have held. His idea of an independent western con- 
federation, even of an empire to be carved from 
Spanish territory, was splendid imagery approaching 
the dreams of a hashish smoker. So far from con- 
sidering his career as ended when acquitted on a 
charge of treason, he had become desperate, and 
would "rather sacrifice the interests of his country 
than renounce celebrity and fortune." Such was the 
opinion of the French minister. 9 and such has been the 
verdict of posterity. 

This cold-blooded, selfish ambition which so over- 
reached itself is the public life of the man. Mr. 
Adams very properly confines his treatment to Burr's 
public career, using it judiciously as a foil to develop 
the position of other actors no more scrupulous than he 
in political battle. The other side — the personal — 
is better told in Burr's own letters — those to his wife, 
to his daughter and, if rumor and Davis are accepted, 
to almost any woman who was presentable and 
inconsolable. It is difficult to reconcile the two 
aspects of the man; indeed they cannot be reconciled. 
Allowing for the undoubted exaggeration of his faults, 
we find no reason to discount the dole of his virtues 
displayed in his affection for wife and daughter. 
Theodosia Burr has become one of the romantic 
characters in our history — not because much is known 
of her, but because what is known tempts speculation 
on inheritance and awakens doubt on what might have 
developed. To have surrendered to her influence is 
Burr's chief claim upon our compassion. 

He possessed a like capacity for awakening affection 
in others — in his youth, something more than affection, 

'Adams's History, II. 402, 407. 

52 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

an unquestioning confidence. The names of his 
adherents in 1806 are those of his associates in 1770 — 
thirty years earlier. Wilkinson, Dayton, Ogden, who 
were with him in the Canada campaign, reappear 
themselves or in a son in the New Orleans conspiracy. 
Yet with what a difference! The earlier venture i* 
tinged with the spirit of a crusade, that lasting force 
which appeals to the ages; and its miserable failure 
can be placed largely to an excess of zeal which had 
neglected to measure material difficulties before 
presuming upon success through appeals to mutiny — 
to disloyalty. Montgomery, Wooster, and the lesser 
officers died in an effort to reach an " oppressed" 
people who did not want to be saved from their 
present governors. Arnold, Schuyler, Hazen and 
others survived that effort, making reputations of 
various colors b} r their service, developed later 
qualities or invited experiences which left them in 
arrested development or partial obscurity. It was 
New England that unjustly hampered Schuyler; it 
was ambition deformed under a sense of injustice that 
gave Arnold his undesirable eminence; it was poverty 
that reduced Hazen to helplessness. 

Burr lived to share a combination of these mis- 
shapen fortunes, and in the event' to have his name 
linked with Arnold. His personal bravery was not 
questioned — until his desertion of his fellow-conspira- 
tors on the Mississippi. His ambition kept alive a 
touch of idealism which had made the crusader in 
1775, the politician of 1800, and the schemer after 
18Q4. The man who impressed his college mates and 
won their confidence, was the same man who gained 
such control in New York politics as to be within 
sight, even touch, of the Presidency. The man who 
could plan the overthrow of his rival in political 
ambition was the same who could picture the carving 
of a kingdom from the western territory, the ousting 
of Spain from an empire. Yet whatever motion he 
embarked upon seems to have been undertaken on too 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 53 

small capital — a reflection of the Canada situation. 
His political machine, sufficient for the moment, broke 
down when its strength appeared greatest, because his 
duel with Hamilton rendered its further growth diffi- 
cult, if not impossible. A social machine which is for 
a moment arrested in motion is generally stalled in 
action. His attempt to detach the western states 
from the union failed, because he aroused somewhat 
late in the day the opposition of the United States 
government. Had he succeeded to his content, his 
means were totally inadequate to his object. Spain's 
empire in America — only a small part of which Burr 
coveted — has given the final test of his scheme based 
as it was upon nothing substantial. The long and 
trying passage of Spanish possessions from colonies to 
independent states, even now not wholly accom- 
plished in some after nearly a century of effort, proves 
how little chance a foreign adventurer would have had 
to obtain so much as a foothold in territory or making 
a lasting impression on the population of that territory. 
The equally long list of attempts to gain access to and 
alter this inert but combustible material, from 
Miranda to our intervention in Cuba, reduces Burr's 
intent to foolishness. By poverty he became an 
adventurer; and worst of all, lie alienated even those 
who in personal loyalty or from interest attached their 
hopes and fortunes to his career, so thoroughly that 
it was literally true in the end he had as a follower 
only Matthew L. Davis. It is one of Davis' pecu- 
liarities that he blamed Washington for not favoring 
Burr — though neither he nor Burr can give evidence 
of a personal hostility on the part of the general and 
president. The distrust and opposition of Jefferson 
and others are well established by the records, but 
they were incidents in the career of any ambitious 
politicians, versed in the methods of the darker side 
of political management. More suggestive than either 
of these forces was that which came from himself, 
making Wilkinson his betrayer, Dayton treacherous 

54 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

and involving all concerned with him in perils such as 
obliged them to desert him and seek their own safety 
at the very time when he most needed their help and 
countenance. It is a remarkable history, whether 
studied on the lines of heredity, of development of 
character, or of performance; and few public characters 
in the history of the United States offer so picturesque 
a model for a biography, such a combination of 
capability and sordidness, ambition and power, 
ruthless pursuit of great ends on nothing but unstable 
personality. Playing for large stakes the cards were 
against him, but he had done his best to stack them 
in his own favor, and no true gambler complains when 
he loses. A succession of failures marks the salient 
points in his career. For his failures he had himself 
to blame; for our ignorance of little but his failures 
and for the absence of a possible salvage of character 
we hold Matthew L. Davis responsible. 

Matthew L. Davis to Mrs. John Davis 10 

New York 25th November 1839. 
Madam, — 

Some time since you expressed a wish that I would select 
from among the papers of the late Col. Aaron Burr, a few 
Revolutionary Autographs. With others of a later date, they 
are herewith presented. May I be permitted to ask their 
acceptance as a testimonial of the profound respect entertained 
for your great Worth, and rare intellectual acquirements, by, 
Mada, Your most Obt. Servt. 

M. L. Davis. 
The Hon. Mrs. John Davis, Worcester 

William Paterson to Aaron Burr 11 

Princeton, Thursday Noon. 
[January 17th 1772.] 
Dear Burr, — I am just ready to take horse, and therefore 
cannot have the pleasure of waiting on you in person. Be 

10 Eliza, daughter of Rev. Aaron and Lucretia (Chandler) Bancroft, was born February 
17,1791, married, March 28, 1822, John Davis, and died January 24, 1872. See Ancestry 
of John Davis and Eliza Bancroft, compiled by Horace Davis, San Francisco, 1897. 

"Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p.. ^ u - 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 55 

pleased to accept of the inclosed Essay on Dancing: if you 
pitch upon it as the Subject of your next discourse, it may 
perhaps furnish you with a few hints, and enable you to 
compose with the greater facility and dispatch. To do you 
any little services in my power will afford me great .satisfac- 
tion, and I hope you will take the liberty (it is nothing more, 
my Dear Burr, than the freedom of a friend,) to call upon me 
whenever you think I can. When I shall be here again is 
uncertain; perhaps not before vacation: forbear with me 
whilst I say, that you camiot speak too slow. Your good judg- 
ment generally leads you to lay the emphasis on the most 
forcible word in the sentence; so far you are very right. But 
the misfortune is, that you lay too great stress upon the 
emphatical word. Every word should be distinctly pro- 
nounced; one should not be so highly sounded as to drown 
another. To see you shine as a speaker would give great 
pleasure to your friends in general, and to me in particular; I 
say nothing of your own honour; the desire of making others 
happy will, to a generous mind, be the strongest incentive. 
I am much mistaken, if such a desire has not great influence 
over you. You are certainly capable of making a good 
speaker. Exert yourself. I am in haste; Dear Burr, adieu. 

Wm. Paterson. 

Be careful of the inclosed; it is the only copy I have. 
Mr. Aaron Burr. 

[Addressed] To Mr. Aaron Burr. 

[Memorandum] William Paterson Princeton Jan'y 17th 
1772. Princeton. 

Timothy Dwight, Jun., to Aaron Burr. 12 
Dear Sir, — By a poor candle, with poor eyes, and a poorer 
brain, I sit down to introduce a long wished for correspond- 
ence. You see how solicitous I am to preserve old connections, 
or rather to begin new ones. Relationship, by the fashionable 
notions of those large towns, which usurp a right to lead and 
govern our opinions, is dwindled to a formal nothing — a mere 
shell of ceremony. Our ancestors, whose honesty and sim- 
plicity, though different from the wise refinements of modern 

"Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 1 p. 41. 

56 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr,, 

politeness, were, perhaps, as deserving of imitation, as the 
insincere coldness of the present generation, cousin'd it to the 
tenth degree of kindred. Tho this was extending the matter 
to a pitch of extravagance, yet it was certainly founded upon 
a natural, rational principle. Who are so naturally our 
friends, as those who are born such? I defy a New Yorker, 
tho' callous'd over with city politeness, to be otherwise than 
pleased, with a view of ancient hospitality to relations, when 
exercised by a person of good breeding, and a genteel educa- 
tion. Now, say you, what has this to do with the introduction 
of correspondence? You shall know directly sir. The 
Edwardses have been always remarkable for this fondness for 
their relations. If you have the least inclination to prove 
yourself a true descendant of that (to us) respectable stock, 
you cannot fail of answering me very soon. This, was I 
disposed, I could demonstrate by algebra and syllogisms, in 
a twinkling; But hope you will believe me without either. I 
never asked for many connections in this way, nor was ever 
denied, but once, by a Jersey 13 Gentleman, originally of New 
England. I hope the disease is not epidemical, and that you 
have not determined against any communication with the rest 
of the world. It was a mortification, I confess: for I am too 
proud to be denied a request, tho' unreasonable, as many of 
mine are. Therefore I insist upon an answer, at least; and as 
many more, as you can find in your heart to give me; promising 
in return, as many by tale, though, without a large profit, at 
least 50 per cent, shant warrant their quality. I am Sir your 
sincere friend and servant, 

Timothy D wight, Jun'r. 
New Haven, March I don't know the day 1772 Wednesday. 

[Addressed] For Mr. Aaron Burr at Nassau Hall in Princeton 
New Jersey. Favoured by Mr, Davenport. 

[Memorandum] Timothy Dwight New-Haven March 10th 
1772. Princeton. 

"The gentleman's name was Allen, with whom you arc doubtless acquainted. I wrote 
him two letters, and received no answer, which was a little disagreeable to me; almost aa 
much so, as it would huve been to him, t,> h:ivo answered mc. 


1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 57 

Samuel Spring to Aaron Burr 14 

It is a little Strang to me that I have not heard any thing of 
you since your examination. I dont know but you are turned 
back and out of College too since you are so bakward to write, 
however I will if possible keep such thoughts out, of my mind 
till I hear from you in particular. If you arc let down a peg 
lower you may tell me of it: if you are permitted to live in 
College you may tell of it; and if you are turn'd out you may 
tell of that too; if you passed examination and have a Syllogism 
to speak at commencement if you are able to moke it I suppose 
you may tell me of that likewise; or if you have got the first 
oration in the class you may tell me if you will only do it softly, 
indeed you may tell me any thing for I profess to be your 
friend. Therefore since you can trust me so far, I expect you 
will now write and let me know a little how matters are at 
present in College. 1$ particular let me know the state of the 
society, and if I owe anything to it do you pay it and charge 
it to your humble servant. I hope you will write the first 
opportunity as I trust you have got some very good news to 
tell me concerning College in general, and I hope of yourself in 
particular. I have nothing remarkable to write at present; 
it is very pleasant to me where I am at present. The study of 
Divinity is very agreeable far more so than any other study 
would be to me whatever. I hope to see the time when you 
will sec it your duty to go into the same study with a desire 
for the ministry. Remember that that was the prayer of your 
dear father and mother and is the prayer of your friends to 
this time, that you should step forth into his place and make it 
manifest that you are a friend to heaven and that you have a 
tast for glory. But this you are. sensible can never be the case 
if you remain in a state of nature, therefore improve the present 
and future moments to the best of purposes, as knowing the 
time will soon be upon you when you will wish that in living 
you had lived right and acted rationally and like an immortal. 

Samuel Spring. 

[Addressed] To Mr. Aaron Burr, Princeton, N. Jersey 

[Memorandum] Sam'l Spring, New-Port, May 15th, 1772. 

"Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p. 02. 

58 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Timothy Edwards to Aaron Burr 15 

Stockbridge, February 11th, 1774. 

Dear Nephew, — Whether you study law' with Mr. Reeve, 
or your uncle Pierpont, is a matter of indifference with me. 
I would have you act your own pleasure therein altogether. I 
shall write to your uncle upon it, but yet treat it as a matter of 
doubt. Your board I shall settle with the Doctor 16 myself. I 
will send you cash to pay for your horse r as soon as I have paid 
off, for my oxen, sent to the Jerseys, the last fall. Two 
hundred pounds for them is due this month. When that is 
paid you may be assured that I will send you as above. You 
may expect it on the fore part of March. If I had known of 
this want of yours sooner I would have paid it before this. We 
are all well and join in love etc. I am your affectionate Uncle 
and Guardian, 

Timo. Edwards. 

Sally's things are to be sent by the first sleigh. 

[Addressed] To Mr. Aaron Burr at Bethlem. 

Jonathan Sergeant, Sen., to Aaron Burr. 

Princeton, May 24th, 1774. 
Sir, — I received yours of the 21st Instant and observe the 
contents. I spent the next day after I was with you at Doctor 
Wetherspoon's 17 about gitting the matter settled with him 
about the rent and at last got the Judgment of one man that 
he should pay Seven pounds per year but have got no money of 
him yet and he is gone to Philadelphia so that I cannot speak 
to him. I have spent some time examining my accounts and 
find nothing due from me. This morning I went to Mr. 
Longstreets to enquire if he had any but could not see him he 
being from home in quest of money for you. Doctor Wether- 
spoon says he has an account against you which he expects 
will answer part of his debt and the remainder I will git him to 
pay as soon as I can so that it's uncertain whether any will 

"Printed in Davia'a "Memoirs of Aaron Burr, " vol. 1, p. 40. 
16 Rev. Joseph Bellamy, of Bethlehem, Conn. 
"John Witherspoon (1722-1794). 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 59 

be ready for you this week or in a very short time or not. I 
am, your friend and humble Servant, 

Jon'n Sergeant. 
[Addressed] To Mr. Aaron Burr at Elizabeth-town. By the 

Isaac Sears to David Wooster. 18 

New York, 14th June, 1775. 
Dear Sir,— The Troops from Cork destined for this City 
may be hourly expected. I have the pleasure to inform you 
that this day in Congress, it was moved That yourself and 
troops be requested to encamp within five miles of this City. 
The Motion was put off untill to morrow, at the intercession 
of the Members for three Counties, and you may be assured it 
will be carried by a great Majority. 19 
I am Dear Sir, Yours Affectionately, 

Isaac Sears. 
To General Wooster 

Roger Sherman to David Wooster 20 

Philadelphia June 23d 1775. 
Dear Sir, — The Congress having determined it necessary to 
keep up an Army for the Defence of America at the Charge of 
the United Colonies have appointed the following General 
Officers George Washington Esqr. Commander in Chief, 
Major Generals, Ward, Lee, Schuyler and Putnam, Brigadier 
Generals Pomroy, Montgomery, yourself, Heath, Spencer, 
Thomas, Major Sullivan, of New Hampshire and one Green of 
Rhode Island. I am sensible that according to your former 
rank you were intitled to the place of a Major General, and as 
one was to be appointed in Connecticut I heartily recom- 
mended you to the Congress, I informed them of the Arrange- 
ment made by our Assembly, which I thought would be 
satisfactory to have them continue in the same order, but as 
General Putnam's fame was spread abroad, and especially his 
successful enterprize at Noddles Island the account of which 
had just arrived, it gave him a preference in the opinion of the 


"American Archives, 4th Sec., II, 1297, 1299. 

20 Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p. 59. 

60 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Delegates in general so that his appointment] was unanimous 
among the Colonies, but from your known abilities and firm 
attachment to the American cause we were very desirous of 
your continuance in the Army, and hope you will accept of the 
appointment made by the Congress. I think the pay of a 
Brigadier is about 125 Dollars per month. I suppose a 
Commission is sent to you by General Washington. We 
received Intelligence yesterday of an engagement at Charles- 
town but have not had the particulars, all the Connecticut 
Troops are now taken into the Continental Army. I hope 
proper care will be taken to secure the Colony against any 
sudden invasion, which must be at their own expence. I have 
nothing further that I am at Liberty to acquaint you with of 
the doings of the Congress but what have been made public. 
I would not have any thing published in the papers that I 
write lest something may inadvertently escape' me which 
ought not to be published. I should be glad if you would 
write to me every convenient opportunity and inform me of 
such occurrences, and other matters as you may think proper 
and useful for me to be acquainted with. I am with great 
esteem Your humble Servant, 

Roger Sherman. 

P.S. The General Officers were Elected in the Congress 
not by nomination but by Ballot. 
David Wooster Esqr. 

[Addressed) To Major General Wooster of Connecticut, not 
at New York or Greenwich. 

Forwarded by Sir Your very humble servant, John Hancock. 
Philadelphia 27 June 1775. 

Joseph Reed 21 to David Wooster 

Camp at Cambridge, July 25, 1775. 
Sir, — I am directed by his Excellency General Washington 
to inform you that yesterday afternoon 3 Men of War with a 
number of Transports sailed from Boston. They steer' d 
E. S. E. after they got out, but we cannot yet learn their 
destination, or whether they have taken off any part of the 
Troops of the Enemy. As their designs are so much unknown 


1910.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 01 

to us, and it is possible they may move to New York, the 
General thought proper to apprize you of it, that you may be 
prepared for such an event. This he would have done with 
his own hand but he has been much indisposed for some days 
past. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your most obedient and 
very humble Servant, 

Jos. Reed, Sec'y- 

[Addressed] To the Hon. David Wooster Esqr., B. General 
of the Troops of the United Colonies of North America. 

[Memorandum] Cambridge 25 July 1775. Gen ; l Washing- 
ton's letter. 

Jonathan Trumbull to David Wooster 

Lebanon, 16th August, 1775. 

Sir, — I have your favour of the 14th instant 22 per James 
Lockwood, Esquire. 23 Am of opinion that your return to 
Harlem with your men will be best. That it is necessary the 
Stock on Long Island etc. be secured against further depreda- 
tion. Hope the people and their force there will be able to 
secure the same, if not, should rather at their desire and 
expence to furnish some other Companies from the Main — 
provided they can be spared, which is probable. Will send 
your Information to General Washington. 

As to the Rev'd James Lyon 24 you mention, shall leave the 
disposition of him to your prudent direction. Such persons 
are very pernicious. 

My Council will be with [me?] tomorrow shall then consult 
on the affair. Am oblidged for your intelligence, and for the 
service you have done the Islanders. I do not get an}' intelli- 
gence of importance that is late to communicate. 

I am, with Esteem and Respect, Sir, Your Obedient Humble 

Jon'th. Trumbull. 

[Addressed] To Major General David Wooster at Oyster 
Ponds on Long Island. On the Public Service. 

"American Archives, 4th Sec, III, 131. 

^Appointed Secretary to General Wooster, May 1, 177.5, and was with him in the 
Canada expedition. See Dexter, Yale Biographies, III, 193. 
M Sabine, Loyalists, II, 40. 

62 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Philip V. B. Livingston 25 to David Wooster. 
In Provincial Congress, New York August 18th, 1775. 
Sir, — We enclose you a copy of a Paragraph in General. 
Washington's letter of the 10th instant. 26 In consequence of 
which we desire you to return to your Camp at Harlem with 
the utmost speed to assist in the Defence of this City and 

We are, Sir, Your most obedient humble Servants, 
By order, O 

P. V. B. Livingston President. 
[Addressed] To Brigadier General Wooster at East end of 
Nassau Island. 

Sally Reeve to Aaron Burr. 

Litchfield, September 2d, 1775. 
Dear Brother, — When Mr. Philips came home and in- 
formed me that you had not received one letter from us I was 
both sorry and angry sorry for the hard tho'ts you must 
entertain of me and angry at the Post for acting so ridiculous a 
part and he has serv'd us just so this week sat off with [out?] 
coming to Lichfield for an}' letters. I hop you will not think 
we have neglected you when I assure you this is the Gth letter 
we have wrote you since you have been at the camp if you 
should ever receive my first letter you will then see my senti- 
ments on your leading a Solders life you will allso find I have 
promised if you are sick or wonded I will com and see you and 
I still assure you that the frightful nois of great guns nor the 
tho'ts of being in a Camp shall prevent my coming if either of 
those should be the case you will not expect a long letter when 
I inform you that I have been picklin preserving damsens and 
makeing jellies. I believe you will think it a pritty good days 
work for me. I did not know of this oppertunity 'till just now 
or I sould have took a more leasure time, one peace of newes 
Mr. Reeve 27 and I are become great milk sops. Do write som 
newes we are starving for want of it I wish you woud com and 

"(1710-1792.) Dexter, Yale Biographies, I, 430. 
"American Archives, 4th Ser., Ill, 533, 530. 
"Tapping Reeve (1744-1823). 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 03 

make us a visit if it is but a day or two tho I believe I could 
perswad you to stay if I coud but see you. I am tyred so 
Good by 

Sally Reeve. 
Bobb sends his compliments. 

[Addressed] To Mr. Aaron Burr, Cambridge. 

Philip Schuyler to Richard Montgomery. 

Tyonderoga, November 30th, 1775 

Dear General, — You send me such agreeable accounts, 
and so very frequently, that I am under the necessity of 
scribbling an hour before day, to announce the glad tidings to 
my superiors. Prescott 28 arrived and was in my room half an 
hour before I received your letter. I believe he could easily 
perceive that I knew his character, and 1 had an opportunity 
this morning to write him a line, in which I declared that I 
thought it a duty incumbent on every honest man to do to 
others as he would wish to be done by, that upon this principle 
we had always paid attention to those whom the fortune of 
war had put into our power. 

The settlement of the Army Accounts will be a laborious 
work, and it cannot be compleated, unless I have the pay rolls 
of every Company. I wish you therefore to order the Captain 
and Commanding Officers of Companies to make them out and 
send them to me as soon and as nearly agreeable to the inclosed 
form, as they can, the Officers and Men's pay to be calculated 
from the day of their inlistment to the day on which they died, 
were discharged, taken prisoners, deserted or reinlisted, without 
any regard to any former pay rolls which they may have sent 
in, or which may have been paid olf ; on the back of this roll an 
indorsement of what money has been received, by whom, from 
whom, when and where. And as many of the men, that may 
remain with you in Canada may have families in the country 
and may wish to have the money paid here, you will please to 
order the Captains or Officers Commanding Companies, to 
make a return of such men, for which I also inclose them a 
form. You will have so much business on hand that you will 

"Richard Prescott (1725-1788), who wa.-i captured a second time in Rhode Inland in 

G4 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

not be able to attend to this. I wish you therefore to appoint 
some person that is a good accountant to see this necessary 
work done, and to make him an allowance adequate to his 
services, for many of the Officers are incapable of doing this 

Be so good as to let me have a return of your new establish- 
ment, that we may be able properly to arrange the Officers to 
the Corps that may be raised here, to march into Canada as 
soon as the Lakes are passible, which I believe will consist of 
one thousand men, as the Gentlemen of the Committee 29 have 
agreed to report that number to Congress as necessary to be 
immediately raised. 

When I mentioned to you to provide Clothing for the 
Troops, I concluded from the letter of Congress of the 12th of 
October, (Copy of which I did myself the honor to transmit 
you) that the clothing was not to be deducted from their pay, 
altho' I did not mention this. The Resolutions which I sent 
you on the 19th Inst, order a stoppage to be made. As I do 
not know what promises you may have made, I suggested to 
to the Gentlemen of the Committee, that it was necessary to 
say something to you on the subject. And they arc un- 
animously of opinion that if the stoppages can be made, with- 
out running too great a risk of prejudicing the service, that it 
ought to be done, especially as a bounty of two months' pay 
is given, which altho' not mentioned in the Resolutions, for 
that purpose, was intended to enable the soldiers in Canada, 
to pay for the clothes and thereby to reimburse them for the 
stoppages to be made, and that upon the whole it is most 
adviseable to leave this matter to your discretion, not doubting 
but that Congress would acquiesce in j^our determination. 

I now transmit you some additional Instruction of Con- 
gress, part of which you have already actually anticipated, and 
others I dare say you have already determined on. 

1 make no doubt but that Capt: Lamb 30 will be properly 
provided for. I will do everything in my power for so good an 
Officer and have begged the Gentlemen of the Committee to 
second your recommendation. 

29 John Langdon, Robert Treat Paine ami Eliphalet Dyer. Their instructions are in 
Journals of the Continental Congress (Font), III, 330, and their report in lb., 410. 
soJohnLamb (1735-1800). 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 05 

I have made Honorable Mention of Colo: Easton to General 
Montgomery and transmitted an extract of your letter to 

Inclose you some blank Commissions, as MY. Lockwood 31 is 
now Brigade Major, the Commission intended for Dimon 32 is 
to go to him. 

You will please to order all the Salt Petre in Canada to be 
purchased; I wish a prudent person to be employed in this 
business, that it may be as little known as possible, least it 
should induce the Canadians to think that we were in want of 

Please to let me know as soon as you conveniently can, what 
money you have advanced to the Connecticut or any other 
Troops and for what purpose. 

General Washington has desired me to send all the Cannon 
and Military Stores that can be spared, to Boston, be so good 
as to let me know what you have in Canada and what/ you 
think will be wanted there beyond what you have. 

I send the Sloop and Schooner back to St. Johns. One or 
the other of them I wish should bring the Horses that I sent 
Lieut: Thompson to buy. I am under the necessity of carry- 
ing Boats into Lake George, as I can get hardly any back from 
the South End of that Lake. 

Please to fill up Commissions for Macpherson and Renss 

The Gentlemen of the Committee will write you in few days. 
I am, Sir, with sentiments of Bespcct and Esteem, Your most 
Obedient and Very humble Servant, 

Pii: Schuyler. 
General Montgomery. 

[Memorandum] Tiond'a 30th Nov'r 1775. Gen'l Schuyler 
with N. 1. and 2. of 30th Nov'r 1775. 

Tappan Reeve to Aaron Burr. 


Stockbrige January 27th 177G. 
Dear Brother, — Amidst the lamentations of a Country 
for the loss of your brave enterprizing General your escape 

"Lieut. Samuel Lockwood, of Waterbury'a regiment. 

22 David Dimon, aide to General Wooster. 

"Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron Parr," vol. 1, p. 75. 

6G American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

from such imminent danger to which you have been exposed has 
afforded us the greatest satisfaction. The news of the un- 
fortunate attack upon Quebec arrived among us on the thir- 
teenth of this month. I concealed it from your Sister untill 
the 18th when she found it out but in less than half an hour I 
received letters from Albany acquainting me that you was in 
safety and had gained great honour by your intrepid conduct, 
it gave us a kind of happiness that I should be very loth ever 
again to enjoy for it never can be the case untill you have again 
been exposed to the like Danger and have again escaped it 
which I hope may never happen, to know that you was in 
safety gave great pleasure it was heightned by hearing that 
your conduct was brave — could you have been crowned with 
success it would have been compleat. It was happy for us 
that we did not know that you was an Aid de Camp untill we 
heard of your welfare for we heard that Montgomery and his 
Aid de Camps were killed without knowing who his Aid de 
Camps was. whenever you can pray send me the particulars 
of that transaction, your Sister enjoys a midling state of 
health she has many anxious hours upon your account; but 
she tells me that as she believes you may serve your Country 
in the business in which you are now employed she is con- 
tented that you should remain in it. It must be an exalted 
publick Spirit that could produce such an effect upon a sister 
as affectionate as your's. As to news you will be acquainted 
with all we have before this reaches you. the present rein- 
forcement for Canada as we understand it is one Regiment 
from Pensylvania two from New Jersey one from New York 
two from Connecticut one from the Massachusetts one from 
New Hampshire one from the Grants, our eastern privateers 
continue very successfull. the american squadron has sailed 
from Philadelphia their destination unknown. Your affec- 
tionate Brother, 

T. Reeve. 

I expect another opportunity by Capt. Seymour. Do not 
fail to write. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. G7 

Charles Lee to David Wooster. 

N. York, February the 28th, 177G. 

Sir, — I am to inform you that I am appointed by the Con- 
tinental Congress to the Command of the Troops in Canada. 34 
I hope and dare say we shall agree well together. 1 must 
request you immediately to contract and grind into flour 
twenty thousand bushels of Wheat. I must also desire that 
you will suffer the Merchants of Montreal to send none of 
their woolen Cloths out of the Town, the post is just going 
out. I must therefore conclude, Sir, Yours, 

Charles Lee, 

Major General. 

I have orderd twelve twelve pounders from Crown Point to 
Sorrel. I leave it to your discretion whether it would not be 
prudent before it is too late in the season to send em to the falls 
of Richlieu where it appears to me, you ought to establish a 

[Addressed] To Brigadier General Worcester, Montreal. - 
On Public Service. 

Address op Benedict Arnold. 

Aux Habitans du District de Quebec. 

Vu la rarete actuelle des especes d'or et d'argent, et les 
Depenses excessives que nous sommes journellement obliges 
de faire pour Tentretien de notre Armee devant Quebec, 
Nous avons juge a propos de donner cours dans le public a 
une Quantity n£cessaire de Targent de Carton etabli par 
Ordre de Thonorable Congres, sur le Credit universel des 
Colonies unies du Continent: Assurant par la presente Publi- 
cation tous ceux a qui il appartiendra, que le dit Papier ou 
carton, ainsi issu par Ordonance du Congres, aura libre Cours 
dans toute l'etendue de nos Colonies, et y sera recu en pave- 
ment selon sa Valeur nominale, ainsi qu'elle se trouve marqu6e 
sur le dit Papier ou Carton. Declarons en outre par ces 
Presentes, que quiconque donnera Cours au dit Argent du 
Congres, en recevra dans l'espace de 3 ou 4 Mois de la datte 
de la Presente, le Montant en Or et en Argent. Come au 

"March 1 he was ordered to the Southern Department. 


68 American A ntiquarian Society. [Apr., 

contraire, toute Personne qui refusera de le recevoir au Coins 
et sans aucun Decompte, sera consider^ eomme un Ennemi 
des Colonies unies, et traitte* comme lei. 

Donne sous notre signature et le sceau de hob Amies au 
Quartier general ce 4e Mars 177G. 

Benedict Arnold. 

Brigadier General and Commander in Chief of the Army 
before Quebec. 

David Wooster to Hector McNeil. 35 

Camp before Quebec, April 23d 177G. 

Dear Sir, — Your favour of yesterday I have received and 
say in answer, I still hope notwithstanding the infinite number 
of difficulties of every kind that we have to encounter from 
almost every quarter, that we shall be able finally to prevail. 
You observe very justly that every piece of duty is undertaken 
and executed with a strange indifference, that, too truly has 
been the case, ever since I have been here, indeed it has been 
an arduous task even to keep the troops upon the ground and 
I have hardly been able to have a single Order properly exe- 
cuted, almost every day discovers new traitors even in our 
bosoms w\ho endeavour to frustrate all our designs. I have 
great reason to mistrust Cap'n Pepper. I shall therefore send 
him away prisoner with his vessel up the River, he has 
repeatedly broke his word and disappointed me in business 
which he has undertaken to perform and from many circum- 
stances I have reason to believe he wished to have omitted. 

Notwithstanding all these discouraging circumstances which 
are enough to make the heart of a man of sentiment and 
sensibility bleed for his country, yet let us make the best of 
our situation. I am confident that a few days will put a very 
different face upon our affairs. We certainly shall have in a 
very few days a large reinforcement of men artillery stores 
and I hope ever}' thing necessary for our future oppositions. 

I have ordered Cap'ri Palmer to send off all the vessels from 
Point au Tremble up the River except the Maria which 1 shall 
immediately man and arm in such a manner as I hope she will 
be able to defend herself and perhaps do us some service below. 

"A captain in the Continental Navy. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. G9 

I shall be much obliged to you if you advise and direct such 
parties as may be sent to Point au Tremble in such a manner 
as you think conducive to the public safety, and all Officers of 
parties will obey your directions. I am Sir in haste with the 
greatest esteem and regard your sincere friend and very 
humble Servant, 

David Wooster. 
My compliments to Mrs. McNeil and family. 

P.S. Sir I understand by Cap'n Palmer and by Cap'n 
Church that the vessels have been neglected from a dispute 
among some of the Officers about who commands. I have now 
told them to take their orders from you. I beg, Sir, if your 
health will permit, that you would send for the Officers and 
direct each to his proper business that the vessels may imme- 
diately be got ready and sent off and they are hereby ordered 
strictly to obey your instructions as they will answer the 
contrary as disobedience of my Orders. 

D. Wooster, B. Gen'l. 

[Addressed] To Cap'n Hector McNeil, Point au Tremble. 
Per Cap'n Palmer. On the Service of the Colonies. 

Samuel Chase and Charles Carroll of Carrollton 36 to 
David Wooster. ■ 

Montreal, 25th May, 1776. 
Sir, — We think it would be proper for you to issue an order 
to the town Major to wait on the Merchants or others having 
provisions or merchandize for sale and request a delivery of 
what our troops are in immediate want of offering to give a 
receipt expressing the quantity delivered and engaging the 
faith of the united Colonies for payment, and on refusal we 
think our necessity requires that force should be used to com- 
pel a delivery. 

Your most obedient humble Servants, 

Samuel Chasu 
Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. 

"Members of a committee of the Continental Congress. 

70 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

William Paterson to Aaron Burr 37 

New Brunswick, July 22d, 177G. 

My Dear Burr,- — I did myself the pleasure of writing you 
by my brother, who is in General Sullivan's Brigade, and who 
was in expectation of seeing you, as he was destined for the 
Canada Department. Indeed from the Friendship which 
subsisted between us I was in expectation of hearing frequently 
from you; and, to tell the truth, was not a little mortified, that 
I was passed over in silence. Why Burr all this negligence? 
I dare not call it forgetfulness; for I cannot bear the thought 
of giving up my place in your esteem. I rejoiced at your 
return, and congratulate you on your promotion. I was 
attending the Convention at Burlington when you passed on 
to Philadelphia, and was full of the pleasing hope of having an 
interview with you;- — the Delaware indeed ran between us; 
a mighty obstacle to be sure! I enquired when you designed to 
return, that I might plant myself at Bristol, and intercept you 
on your way. The enquiry was of no avail. I have at times 
been violently tempted to write you a railing letter; and for 
that purpose have more than once taken up the pen : but I can 
hardly tell how, on such occasions the Genius of Friendship 
would rise up to view, and soften me down into all the tender- 
ness of affectionate sorrow; perhaps because I counted you as 
lost. I find I must e'en forgive you; but remember, you must 
behave better in future. Do write me now and then; your 
letters will give me unfeigned pleasure; and, for your en- 
couragement, I promise to be a faithful correspondent. In 
the letter-way you used to be extremely careless; you know I 
am in that respect of a different turn. 

This will be handed you by Mr. Hugg and Mr. Learning, 
Members of our Convention, whom curiosity partly, and 
partly business have impelled to New York. As men they are 
genteel, sensible, and deserving; as politicians they are worthy 
of your regard, for they possess the genuine Spirit of Whiggism. 
They have no acquaintance in York; they are desirous of 
seeing the Fortifications, and other things in the military line : 
pray take them by the hand; and be assured, that any kindness 

"Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p. 83. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 71 

shewn them will be acknowledged as an additional obligation 
conferred upon your affectionate 

Wm. Patehson. 
Major Burr. 

[Addressed] Major Aaron Burr, Aid-de-camp to General 
Putnam, New York. Favored by Messrs. Hugg and Learning. 

[Judge Paterson, Supreme Court U. States.] 

Israel Putnam to Margaret Moncrieffe 

New york the 28 of July 1776. 

Dear mam, — I must beag your pardon for not answoring 
your leators sooner but the reason was becaus I did not know 
how to giue you an answor, and not becaus Majr. Moncref did 
not giue me my titel for I dont regard that in the least but am 
willing to do him or any of his any kind offes lays in my power 
not with standing our political disputs for I know let his 
sentements be what they will he must fight and am well 
assured we shal fight sooner then giue up our Libertys acording 
to your desier I haue ben trieng to git leaue for you to go to 
Stratons Island for that eand haue waited one his Exelancy 
for liberty for you to go his answor was that when the larst 
flag was up hear that Collo paten said he had it in his power to 
off or to excheng marstor Loucl for Gouenor Skeen the Ginrol 
had no power to excheng any prisnors without the leaue of 
Congres but would send to Congres for leaue and did not 
doubt but that thay would consent and he told me I might tel 
you that if thay did mak the excheng you might go with 
Gouenor Sken but would not seand a flag one porpose. 

yestorday Majir Leauenston was hear and said you had a 
mind to com to New york but all th[e] lades of his acquantonc 
was gon out of town and asked my consent for your comming 
hear as Mir'st Putnam and two Daughtors are hear be as- 
sured if you wil com you shall be hartely welcom and I think 
much more likely to acomplesh the eand you wish for that is 
to see your father. 

I am with the gratest respects yours etc. . 

Israel Putnam 38 

"This is a holograph letter, but the letter that was sent, probably rewritten by Burr, ia 
entirely different aa may be seen by eonaulting the Memoirs of Burr, I, 88. 

72 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Theodore Sedgwick to Aaron Burr. 39 

Sheffield 7 August 177G 

My Dear Burr, — If you remember some eighteen months 
since you and I mutually engaged to correspond by letter. I 
told you then, and again repeat it that you was not to expect 
any thing either entertaining, or in any degree worth the 
trouble of perusing, what can any reasonable being expect 
from an inhabitant of such an obscure, remote, dead and dirty 
place as Sheffield to amuse, instruct or even to merit the 
attention of a young, gay, enterprising martial genius? I 
know you will expect nothing and I dare pawn my honor there- 
fore that you will not either now or in future in this respect be 

You recollect perhaps that when I had the pleasure to see 
you here I informed you of a design to visit New York and the 
southward soon after, but my business immediately called me 
to Boston and on my return I was obliged to go with the 
Malitia to Peekskill, from there should have visited New York 
and my friends there had not some foolish accidents prevented. 
I now think (as soon as I can leave home) of making a tour 
there, but this like other futurities is wholly uncertain. 

The very insignificant figure I make in my own opinion in 
this day of political and martial exertions is a very humbling 
consideration, to be stoically indiferent to the great events 
that are now unfolding is altogether inconsistent not only with 
my inclination, but even with my natural constitution, and to 
pursue a line of conduct which indicates such a disposition, I 
mean my continuance at home at this time, (destitute of 
business) is a mistery for which, (remember I mean not to libel 
the Colony to which I belong) 1 will endeavor to account, 
amidst the confusion which was at once the cause and conse- 
quence of a dissolution of Government, men's minds as well 
as actions became regardless of all legal restraint, all power 
reverted into the hands of the people, who were determined 
that every one should be convinced that the Pcoptc were the 
fountain of all honor, the first thing they did was to withdraw 
all confidence from every one who had ever any connection 
with Government, the necessity of which was even called in 

"Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron Burr, " vol. 1, p. 92. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 73 

question. Lawyers were universally almost represented as the 
pest of society, all persons who would pay court to these 
extravagant and unreasonable prejudices became their idols. 
Abilities were represented as dangerous and Learning as a 
Crime or rather the certain forerunner of all political extrava- 
gances, they really demonstrated that they were possessed 
of creating power, for by the Word of their Power they created 
great men oat of nothing, but I cannot say that all was very well. 
observing these violent symtoms,! could not persue that which 
was the only road to preferment, and I have never had an 
offer to go into the Army except the one I accepted, while I 
have seen in more than one instance men honored with the 
command of a Regiment for heading mobbs. well this poor 
stuff I believe has troubled you long. enough, pray say you 
what is it to me why you have not been in the Army? why 
nothing my dear Friend, but it is something to me. you know 
my Dear Burr I love you or I should not submit such nonsence 
to your perusal, if Mr. Swift still lives give him my best 
compliments. Pamela desires me to tell you she loves you. 
Answer this letter and thereby oblige your sincere Friend, 

Theodore Sedgwick. 
[Memorandum] Theod. Sedgwick Aug. 7th 1770. Rec'd 
Aug. 11th N. York. 

Joseph Spencer to David Wooster 

North Castle, 40 3d December, 1776 

Dear General, — I have sent a light horseman to know 
whether you have any further intelegence from the Enemy 
since yesterday. Trust that you reconnoiter the Estern or. 
Seaside Road. I keep constant scouts out in the seuerval 
roads from the North River to the post road from White plain 
towards the Enemy, we have deserters from Rogers of late 
daly one or more, by their accounts he continues yet where he 
has been for some time which is about a mile and half from 
Kings bridge on the post road, the late accounts of the deser- 
ters is that he is about mouing but uncertain where. 

I designd to have made you a visit before now so that we 
might have had oppertunity to have confer'd on the subject of 

"Westchester county. 

74 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

scouts and other proper measures of defence but as I am at 
present full of business and expect soon to moue, fear I shall 
not.haue the pleasure of waiting on you soon. I am Sir your 
humble Servant, 

Jos. Spencer. 
M: Gen'l Worster. 

Benjamin Lincoln to David Wooster and Samuel 
Holden Parsons. 

North Castle, January 12, 1777. 

Dear General, — The Massachusetts troops are fast col- 
lecting here. Matters are ripening. I expect we may soon 
proceed to Kingsbridge. It is of the greatest importance that 
the particular state of each division be known to the other. 
We therefore have forwarded this by express and beg to know 
what number you have and may in a day or two expect; What 
quantity of ammunition — What stores of provision and what 
are now your ideas of our intended expedition. 

I have the pleasure to be here with General Scot who joins 
with me in wishing you the greatest happiness. Adieu Dear 

B. Lincoln. 
General Wooster and General Parsons. 

William Heath to David Wooster. 

Kingstreet, February 5th, 1777. 
Dear Sir, — A grand Scout, a grand Forage is to be at- 
tempted to morrow morning. In order to effect the former, 
which is to be kept a secret, under the pretence of a piquet for 
the night, Col. Enos, Lt. Col. Root, 2 Captains 4 Subalterns, 
8 Serjeants and 100 men from your Division, with one days 
provisions cooked, are to parade at such convenient place as 
you may think proper, so as to march and be at Stephen Wards 
precisely at one o'clock to morrow morning. They will be 
there joined by Major Bryant, and 280 men from General 
Lincoln's Division, and 120 under Major Pain from the New 
York Division. W r hen Col. Enos will take the Command of 
the whole. 


1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 75 

To effect the latter which is to take off if possible all the 
Forage in New Rochell, 300 men properly officer'd from your 
Division must by 8 o'clock tomorrow morning inarch and form 
a line between East Chester and Williams's in such manner as 
to secure the Foragers whilst taking off the Forage in New 
Rochell. They must continue formed until the teams are 
loaden and drove off. The Regiments nearest New Rochell 
who do not go on duty had best be kept near their Quarters, 
and ready to turn out if occasion should require it. 

I am Dear Sir Yours respectfully, 

W. Heath. 

Each man of both parties is to draw one jill of rum. 


North Street near White Plains, 

February 10th, 1777. 
Sir, — A court of enquiry was appointed by his honor Major 
General Heath, to enquire into the conduct of Colo. Cook, on 
the 20 January last. 

The Court met, and saw cause of adjournment; but by rea- 
son of the members being called into different departments, a 
sufficient number could not be obtained, to form a proper 

You will therefore please to conduct in such a manner, as 
you shall think most adviseable. I am Sir, Your most obe- 
dient humble Servant, 

Jotham Moulton, President of said Court. 
[Addressed] Hon'ble Major General Wooster, Rye-Neck. 
[Memorandum] Col. Enos, President. 
Lt. Col. Henaker 
Lt. Col. Gallup 
Lt. Col Root 
Major Russell 

William Duer 41 to David Wooster. 

Cromwells, 7th March, 1777. 
Sir, — We have received certain intelligence from good 
authority that 16 Light Horse and about 100 Footmen have 


"(1747-1799), a member of the Continental Cunyrerfa. 

76 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

been up yesterday about a mile above Phillipse's: as there is a 
considerable quantity of stock betwixt our Advanced Post at 
Wards, and Phillipsc's which will probably fall into the 
Enemy's power unless removed in time, we beg the favor of 
you to detach 200 of the Connecticut Troops to Ward's House 
by 10 o'clock to morrow morning, to co-operate with us in 
moveing the stock. As the distance from Rye Neck to Wards 
is 10 miles it will be necessary that the Troops sett off on their 
march very early in the morning. I send a proper person to 
pilot the Detachment. 

I am sir by Order and with respect Your obedient humble 

Wm. Dues. 

[Addressed] To the Hon'ble Major Gen'l Wooster, Rye- 

James Mitchell Vaiinum to Aaron Burr 42 

Cakiat October 1st 1777. 

Sir, — I this moment received your favor of this date. The 
Enemy have landed at Powler's Hook in great force. I am 
apprehensive they mean attacking fort Montgomery by the 
way of the Clove. I have sent my baggage and some forces 
there. The Enemy must be attended to. You will therefore 
halt in the nearest place that is convenient, upon the receipt 
of this. Keep a good lookout towards Newark, Elizabeth 
Town etc. or those places from whence they can march into 
Plimpton. Should you be in danger of being intercepted 
there, throw your party across the River in Plimpton, and 
defend the Bridge if practicable; If not, make the best retreat 
you can towards Morristown etc. But by no means proceed 
unless necessity urges, derived from the present object. In 
every thing else pursue your best discretion. 

I am, Sir, your very humble Servant, 

J. 'M.-VaUNUM. 

Colo. Burr. 

[Addressed] Lieut. Colonel Burr, on his March to Morris- 

[Memorandum] General Varnum 1 October 1777. 

42 Prinled in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p. 118. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 77 

Thomas Conway to Aaron Burr' 13 

25th October 3 o'clock in the evening. 

Sir, — I have received a letter from Capt. Kearsley respect- 
ing the settlement of the ranks of the Captains and subalterns. 
I could not give him an immediate answer because I was then 
attending a court martial. I wish this matter was settled as 
soon as possible to the satisfaction of the officers of your 
Regiment. The General officers being employed in several 
courts martial which along with the camp duty will take up all 
their time I think you had best apply to the adjutant General 
know from him the manner in which the ranks of the Virginia 
and Pennsylvania officers have been settled and arrange ac- 
cordingly at least pro tempore the ranks of your gentlemen. 

I am sir your most obedient humble Servant, 

T. Conway. 

[Addresses] To Lt. Col. Birr. 

[Memorandum] 25th Oct. 1777. Gen'l Conway. 

W. Malcom to Aaron Burr 41 

York Town, June 16th, 1778. 

My Dear Sir,— I have just now met with Capt. Kiersley, 
which enables me to let you know that I here. Sent by 
General Gates to Congress on a variety of bussencss. 

I have consented to do duty as Ad'j General to the Northern 
Army, on conditions of holding my Regiment and that it 
should come to the Northward — the first agreed to, the last 
according to events. 

Nine of the sixteen Ad'l Regiments stand on the new estab- 
lishment—of the strongest, if our come within that descrip- 
tion it will be one. As General Washington writes General 
Gates that he cannot conveniently spare you at this time, I 
recommend your sending three or four officers to the State of 
York on the recruiting service. You know who will answer 
best and who can be best spared. And to recruit for the 
Regiment at large. I think I can provide you with some men. 

"Printed in Davis'a "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p. 119. 
"Printed in Davia : « "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p. 125. 

78 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

As I have not time either to pass thro' came or to write any- 
other of the officers, do tell them how I am oircumstanc'd, and 
offer them by best respects. I am happy to hear that Major 
Pawling is better. 

I shall write from Pecks Kill very soon, and beg to hear from 
you. I ever am very sincerely, My Dear Sir, yours affection- 

W. Malcom. 

[Addressed] Colonel Burr, Camp. Per favor of Capt. 

Lord Stirling to Aaron Burr. 45 

Brunswick July 6th 1778. 

Dear Sir, — I have your letter of yesterdays date; The Court 
Martial of which I am president is adjourned to Morris Town 
which will oblige me to go there tomorrow; I must therefore 
desire you will direct your letters with such intelligence as you 
may procure, to his Excellency General Washington who will 
be on the line of march with the Army. I am in haste your 
most obedient humble Servant, 

Lt. Col: Burr. 

General Washington desires me to add that he wishes you 
would employ three, four or more persons to go to Bergen 
heights Wesashack, Hoobouck or any of the heights there 
about convenient to observe the motions of the Enemy's 
shipping and to give him the earliest intelligence thereof, 
wether up the River particularly; in short every thing possible 
that can be obtained. Yours etc. 


[Addressed] To Lieut. Colonel Burr, Elizabeth Town. 

Baron De Kalb to W. Malcom. 46 

Camp near Croten Bridge 
July 19th 1778. 
Col. Malcom's Regt. is orderd to march at two o'clock to 
morrow morning to the fort at west Point on Hudsons River 

"Printed in Davis'3 "Memoirs of Aaron litirr," vol. 1, p. 120. 
"Printed in Davia'a "Memoira of Aaron liurr," vol. 1, p. 131. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr, 79 

with the Regt. commanded by Lt. Col. Parker which it is to 
joyn on the Road near [torn] Bridge the Commander of these 
[torn] will make all convenent dispatch [torn] Ten miles a 
day as water and g[round] admit. 

The Baron de K[alb]. 

[Addressed] To Commander Malcolm, [torn] Reg't, 9 o'clock 


State of New York. 

A Flagg is hereby given to Lieut. Colo. Burr, or such other 
person as he shall appoint, to proceed to the City of New York 
or such other place within the Enemy's Lines as he may think 
proper, with the Sloop Liberty having on board the following 
persons Inhabitants of this State who affect Allegiance to the 
King of Great Britain, viz't William Smith, Cadwallader 
Colden Esqr. and Mrs. Rostiff I. Etting, four Negroe Slaves 
(two women and a child included), the Family of Wm. Smith 
Esqr. and a Son of Cad'r Colden Esq. who are to be landed 
and left within the Enemy's lines. The 

an s o naviga e gi QO p ^^ |j le h anc ] s an( i attendants men- 
the bloop viz. P. . r . 

Webbers M an Abra- honed in the Margin to navigate her will 
ham and Rupp, return with all convenient expedition. 
Hands Major Ed- Given at North Castle in Westchester 
wards two Servants County this 2d Day of August 1778. 
three D'm and Fifes Geq Cli GoVr of the 

Attendants. ^ „ ^ T ^ T . 

State of N. York. 

Captain Redman has permission to attend the Flagg on 
private business. 

Mrs. Prevost and Miss De Visme with one Man Servant in 
consequence of Lord Stirling's Leave to pass to N. York and 
return are admitted on board this Flagg. 

A. Burr. 

John McDonald Man Servant of Wm. Smith is permitted to 
attend him and return with the Flagg. 

[Endorsed] Flagg of Truce 2d August 1778. 

80 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

William Livingston to Jofin Livingston 7 . 47 

Princeton, 29th September, 1778. 

Dear Sir, — I am favoured with your kind letter of the 12th 

Whether Mr. Erkelens has studied the German Divines I 
know not. But he is certainly a very voluminous writer. In 
consideration however of the fairness of his character and his 
being a stranger; as well as from the respect which T shall 
always pay to your recommendations, I should not hesitate a 
moment to serve him in any way consistent with the attention 
due to my own character. As his affair is circumstanced, 1 do 
not know that I can be of any service to him. It will come to 
Congress by way of Appeal. His Counsel at Law will repre- 
sent it in the most advantageous manner. The Congress must 
determine it according to its merits, and not the character of 
the [litijgants. For in this instance also, " circumcision ava- 
[ileth] nothing, nor uncircumcision. " And how far it would be 
proper for a third person to write on the subject to that Body, 
or to any of the Members (who collectively constitute the 
Court) is a point of great delicacy. But if 1 can be of any use 
to him in a way less exceptionable I shall befriend him with the 
greatest alacrity. 

I am rejoiced to hear of Cozin Sally's recovery. She always 
was a favourite of mine, notwithstanding her manifold unmerci- 
ful pinches, to which both my arms can bear testimony; and 
two witnesses, you know, are sufficient in all Courts of Law 
and Equity. 

Your letter really reminds me of old times; and I have a 
thousand things to tell you; but a thousand things, I have not 
leisure to write, leaving the scarcity of paper out of the ques- 
tion. Whenever it shall please God, that the British plunder- 
ers, like Judas Iscariot, shall go to their own place, 1 hope to 
see you in your ruinated Metropolis. But the rascals have so 
recently [set] themselves down in Bergen County (I hope they 

47 Gosuivus Erkelens came from Holland .to America and offered to place a loan with 
Congress. That body declined, but mentioned him to Franklin, nothing came of his 
offer, but in 1787 lie was residing at Chatham, Conn., possessed of a cobalt mine, in winch 
he sought to interest Pennsylvania. Journals of the Continental Congress (Ford). XII, 
110b, 1240. Calendar of the Franklin Papers, III, :5J0. There are many of his letters 
from 1779 to 1783 in the Trumbull Papers. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 81 

will teach mynheer Cuyper better divinity than he preached 
last year) and to all appearances, with such an ammo possi- 
dendi, as if they still preferred this Country to their own. We 
have at least 3000 of our Militia in arms; but that is not suffi- 
cient, without continental succour, to dislodge them. 

I have not been with my own family above two weeks in two 
years. The business I have gone through, the hardships I 
have borne, the lodging and diet I have been obliged to submit 
to, and the numerous strategems laid for my life, which I have 
escaped, are scarcely credible. Through all these scenes, I 
have not [had a] days indisposition, weariness, or discourage- 
ment [so] remarkably has Providence supported me (for which 
[I] can never be sufficiently thankful) and I trust in some mea- 
sure, made me useful to my Country; tho' (or rather for which 
very reason) the Tories are ready to devour me and all. I 
am, Dear Sir, yours sincerely, 

Will Livingston. 
The Rev'd Dr. John Livingston. 

P. S. The inclosed covers some accounts and a letter from 
Philip P. Livingston with and to Philip I. Livingston, respect- 
ing their joint Estate in Jamaica, which were taken in a prize 
vessel, and delivered into our Court of Admiralty; and which 
you will please to forward to the owner as great a Tory as he is. 

J. Wadsworth to Aaron Burr. 

Philadelphia, October 26. 1778. 

Dear Burr,— Your favour of the 22d was just now handed 
me by Maj. Edwards. I wish you better health and need eno. 
to wish my selfe better. I am but so-so. shall set out for 
Elisabeth Town as soon as Congress will let me. I am more 
much more than tired of this place. I like your prescription 
will attend too it as soon as possible, my respectfull Compli- 
ments to Mrs. Peteeck and family and all other friends at E. T. 
I can fix no time to come their but it must it shall be soon adieu. 
God Bless You etc., 

J. Wadsworth. 

I am not in a hurry but Your Boy is. 

[Addressed] Col. Aa. Burr, Elisabeth Town. 

82 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

James Monroe to Mrs. Theodosia Prevost. 48 

Piiiladelihia November 8th 1778. 
A young lady who either is or pretends to' be in love, is, you 
know, my dear Mrs. Provost, the most unreasonable creature 
in existence. If she looks a smile or a frown which does not 
immediately give or deprive you of happiness (at least to ap- 
pearance) your company soon becomes very insipid. Each 
feature has its beauty and each attitude the graces or you have 
no judgment. But if you are so stupidly insensible of her 
charms as to deprive your tongue and eyes of every expression 
of admiration and not only to be silent respecting her but 
devote them to an absent object, she cannot receive an higher 
insult nor would she if not restrain' d by politeness refrain from 
open resentment. The mildest of the sex feel an involuntary 
resentment and cannot excuse such want of politeness. Upon 
this principle I think I stand excused for not writing you from 
B. Ridge. I propos'd it however and after meeting with 
opposition in which to obtain her point she promised to visit 
the little Hermitage and make my excuse herself, I took occa- 
sion to turn the conversation to a different object and plead for 
permission to go to France. I gave up in one instance and she 
certainly ought in the other. But writing a letter and going 
to France are very different you will perhaps say. She 
objected to it and all the arguments which a fond delicate 
unmarried lady could use she did not fail to produce against it. 
I plead the advantage I should derive from it; the personal 
improvement; the connections I should make. I told her she 
was not the only one on whom fortune did not smile in every 
instance. I produced examples from her own acquaintance 
and represented their situation in terms which sensibly 
affected both herself and Lady C. I painted a lady full of 
affection of tenderness and sensibility, separated from her 
husband for a series of time by the cruelty of the war; her in- 
certainty respecting his health, the pain and anxiety which 
must naturally arise from it. I represented in the most 
pathetic terms the disquietudes which from the nature of her 
connection might possibly intrude on her domestic retreat 

"Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron liurr," vol. 1, p. 184. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 83 

I then rais'd to her view fortitude under distress; cheerfulness, 
life and gaiety in the midst of affliction. I hope you will for- 
give me my dear little friend if I produe'd you to give life to 
the image. The instance she own'd was applicable; she felt 
for you from her heart and she has a heart capable of feeling, 
she wished not a misfortune similar to yours but if I was 
resolved to make it so she would strive to imitate your example. 
I have now permission to go where I please, but you must not 
forget her. she and Lady C. promise to come to the Hermitage 
to spend a week or two; incourage her and represent the 
advantage I shall gain from travel. But why should I desire 
3'ou to do what I know your own heart will dictate; for a heart 
so capable of friendship feels its own pain alleviated by alle- 
viating that of another. But do not suppose that my atten- 
tion is only taken up with my own affairs. I am too much 
attached ever to forget the Hermitage. Mrs. Duvall I hope 
is recovering and Kitty's indisposition is that of my nearest 
relation. Mrs. De Visme tho plain and open has delicate 
nerves; tell me her children are well and I know she has a flow 
of spirits; for her health depends intirely on theirs. 

I was unfortunate in not being able to meet with the 
Governor. He was neither at Elizabeth Town, B. Ridge, 
Princeton nor Trenton. I have consulted with several Mem- 
bers of Congress on the occasion. They own the injustice but 
cannot interpose. "The laws of each State must govern 
itself." They cannot conceive the possibility of its taking 
place. General Lee says it must not take place and if he was 
an absolute Monarch he would issue an edict to prevent it. 

I am introdue'd to the gentPn I wish'd by Gen'l Lee in a 
very particular manner. I cannot determine with certainty 
what I shall do till my arrival in Virginia. 

Make my compliments to Mrs. and Miss de Visme and 
believe me with the sincerest friendship yours affectionately, 

Jas. Monroe. 

Udny Hay to Aaron Burr. 

Fish Kill 8th January 1779. 
Dear Sir, — I was favoured with your very oblidging letter 
of the 6th inst. and return to you my sincere thanks for your 

84 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

offers of friendship; Give me leave to assure you of a reciprocal 
inclination in that way, and must therefore insist as my first 
request, should an opportunity offer, you will Ireely indulge 
this inclination by putting it in my power to serve you; 
unacquainted with ceremony, and an utter abhorrer of every 
thing that wears the complexion of formality, I love to speak 
and be spoken to in the plain and undisguised stile of Friend- 
ship, totally free from unmeaning compliment or deceitfukl 

Your letter for Mr. Reeve shall be taken particular care of. 

As you have now got the Post of Honour, accept of my 
sincere wishes you may reap the laurels I believe you deserve. 

Should it be convenient indulge me now and then with a 
news paper from York: You see I can already ask favours, 
nor can I conclude without begging one more, which is that 
you will believe me to be with real esteem, Dear Sir, Your most 
.obedient and very humble Servant, 

Udny Hay. 

[Addressed] Colonel A. Burr, commanding near White 

Alexander McDougall to Aaron Burr 49 

Head Quarters Peekskill 
January 15 th 1779. 

My dear Sir, — Your favors of the 11th and 12th instant 
with sundry inclosures came duly to hand. 

I am much mortified, that Captain Brown should have 
merited your putting him in arrest. But you have done your 
duty, for which accept my thanks. 

If an officer commanding an outpost will not be very vigi- 
lant, he exposes his party to be butchered, as the unfortunate 
Colonel Baler lately experienced. 

I am verry sorry, the Militia have conducted so disorderly; 
but I wish you to deal tenderly with them, as they are brave 
and are very sore, by the plundering of the Tories. But 
support the honor of our arms and you own, by giving redress 
to the innocent and helpless. 

"Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p. 144. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 85 

As the principal objects of your command are to protect the 
good people of these States, and prevent supplies going to the 
Enemy, you will not send out any parties, or make any excur- 
sions, but what are necessary for intelligence and the preserva- 
tion of your parties, till further orders. Your own ideas on 
this subject fully meet my approbation. 

In the mean time, let all the officers and men of your 
command, who are unacquainted with the ground, traverse it 
alternately, from flank to flank and as many miles in front as 
you may judge necessary. 

The position of the whole, I leave to your own discretion, as 
circumstances shall arise. 

A good Captain and twenty picked men of Nixon's, with two 
drums accompany this, to reinforce your left; and the orders 
are dispatched to Major Pawling for the Officers you wrote for. 

One hundred pair of shoes will be sent to you by this snow. 

Send up all Burgoyne's men, with a good corporal and small 
party of the nine months men, with the first deserters or 

The Serjeant's parties of the Militia, who are to join you, 
will by their engagements be under the Continental Articles of 
war. If any of the Militia who may go out on scouts, or 
parties with your's, will not submit to the Articles of war and 
your orders, dont suffer them to go with them; nor to appro- 
priate any plunder; but order it to be given to the Continental 
Troops, and those who shall submit to those Articles. 

If any of the Militia marauder, send them up to me, with a 
guard. They must not be suffered to violate civil and military 
law. The Legislature is the proper authority, to enable them 
to make reprisals. For whatever disorders they commit in 
front of yqur lines, will be placed by the Enemy to your 

In all doubtfull questions, which may arise on my orders as 
to the limit or legality of plunder, in your front, I authorise 
you, to be the sole judge. In the exercise of this trust, it is my 
wish, you should lean to the honor of our arms. 

A surgeon is directed to attend your party; when he arrives, 
please to advise me of it, that I may be relieved from all 
anxiety about you, and your Corps. 

86 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

If you are not supplied with rum, before a quant it)- of it 
arrives here, we shall not forget you. 

If your Horsemen are mounted and appointed as well as 
your Horse Guides, they will receive the same pay. 

If the oxen at Mr. Hunter's are not in working order, put 
them in the care of your Forage Master, till they are. 

If you can get the articles taken from the inhabitants, in the 
late expedition restored; let the Militia off for that offence; 
when you get things in train, I natter myself you will not have 
any future trouble with them. But the Officers of the Regular 
Troops, must be rigorously dealt with according to our martial 

As you and the Commissary will be in the rear of the whole, 
the nine months men, worse shod than the other troops may 
serve till I have more leisure to compleat your Corps. 

Dont omit sending to me all the news papers you can pro- 

I am so borne down with correspondence, I can only add* 
that I am Your affectionate humble Servant, 

Alex'r McDougall. 

Lieut. Colonel Burr. 

P. S. I fear the Piquets from your Parties are too far 
advanced from them. The distance ought not to exceed half 
a mile, at night. And the quarters of the Piquets should be 
changed every night, after dark — frequent patroles from each 
give the best security. 

I submit it to your consideration whether it would not be of 
service, to have a quantity of old rags collected, at each party 
and piquet, for the Patroles to muffle their feet with in frosty 
weather, when there is no snow on the ground. It will 
prevent their being beared by the Enemy, and your's will 
hear those of the Enemy if there are any near them. 

[Memorandum] Gen'l McDougall loth Jan. 1779. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 87 

Richard Plait to Aaron Burr. 50 

Head Quarters Peekskill 

February 25th 1779. 

Sir, — The General wishes you to detain the best officers and 
men for five compleat parties of GO. And as soon as Major 
Hull can be made acquainted with your Posts and the nature 
of the Command, he desires you will ride up to Head Quarters 
if there is no probability of a movement from below, and he 
will concert with you such measures as shall be thought ex- 

The Combustible Balls are not yet come to hand. 5 or 6 
Boxes of Ammunition will be sent down to Tarry Town by 
water the first opportunity. 

'Tis necessary that Doctor Eustis, if not at the Plains, 
should be sent for. I am, Sir, Your most Obedient Servant, 

Richard Plait, Adjt. 

P. S. Please to inform the General whether Col. Poor's 
men have accomplish'd the business they were sent upon, or 
Lieut. Colonel Burr. 

Mrs. J[anet] Montgomery 51 to Aaron Burr. 52 

Ryhnbeek, March 7. [1779] 

Sir, — I should before this have answer'd your obliging 
letter had not the marriage of my eldest sister intirely taken 
up my time. 

I now return you Sir, many thanks, for your kind offers of 
service, the sincerity with which they were made, would 
have alowed me to accept them without fears of giving you 
trouble, had I not determined to run no more risqucs, as I have 
been very unfortunate in my ventures that way. 

You have awakened all my sencibility, by the praises you 
bestow'd on my unfortunate General. He was indeed an 
angle lent us, for a moment. Alas! for me! that this world 
was not more worthy of him, then had I still been the happiest 
of women; and his friends in stations more equal to their merits. 
Reflections like these iinbitters continually each day as it 

60 Printed in Davis's "Memoira of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p. 155. 

"Mrs. Richard Montgomery. 

"Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Airon Burr," vol. 1, p. 1G9. 

88 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

passes, but I trust in the same Merciful! hand which has held 
me from sinking, in my extreem calamity, that he will still 
suport, and make me more worthy of a blessed meeting 

Can you excuse Sir the overflowings of a heart that knows 
not where to stop when on a subject so interesting'. 

Mr. Tatard tells me you mean to quit the Service. When 
ever that happens you will doubtless have leasure to pay us a 
visit, which I wish you to beleive will give real pleasure to 
Sir, your obliged, 

J. Montgomery. 

[Addressed] Colonel Burr. To the care of Col. Hays, 
Fishkills. Rec'd Fishkill 21st March 79, and forwarded by 
Sir, your humble servant. S. Loudon. To the care of 
Gen'l McDougall. 

[Memorandum] Mrs. Montgomery 7th March 1779. 

George Washington to Mrs. Theodosia Provost. 83 

Head Quarters, Middlebrook 
19th May 1779.. 
Madam, — It is much to be regreted, that the pleasure of 
obeying the first emotions in favor of misfortune, is not 
always in our power. I should be happy, could I consider 
myself at liberty to comply with your request, in the case of 
your brother, Mr. Peter De Visme. But, as I have heretofore 
taken no direction in the disposal of marine prisoners, I cannot 
with propriety, interfere on the present occasion; however 
great the satisfaction I should feel in obliging, where you are 
interested. Your good sense will perceive this, and find a 
sufficient excuse in the delicacy of my situation. 

I have the honor to be, Madam, Your most obedient and 
humble servant, 

Geo. Washington. 
Mrs. Provost. 

[Addressed] Mrs. Provost, Hermitage, Paramus. 
William Hull 54 to Aaron Burr. 

29 May 1779. 
Dear Sir, — Your favors of this day have just received, 
shall send Dyckman this afternoon. Am sorry you do not 

"Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p. 18G. 
"(1753-1825), later a brigadier general in the war of 1812. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 89 

make me a visit, as the distance is small. Shall not trouble 
you with any dispaches to the eastward at present. Have 
this day applied to the General for permission to make a tour 
to Connecticut, and should it be granted, shall hope to see you 
at Hartford. If not, must beg you to mention me to any 
acquaintance of both sexes as affectionately as it is possible 
for them to ask after me. The ground you so long defended 
is now left to the depredation of the Enimy, and our friends 
in distressing circumstances. However they have good spirits, 
and are determined to defend themselves. 

Since you left me, have had an excellent body of troops, 
armed and accoutred in the best manner. Am now at the 
Mouth of Croton with only two Companies. I am Dear Sir 
with much esteem your very humble Servant, 

Wm. Hull. 

[Addressed] Col. Burr, Peekskill. 

Arthur St. Clair to Aaron Burr 55 

Col. Burr being on urgent public business, must be put 
across the Ferry to Fish Kill 56 Landing without a moments 
delay. Given at Pompton 3rd June 1779. 

A'r St. Clair, Maj'r Gen'l. 

The Qr. Master and Commissary, at Newbury or N. 
Windsor will receive and observe as my orders, the verbal 
directions delivered by Col. Burr. Given at Pompton 3d 
June 1779. 

A'r St. Clair, Maj'r Genl. 

[Memorandum] Genl. St. Clair 3rd June 1779. 

"Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p. 172-173. 

"Noted on the back of these commissions, in the same hand writing is the following: 
The original Design of the Enemy was probably an Attack on the Forts in the Highlands. 
The Spirit of the Country (which is really to be admired) the Delay occasioned by 
contrary Winds, and rapid Approach of our Men rendered this design abortive. Part 
of the Enemies Force (it is said those who were on the Virginia Expedition) have re- 
turned to York — Bixteen Sail lay still in Haverstraw Bay and near it — no very large 
Ships among them — the Enemy lay on both sides Kings Fcrrj, — are erecting on each side 
a Work evidently with Design to maintain a secure Post at Kings Ferry — 300 Men may 
keep an Army at Bay for many Weeks several of (he new Corps with all the Horse lay 
at and near Dobbs Ferry — Gen. Washington is this Day at the Forts — near the Army in 
the Clove — upwards of 4000 Militia of this State are now in Service — The civil officers 
and Exempts of every kind are out with their Knapsacks and Musketts — this has a happy 
Effect on the People. 

[Memorandum] Genl. St. Clair 3rd June 1779. 

90 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Robert Troup to Aaron Burr. 57 

Princeton, April 27. 1780. 

My dear Burr, — I wrote to you yesterday and happened 
to put the letter into the Post Office a little after the post had 
gone. In that letter I requested you to come here as soon as 
possible for it was highly probable that I should leave Prince- 
ton entirely and determine to follow our original plan. The 
event has confirmed my conjecture. I came here from 
General Morris's yesterday and exerted all the influence I was 
master of to get new lodgings; but could not, without lodging 
in the town which would be disagreeable to me on many 
accounts. I have now given over all thoughts of staying here 
and having an excellent pretext for changing my ground I 
shall write to Mr. Stockton who is still in Philadelphia and 
acquaint him with my intentions of going away. Nothing is 
therefore wanting but yourself with a horse and chair to make 
me completely happy. I wish to God I could push off east- 
ward immediately but I cannot. I have no horse, neither is 
it practicable to borrow or hire one. I must then wait for you 
and I request you in the most pressing terms to lose not a 
moment's time in coming for me at General Morris's about 
six miles from this at Sourland near Colonel Vandyke's Mill 
on the road to Somerset where I shall wait impatiently for you. 
I am extremely uneasy lest this should reach you after you 
have left home and begun your journey northward. In that 
case I shall be very unfortunate and to prevent too great a 
delay I shall write to Mr. Reeves at Litchfield and enclose him 
a letter for you and desire him to forward it to you wherever 
you are with all expedition. I shall likewise enclose another 
letter for you and send it to Mrs. Prevost who will be kind 
enough to give it to you the moment you arrive there. 

If we once get together I hope w r e shall not be soon parted. 
It would afford me the greatest satisfaction to live with you 
during life. 

How shall I have m}' trunk transported to the eastward? 
On this and many other matters I shall want to consult you 
when we meet. God grant our meeting may be soon. Adieu ! 

"Printed in Davia'a "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p. 199. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 91 

You have my best and fervent wishes for the recovery of your 
health and every other happiness. My compliments to all 

Rob. Troup.' 
P.S. I can't think of studying [until] I am settled with you. 
Col. Burr. 

[Addressed] Col. Aaron Burr at Mr. Titus Osmer's, Middle- 
town, Connecticut. Per post. 

[Memorandum] R. Troup, 27th Apl. Rec'd F. Field 12th 
May. post. 

Silas Deane to Baron Rottenbourg. 

Paris November 15th 1780. 
Sir, — I received your letter of the 25th ulto. only two days 
since, and should have replied to your former in course had it 
been in my power to do it satisfactorily, which it was not, nor 
unhappily is at present. I know that the State of New York 
have passed an Act for the Sequestration of Estates of certain 
Absentees who have joined the Enemy, but how extensive 
the Act is, I do not know, when I left America (I had re- 
mained for six months in Virginia previous to my sailing) I 
had not heard of any estates having been put to sale. I have 
not nor can I procure a copy or abstract of their Act, nor have 
I ever seen it. I presume, however, that your readiest way to 
proceed, is to go direct to America, and apply to the Govern- 
ment of New York; or if you cannot do that to send over to 
the Governor a State of your Claim and inform of your 
intentions of settling and of becoming a subject of that State 
as soon as possible. 58 

The Manufacture of Salt Petre is certainly an object of very 
considerable importance, and I think must at all times answer 
well in America, every new branch of manufacture and com- 
merce introduced is of real service to a new country like 
America; and therefore I wish you to succeed in your attempts 
of that kind. I have the honor to be with respect, Sir your 
most obedient and very humble Servant, 

S. Deane. 
[Addressed] A Monsieur Le Baron Rottenbourg, ancien 
Colonel et actuellement directeur des Vitrieres Royales a 
Mont Aimart en Dauphine. 

"In 1780 the Baron wrote to Franklin about some lands in New York state owned by 
his brother-in-law Charles Williams, "lately deceased." 

92 American Antiquaria7i Society, [Apr., 

Certificate of Marriage. 59 

I do hereby certify that Aaron Burr of the State of N. York 
Esqr. and Theodosia Prevost of Bergen County, State of N. 
Jersey widow were by me joined in lawful wedlock on the 
second day of July instant. Given under my hand this sixth 
day of July 1782. 

B'n Van Der Leude. 
John Sloss Hobart to Aaron Burr. 

Dear Sir, — I had taken a present my sincerest congratula- 
tions on the event 60 which Fredrick this moment announced 
to me, which I do most heartily, when gov'r Clinton desired 
me to present you his compliments of felicitation on the 
occasion and to inform you that the pressing sollicitude of the 
Commander in Cheif to prevent all communication with New 
York renders it altogether improper for him to comply with 
your request at present, he would have written to you him- 
self but is very much hurried as the Legislature is on the point 
of adjourning. 

It is so dark I can scarcely see sufficient to assure you that I 
am with the warmest esteem, Your most obedient Servant, 

John Sloss Hobart. 
Coll. Burr. 

[Addressed] Coll. Aaron Burr. Mr. Provost. 

General Samuel H. Parsons to Captain Thomas Wooster. 

25th November, 1782. 

Sir, — I have left ninety pounds for you which comes to 
405£ if I have computed right @ 4/6. if you can send me 
200£ or 250£ more at the same rate I believe I can give you 
the money in about a month. I have left a receit with my 
wife which you will please to sign on receiving the money, and 
leave me a line whither I may depend on 200 or 300 £ more: 
and when that I may not disappoint you in the cash: I shall 
know this week when I can have the lands and will inform you 
to provide for that event in season. 

I am Sir Your obedient Servant, 

Sam'l H. Parsons. 

"Partem states that the marriage was performed by Rev. David Bogart — obviously an 
error in the light of the above certificate. 

80 This refers, no doubt, to Burr's marriage, July 2d, 1782. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 93 

P. S. The notes for this money must be had by the last of 
next week: if you eant procure them by that time: I must not 
take them as the money or notes must be returned to the 
owner by that time, you will know whither you can take the 
money on that condition. 

S. P. 

32 half Joannes £70.16 

44 Dollars 13: 4 

I have sent you £90.0.0 if you cant comply with the time as 
above expressed you will please to return it. Yours, 

S. H. Parsons. 

Samuel Alleyn Otis to Aaron Burr. 

Mr. Otis's Compliments to Coll Bur and Lady and thanks 
them for their polite reception of him at Albany. 

Should it comport with their convenience or pleasure 
nothing would make him more happy than an opportunity of 
returning their civilities at Boston, and hopes the apprehen- 
sions of the river becomcing unpassable from the approaching 
warmth of the day will be his apology for an early and un- 
cermonious departure. 
Saturday Morning, [March, 1783]. 
My Dear Sir 

I was closeing the within when your smileing lovely boy 
handed yours of this morning and am mortified at the trouble 
I have given him and yourself, be assured Sir a heart easily 
impressed with friendly offices, will not forget yours, and the 
fresh obligations you lay me under. I had such a character 
of Mrs. Burr as induced me to expect the graces of a most 
amiable person in your good Lady. I think better of the 
world for giveing the tribute of praise where am convinced 
from my own observation it belongs. 

Present me with every expression of respect and esteem to 

You know my original plan was to be early in the week at 
Pittsfield. Some appointments of business must be observed. 

Tuesday Evening [May , 1785.] 61 
Mrs. Wickham just called to tell me of an opportunity to 
Chester, how joyfully I embrace it. I had a most insupportable 
impatience to communicate to you my gratitude and thanks 
for your last visit, it was a cordial to my health and spirits, a 
balm to my soul, my mind is flushed with pleasing hopes — 
ten thousand tender thoughts rush to my pen, but the bearer 
may prove faithless. I will suppress them to a happier 
moment, and anticipate the dear indulgence. 

The holidays are a check to finishing, the family as you left 
it, Their health and spirits encrease daily. B. industry 
and utility is striking to the family and strangers. Johnston" 
returned yesterday, your letter was as eagerly r read as tho' 
I had not seen you. write when you have leisure, if it does not 
reach me immediately it will serve to divert some tedious 
moment in a future absence — even when you are at home 
engrossed by business, I frequently find a singular pleasure in 
perusing those testimonies of affection. I find I am con- 
tinually speaking of myself. I can only account for it from 
Aaron's having persuaded me 'tis his favorite subject, and the 
extreme desire I have to please him enduces me to pursue it. 
I take no walks but up one stairs and down the other, the 
situation of my house will not admit of my seeing many 

•'Printed in Davis's " Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p. 200. 

94 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 


Which as I travel slowly will be my apology for not returning. 

But in the pleaseing expectation of meeting you at Cloveric am 

Your most humble Servant 

Sam A. Otis 

James Rivington to Aaron Burr. 

N. York Oct. 1. 1783. 
Permit me, Good Sir, to apply to you for a copy of the 
Indictment preferred against me. I wish to see its purport 
before I leave N. York, which I intend to do on the ICth Inst. 
I wrote to you some time since but my letter was not properly 
directed. I am, Sir, Your obedient Servant. 

James Rivington. 
[Addressed] Aaron Burr Esq., Attorney-at-Law, at Albany. 

1919.]. Some Papers of A aron Burr . 9 5 

visitors. I hope some arrangements will be accomplished by 
the next week. 

A packet from Sill, he writes like a happy man, not the 
happy man of a day, or I am much deceived in him. She is 
certainly to be ranked among the fortunate. I wish she may 
be sensible of her lot. 

I have fixt the time of seeing you till Saturday. I will hope 
the best. I cannot extend my calculations beyond it, four 
days of your absence is an age to come, don't be too solicitous 
pour la visite d'une jeune personne. J 'en suis parfaitement 
degoutee, evites la c'il est possible. My compliments to your 
chum, and who else you please, penses avec tendresse de 

la votre. 

[Addressed] Aaron Burr. 

[Memorandum] Sop: — May 85. Chester. 

Tuesday Evening, [27th Sept, 1785]. e2 
I have counted the hours till evening, since that the minutes 
and am still on the watch the stage not arrived; 'tis a cruel 
delay your health, your dear health your tender frame how 
are they supported? anxiety obliterates every other idea, 
every noise stops my pen, my heart flutters with hope and 
fear, the pavement from this to Capes are kept warm by the 
family — every eye and ear ingrossed by expectation— my 
mind in too much trepidation to write. I resume my pen 
after another messenger in vain. I will try to tell you that 
those you love are well, that the Boys are very diligent, 
Ireson gone to West Chester. My new medicine will I Hatter 
myself prove a lucky one. Sally amazingly encreased Fream 
at work at the roof, he thinks it too fiat to be secured. The 
back walls of the house struck thro' with the late rain. M. Y. 
still at Miss W. You must not expect to .find dancing on 
Thursday night, I should think it a degree of presumption to 
make the necessary preparations without knowing the state 
of your health. Should this account prove favorable, I still 
think it best to delay it as the stage is very irregular in its 
return, that of Saturday did not arrive till Sunday morning, 
brought an unfavorable account of the roads, thus you prob- 

e2 Printed in Davia'a "Momoira of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p. 271. 

96 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

ably would not partake, nor would I wish spectators to check 
my vigilance, or divide that attention which is ever insufficient 
when thou art the object. 0! my Aaron how, impatient I am 
to welcome thy return, to anticipate thy will, and receive thy 
loved commands. 

The clock strikes eleven, no stage. My letter must go. I 
have been three hours writing or attempting to write this 
imperfect scrawl. The Children desire me to speak their 
affection. Mamma will not be forgot, she really shares my 
anxiousness. Tout jour plus ardentement 

la votre. 

[Addressed] Aaron Burr Esqr., Albany, 63 per stage. 

Elisha Boudinot to Aaron Burr. 

New Ark 18 June, 1789. 
Sir, — Mr. Warmsly l>as returned from Mr. Ogilvie who 
insists upon the Execution of Schoonmakcr's being discharged 
first. Will you therefore be kind enough to send by Mr. 
Burnet a calculation of the debt and costs due on that execu- 
tion, as they are to meet on Saturday to endeavor to settle it. 
I am with esteem, Dear Sir, Your most Obedient Servant, 

Elisha Boudinot. 
Col. Burr. 

[Addressed] Col. Aaron Burr, Counsellor-at-law, New York. 
Favored by Mr. Burnet. 

To Mrs. Aaron Burr 

Philada, 26th Apr, 1792 

I have at length the pleasure to assure you that both houses 
of Congress have concurred in a resolution to adjourn on the 
fifth of May, which is I think Saturday of next week. I could 
have wished an earlier day, yet it is a great relief to me to look 
forward to a certain time. I was so fortunate as to have been 
in Senate Yesterday to promote this desireable object. 

The mail which left you on Tuesday Morning brought me 
no letter from you, of which indeed I need not to inform you, 
it is not amiss however that you should know the disappoint- 
ment to me. 

M The word "Albany" is crossed out and "New York" written in another hand. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 97 

Mr. and Mrs. Adams left this place on Tuesday and will be 
in New York about the time this will reach you. You will 
not forget the rest. 

My Confessor is to be with me this Morning to settle terms. 

Most Affect. Yrs. 
A. Burs. 

I have formed some very hostile resolutions if you do not 
continue the Use of certain remedies: — resolutions which are 
perhaps most easily formed, and kept, at the Distance of 100 
Mrs. Burr, No. 4 Broadway, 

New York. 

Benjamin Rush to Aaron Burr. 64 

Philadelphia, September 24th, 1792. 

Dear Sir, — This letter will be handed to you by Mr. 
Beckly. He possesses a fund of information about men and 
things, and what is more in favor of his principles, he possesses 
the confidence of our two illustrious patriots Mr. Jefferson and 
Mr. Madison. 

The republican ferment continues to work in our State, and 
the time 1 think is approaching very fast when we shall uni- 
versally reprobate the maxim of sacrificing public justice and 
national gratitude to the interested ideas of stockjobbers and 
brokers whether in or out of the legislature of the United 

Your friends every where look to you to take an active part 
in removing the monarchical rubbish of our government. It 
is time to speak out — or we are undone. The Association in 
Boston augurs well. Do feed it by a letter to Mr. S. Adams. 
My letter will serve to introduce you to him, if enclosed in one 
from yourself. 

Have you got the deed completed? I hope nothing will 
prevent an issue being given to that business this fall. 

Mrs. Rush joins in best Compliments to Mrs. Burr with 
Dear Sir, Yours sincerely, 

Benjamin Rush. 

P.S. Mr. Burke left the lodgings you looked at last Satur- 

[Addressed] Aaron Burr Esqr., New York. Mr. Beckley. 

"Printed in Davia's "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p. 316. 

98 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Thomas Jefferson to Aaron Burr. 65 
Th. Jefferson presents his respectful compliments to 
Colo. Burr and is sorry to inform him it has been concluded to 
be improper to communicate the correspondence of existing 
ministers, he hopes this will, with Colo. Burr, be his sufficient 
Jan. 20, 1793. 

[Addressed] Colo. Burr. 

Albert Gallatin to Aaron Burr 60 


Dear Sir, — I send you the Massachusetts Laws from 1G92 
to 1768. Page 125 and 126 is the law which admits persons 
to become inhabitants upon twelve months residence if not 
warned. A preceeding law page 21 had made it only tliree 
months and [aithoug]h repealed defines the word residing. 
Read also the law page 289. Strong said that the law of 
1701 page 126 was virtually repealed by a certain temporary 
law of 1767 which he had not. I strongly suspect the accuracy 
of his information on that head ; And I believe that the law of 
1789 is the first which made a change and also introduced the 
distinction of Citizens. German Servants must have ac- 
quired settlement in common with others and many were 
imported. See page 342. You will find page 122 the word 
Inhabitant used with that of Sojourner in a general sense. 
Page 338 the same word applied to inhabitant of a County 
etc. A distinction is made between inhabiting and residing 
pages 24 and 207. I have not New Hampshire, laws. 

The Laws of Pennsilvania are clear and explicit. Please 
to compare the attachment laws in volume of Provincial laws 
page 44 and 122 with Laz. Barnct's case Del. reports which is 
grounded upon them and you will find that under the province 
residing and inhabitants were synonimous. 

In Vol. of State Laws, please to read page [burned out] 
Sect. 2d. says all male white inhabitants and sect. 7th by the 
exception sheweth the general meaning of the word inhabitant. 
Page 163 read the 5th Sect, principally and you will find it to 

"Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 1, p. 331. 
"lb. p. 406. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 99 

be a copy of the Art. of Conf. substituting white for free. I 
will call on you about ten o'clock. Yours, 

A-. G. 67 
[Addressed] Colo. Burr, Corner of 4th and Walnut Streets. 

Richard Platt to Aaron Burr 

New York January 12th 1797. 

Dear Sir, — My prospects detailed you in yesterday's letter 
relative to money for the two houses mentioned, are realized. 
I am to receive two hundred Guineas this week — the residue 
in 30 and 60 days in unexceptionable paper. Thus I am 
relieved on that head, and now wait only for the maturing 
other things, and the sailing of the Vessell, which I apprehend 
cannot take place for a week to come, owing to the ice in the 
Harbour. This induces a hope that we shall meet again 
before my departure. If we should not, you must get, give 
and send after me such letters as will assist my operations and 
views in France, from your friends. I have nothing more to 
tell you about this day, only that Mrs. P. is better, and Miss A. 
very well — both desire regards, with your affectionate, 

Richard Platt. 

Write me always under cover to John Aspinwall. 

[Addressed] Aaron Burr Esquire, Senator in Congress, 
Philadelphia. Post. 

Alexander Hamilton to Aaron Burr. 
Dear Sir, — As I wished the cause of Bayard vs Breese and 
others to be regularly at issue and as the Chancellor could not 
readily be come at to procure from him an order to serve 
Subpoenas on the Clerk in Court, I sent you a request some 
time since to file rejoinders and Mr. Provost informed me you 
would be so obliging as to have it done. I have not, however, 
received any notice of its having been done. I will thank you 

"Noted on this letter is the following: 

"Mr. Taylor of Virginia to Col. Burr, in a note across the Table in Senate U. States, 

in the case of Gallatin says — 

" 'We shall leave you to reply to King: 1st. Beoause you desire it; 2d. All depends 
upon it. No one else can do it, and the audience will expect it. If, too, you will see the 
2d page of the Kentucky Constitution, it may be pressed upon Edwards. Gallatin has 
it in manuscript.' 

"The preceding two -pages, are in the hand writing of Albert Gallatin, as the initials to 
the letter show. 

M. L. Davis." 

100 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

particularly to have it done in the course of the day, as my 
situation has rendered me culpably negligent. 

Your Obedient Servant, 

Alex'r Hamilton. 
Thursday. [1797] 

[Addressed] Aaron Burr Esquire. 

Thomas Jefferson to Aaron Burr. 68 . 

Washington, Dec. 15,. 1800. 
Dear Sir 

Although we have not official information of the votes for 
President & Vice President and cannot have until the first 
week in Feb. yet the state of the votes is given on such evi- 
dence as satisfies both parties that the two Republican candi- 
dates stand highest, from S. Carolina we have not even 
heard of the actual vote; but we have learnt who were ap- 
pointed electors, and with sufficient certainty how they would 
vote, it is said they would withdraw from yourself one vote, 
it has also been said that a General Smith of Tennissee had 
declared he would give his 2d. vote to Mr. Gallatin; not from 
any indisposition towards you, but extreme reverence to the 
character of Mr. G. it is also surmised that the vote of Georgia 
will not be entire, yet nobody pretends to know these things 
of a certainty, and we know enough to be certain that what it 
is surmised will be withheld will still leave you 4 or 5 votes at 
least above Mr. A. however it was badly managed not to 
have arranged with certainty what seems to have been left to 
hazard, it was the more material because I understand 
several of the high flying federalists have expressed their hope 
that the two republican tickets may be equal, & their deter- 
mination in that case to prevent a choice by the H. of R. 
(which they are strong enough to do) and let the government 
devolve on a President of the Senate, decency required that 
I should be so entirely passive during the late contest that 1 
never once asked whether arrangements had been made to 
prevent so many from dropping votes intentionally as might 
frustrate half the republican wish; nor did I doubt till lately 
that such has been made. 

68 Printed in Davis'a "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," Vol. 2, p. 07. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 101 

While I must congratulate you, my dear Sir, on the issue of 
this contest, because it is more honourable and doubtless more 
grateful to you than any station within the competence of the 
chief magistrate, yet for myself, and for the substantial service 
of the public, I feel most sensibly the loss we sustain of your 
aid in our new administration, it leaves a chasm in my 
arrangements, which cannot be adequately filled up. I had 
endeavored to compose an administration whose talents, 
integrity, names & dispositions should at once inspire un- 
bounded confidence in the public mind, and ensure a perfect 
harmony in the conduct of the public business. I lose you 
from the list, & am not sure of all the others, should the 
gentlemen who possess the public confidence decline taking a 
part in their affairs, and force us. to take up persons unknown 
to the people, the evil genius of this country may realize his 
avowal that 'he will beat down the administration.' — the 
return of Mr. Van Benthuysen, one of your electors, furnishes 
me a confidential opportunity of writing this much to you, 
which I should not have ventured through the post office, at 
this prying season., we shall of course see you before the 4th 
of March, accept my respectful & affectionate salutations. 

Th. Jefferson 
Colo. Burr 

[Addressed] Colo. Aaron Burr, New- York. 

Ambrose Spencer to Aaron Burr. 

Hudson December 24. 1800. 
Dear Sir, — Permit me to express to you my most cordial 
congratulations, on the successful issue of your and Mr. 
Jefferson's election. I have and do consider these events as 
among the greatest incidents of the age. they are clearly 
indicative of the abhorrence of the people of America, to the 
system adopted by our political adversaries — a system which 
if not totally changed could not have failed of destroying our 
excellent republican government, and on its ruin of establish- 
ing at least an aristocracy. The system pursued too, was 
vile in many other respects, and particularly as it tended to 
exclude from office, all but sycophants and political hypo- 

102 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

crites. But thank Heaven the scence [scene?] is changed, and 
the men of our party who have been degraded and oppressed, 
will be entitled to be heard and noticed, imagine not however 
that I mean myself to be included in these observations, 
persecuted I have been, oppressed I could not be, and as for 
office had I the capacity to fill any (which I am sensible I have 
not) I will accept of none in the gift of the general government, 
nor of any office from the Governor and Council of this State. 
Nor is it probable that I shall ever trouble my friends for 
others — for my own connections I surely shall not. The joy 
inspired by the event of the election is indiscribable, amongst 
our Friends, the other party are literally chap fallen. It 
would please me to hear from you if any thing of consequence 
transpires, and especially on the subject of Mr. Lees certificate, 
believe me to [be] yours with much respect, 

A. Spencer. 
Col. A. Burr. 

[Addressed] Aaron Burr Esquire, Counsellor-at-Law, New 

Joseph Alston to Theodosia Burr. 

Charleston S. C. 

Dec. 26th 1800 
I have this instant, My dear Theodosia, 09 received your 
anxiously expected letter of the 11th December and just 
snatch the pen to thank you for it, and tell you how' much 
pleasure it gives me. 

Had I an hour to spare, I would convince you of the pro- 
priety of early marriages, in spite of the authority of even 
Aristotle; I would shew you how rediculous are the accounts 
of your "dear friends'' respecting Carolina; and in short reply 
satisfactorily to every part of your letter; but in half an hour 
I expect a large company of Republicans to dinner, and, as 
my Father and family are out of town, and I keep "Bachelor's 
hall," I must be ready to receive them. The next post, 
however, I promise you a folio epistle. Adieu. I am de- 
lighted. Your letter shows you every thing that the most 

"Theodosia Burr was born at Albany Juno 21, 1783 and was baptised July 28. She 
married Joseph Alston January, 1801. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 103 

ardent lover of a disposition like mine, could desire. Yours 
My dear Theodosia, always 

Jos. Alston. 
[Addressed] Miss Burr, New- York. 

Theodosia Burr to Joseph Alston 
The books and note were received with pleasure; the latter 
would have honored Petrach as much as it would have flat- 
tered Laura. I shall not leave town to day and if you should 
not be otherwise engaged Mrs. Provost and myself have 
disposed of you for this afternoon. 

Theodosia T. B[tjrr]. 
Saturday. [1801] 

[Addressed] Mr. Alston. 

Charles Pinckney to Aaron Burr 70 

George Town Saturday Morning [1801] 

Dear Sir, — Mr. Murray a gentleman whom I knew in 
South Carolina where he was a Member of our Legislature 
wishes to have an introduction to you and as I have had a 
request from Doctor Blyth one of our Electors in -favour of 
this gentleman I take the liberty of recommending him to 
your notice — he will explain to you. the reasons of delicacy 
I mentioned to you, prevent me from writing the President 
on applications of this sort and I must apologize for taking the 
liberty with you. With great respect and esteem I am, dear 
Sir, Yours truly, 

Charles Pinckney. 70 

[Addressed] The Honourable Aaron Burr, Vice President of 
the United States. 

Edward Livingston to Matthew L. Davis 

Washington, February 5, 1801. 
My dear Sir, — If I have omitted writing to my friends it 
has been hitherto that I might not amuse them with vain con- 
jectures instead of satisfying them with such facts as might be 

70 (1758-1824). He was prominent in Carolina politics at this time, having left hia 
associates, the Federalists, to be the leader of the republican party in the State, tho party 
which favored Jefferson. Pinckney became United States Minister to Spain, and, 
though able, never attained the reputation which bus earlier years promised to give him. 

104 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

a justification for the serious steps which untill within a few 
hours I have thought it might be necessary to take. I have 
no longer any apprehension on that score. I can now speak 
with some degree of confidence and have great pleasure in 
assuring you that all the little intrigues of falling ambition all 
the execrable plans of violence and usurpation will in a few 
hours after you read this be defeated by the election of Mr. 
Jefferson — eight States, New York, New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, Virginia, N. C, Tennessee, Kentucky and Georgia and 
an equal division of Maryland and Vermont were pledged 
never to yield the wishes of the people to the cabals of a 
faction — this determination was known and its effects foreseen. 
A member from the opposite side of one of the divided States 
has already pledged himself to decide the vote of his State in 
our favor — there is great probability that another from the 
remaining divided State will follow his example, and as I can 
not learn that the Representative from Delaware has firmly 
entered into the views of his party, I think it probable that he 
too will join our ballot. 

You may I think rely as fully on this information as on any 
that the nature of the case will admit. I place implicit 
confidence in it myself on [and?] look on the result as certain, 
but if any unforeseen event should disappoint our hopes and 
wishes, you may rest assured that our City shall never be 
disgraced by any temporising plan or acquescence in usurpa- 
tion on the part of its representative and I think I may with- 
out danger give this pledge for all those with whom he acts. 

The President has called the Senate for the 4th of March. 
What the object is can only be got at by those who study the 
doctrine of chances for no other principles than those which 
govern the turn of a die will apply to the caprice of his politics. 
If you should see Mr. Warner I pray you to tell him that I 
shall be enabled in a day or two to send him some accounts of 
the fate of the Mechanics Memorial. Greet all my friends in 
the transfer Coffee House for me, and believe me with true 
regard, Your friend and fellow Citizen. 

Edward Livingston. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 105 

Jonathan Russell to Aaron Burr. 

Providence, 26 June, 1801. 

Sir, — Agreeable to my last reports to you I waited on Mr. 
Lincoln 71 at Worcester. He received me with sufficient 
urbanity but did not leave me long in the dark as to your 
motive in advising caution. Whether the promotion of Mr. 
Barnes was in fact, a piece of favouritism on the part of Mr. 
Lincoln, or he felt himself committed in the very singular 
letter he wrote, and which accompanied the commission, to 
Mr. Barnes I will not pretend to decide; but certainly he ap- 
peared anxious to apologize for what was done and insinuated 
that the imputation of levity might attach to administration 
by an alteration of the arrangement. On my part I was too 
explicit to be misunderstood. I know not whether I made an 
impression favourable to our views or not, but Mr. Lincoln 
engaged that in the interview he might have with Mr. Barnes 
nothing should escape him, incompatible with our wishes. 
The letter which I have since written him, a copy whereof you 
will find inclosed, will enable you to ascertain the actual state 
of my communications with him better than any history of the 
business could do. 

The representation with respect to Ellery 72 is suspended for 
the present. His nephew, the senator, 73 had an influence in 
this measure. This man you will find very managable, altho 
he will need the rein rather than the spur. There is another 
representation on foot relative to Lyman, the naval officer at 
New Port, but I believe no charge of misconduct in office can 
be urged against him. The Mr. Gardner who is proposed for 
his successor is a republican and I believe a very good man, but 
he is not qualified to discharge the duties of the office with 
more ability and exactitude than the present incumbent. 

As Timothy Greene Esquire will be here before I embark I 
will not detain you with further details but reserve myself till 
his arrival, when, if you should not object to my communicat- 
ing thro' him, I will take the liberty of stating some matter 

"Levi Lincoln (1749-1820), attorney general under Jefferson. 

"William Ellery (1727-1820), collector of the port of Newport From 1790 to his death. 

"Christopher Ellery (17G8-1810). 

10G American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

worthy of consideration and which requires to be managed with 
some skill and delicacy. 

I am, with the most respectful considerations, Your very 
humble Servant, 

Jona. Russell. 
Aaron Burr, Vice-President of the United States. 

[Addressed] Aaron Burr, Vice President of the United 
States, New York. 

Elbridge Gerry to Aaron Burr. 

Cambridge 18th September 1801. 

Dear Sir, — This will be delivered by Colo. Lee, a fellow 
soldier whose merits and general character are so well known to 
yourself, as to require no inforrmxtion on my part, as his 
object however is to apply for the collectorship at Salem, if 
according to his information it should be vacant, I cannot 
refrain from observing, that I have known Colo. Lee from his 
early youth, and do not conceive, that in the County of Essex, 
of which we are natives, there is a person who will offer him- 
self as a candidate, with better pretensions in regard to his 
moral, political, and military character, and his public ser- 
vices, than those of Colo. Lee. his politicks are and always 
have been truly republican, and his abilities are fully equal and 
indeed superior to the office, but my opinion of him, I wish 
to be tested by your own, and those of your friends in this 

I have the honor to remain my dear Sir with the highest 
sentiments of esteem and respect, Your obedient Servant, 

E. Gerry. 
Hon'ble Colo. Burr, 
Vice President of the U. States. 

Henry Dearborn to Aaron Burr. 

War Department 
6th Nov. 1801. 

I am honoured with your letter of the 27th ulto. and have 
given order for a compliance with the request of the Gentlemen 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 107 

of Schenectady,- for the discharge of Nicholas Sluyter. I have 
the honour to be Very respectfully, Sir, Your mo. ob. Serv 

IT. Dearborn. 
[Addressed] The Hon'ble Aaron Burr, Vice-President U.S., 
Albany. [Readdressed to] New York, N.Y. 

C. A. Rodney to Aaron Burr. 

Wilmington December 20. 1801. 

Honored and Dear Sir, — I have been daily anticipating 
the pleasure of seeing you here and having received a letter 
from our friend Mr. Edwards that you were still at New-York 
1 loose not a moment in informing you that added to the many 
personal considerations I have for wishing to see you, there are 
at present strong political reasons. 

Notwithstanding our Chancellor has been prevailed on to 
resign (in a manner with which 1 will at a proper time make 
you acquainted) in consequence of which they obtain the 
appointment of that officer and as our present Attorney 
General N. Ridgely is to be the man they also obtain the 
appointment of a new Att'y General it has been lately settled 
to dispute the election of Governor. Their object is, and they 
have the members in our legislature to do it, to declare their 
candidate General Mitchell the Governor (duly elected) as 
having most legal votes. 

This I fear will occasion consequences to be lamented by all. 
On this important and interesting subject I wish to consult 
you and that you may be informed of the course we mean to 
pursue with the approbation of our friends elsewhere. 

Rest assured the idea was at one period totally abandoned 
and it is now taken up with a general view upon advising with 
others from different parts. In every stage it will be our duty 
to behave with prudence and moderation, but at the same 
time with the firmness of a "Spartan band." 

With great esteem and respect believe me Dear Sir Yours 
Most Sincerely 

C. A. Rodney. 

[Addressed] Aaron Burr, V.President of the U. States, New- 

108 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Horatio Gates to Aaron Burr. 

New York 5th. Jan'ry 1802 
My dear Sir 

In compliance with your request, I enclose two of Mr. 
Garnett's 74 Projects; and that I may not be to late for the 
post, send my Letter immediately to the Post Office. I hope 
You will arrive at Washington before the Session is over. 
I am affectionately Yours 

Horatio Gates. 
[Addressed] Cut off U. States, [ ] delphia. 

[Memorandum] Gen'l Gates 5 Jan. 1802. 

Isaiah Bloomfield to Aaron Burr. 

Burlington January 11th 1802. 

Dear Sir, — Mr. Rossell has been with me, the two last days 
on a visit. I mentioned our conversation, respecting the office 
of Supervise!*. It was very gratifying to him, to know the 
part you took in his interest. Pie agrees with me, in the 
opinion I took the liberty to express to you, considering the 
necessity of union of every influential Republican in this 
State, and great propriety of supporting the nominations of 
the President; it is his fervent wish, (and desired me so to 
write to you) that Mr. Linn may be confirmed in his appoint- 
ment by the Senate. Mr. Ilossell has taken charge of a 
letter from me, to Philip Freneau; in which, I enclose Mr. 
Motts on the subject of Mr. Granger's inquiry, and have 
recommended Freneau, immediately on its'reception, to write 
to Washington and to visit me. 

I took the liberty to inform him, that I believed, you was 
very much his friend on this occasion. 

As Freneau's present situation, needs the assistance of 
those who are disposed and have the power to employ his 
talents in a useful manner, in the service of the public, I have 
written to Mr. Mott and his colleagues, to do all they can to 
effect this desirable object. 

It is impossible for me to add to the great respect and esteem 
with which, I am, Most truly and sincerely Your Friend, 

Pii Bloomfield. 
The Honourable The Vice-President of the U. States. 

7 'Probably James Mercer Garnett (1770-1813), of Virginia, interested in agriculture, 
instruction, and politics. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 109 

John Dickinson to Aaron Burr. 

Wilmington the 23d of the 1st Month 1802. 

My dear Friend, — Be pleased to accept my thanks for thy 
very kind letter of the 20th instant. It will prepare us for 
meeting reports, that otherwise would have been extremely 

About five or six years ago at his place near Philadelphia 
the Dr. 75 fell in the same manner. Therefore by this last 
disorder I am induced to fear, there is some tenderness or 
defect in his constitution which requires the utmost attention. 
May it not be proper to communicate this intelligence to Dr. 
Eustis? 70 

Dr. Logan's love of country, candor of spirit, and boundless 
benevolence, render his life inestimable. 

With every respectful consideration, I am Thy truely affec- 
tionate Friend, 

John Dickinson. 
Aaron Burr, Vice president. 

[Addressed] Aaron Burr, Vice president in Congress. 

Alexander James Dallas to Aaron Burr. 77 

3d Feb: 1802. 
Dear Sir, — I received your favor of the [blank] instant. I 
will attend to your Director, if ever the proposed Bank.should 
reach the point of organization, which I very much doubt. 

On the judiciary question, I wrote my sentiments to Mr. 
Wilson Nicholas, early in the Session. I am sony our friends 
have taken so peremptory a position, as the very circumstances 
of having taken it, will render it difficult to move them. I 
cannot concur with them in the policy , or expediency of the 
measure. The business of the Court will not allow me to give 
my reasons in detail; but you shall have my Brief. 

1 . There never was a case in which a party could be more 
justified in expressing their resentment, on account of 
the manner of passing the Act: 

"Dr. George Logan (1753-1821), at this time United States Senator from Pennsylvania. 
He is best known as the occasion for the so-called Logan act of 17U8, providing against 
officious meddling in foreign relations by a citizen, lie was a Quaker. 

'"William Eustis (1753-1S25), at this time a member of Congress from Massachusetts. 

"Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 2, p. 81. 

110 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

the manner of organizing the Courts: 
the nature of the opposition to the repeal, denying 
its Constitutionality, and menacing a civil war. 

2. The repeal would be Constitutional, from a review of 

the principles and terms of the Constition itself. 

of the peculiar situation of the Country, its growing 
population, its extending prospects, its encreasing 
wants, pursuits, and refinements etc. etc. 

of the analogy to the judiciary institution of England, 
where independence of the Legislature, is not with- 
in the policy or provision of the Statutes relative to 
the Commissions of the Judges. 

of the analogy to the judiciary institutions of the 
sister States, which have all been subject to Legis- 
lative interference occasionally. In Pennsylvania, 
particularly, the Constitution declares that the 
Judges shall hold their Commissions during good 
behaviour; yet it expressly authorises the Legis- 
lature to abolish the Courts of Common Pleas etc. 

and of the precedents in the existing Act of Congress, 
which is an exercise of the power, sub viodo. 

3. But notwithstanding the indignation I feel, in common 
with our friends, at the manner of passing the Circuit 
Court Act; and notwithstanding my perfect conviction, 
that Congress has the power of repealing the Act, I 
think the repeal would be impolitic, and inexpedient: 
If it would be impolitic, acting on party principles, it 
would be inexpedient of course; but I mean, also, that 
it would [be] inexpedient, on account of the use that 
Pennsylvania (and I presume the same as to other 
States) has derived from the institution: 

1. It is impolitic. 

The Republicans are not agreed on the Consti- 
tutionality of the repeal. 

The People, at large, have imbibed strong preju- 
dices on the subject of judicial independence. 

The repeal would be ascribed to party animosity; 
and, if future amendments should be made, it 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. Ill 

would be considered as a personal proceeding, 
merely to remove the present Judges. 

The hazard of loss in public opinion is greater 
than the hope of gain. There is a mass of the 
community, that will not be fermented by the 
leven of party passions. By persons of this 
description the motive and effect will be 
strictly analyzed and pursued. 

The mere resuscitation of the old system, will 
either expose the administration of justice to 
inconceivable embarrassments, or demon- 
strate the motive to be, abstractedly, a part[y] 
one, by calling for an immediate reform. 

The clamour of the Federalists will at least have 
a colourable foundation. 
2. It is inexpedient. 

The mere repeal will reinstate a system, which 
every man of common sense and candor must 

It will entirely destroy institutions susceptible 
of being modelled into a form, oeconornical as 
well as useful. 

It will deprive some States of Tribunals, which 
have been found highly advantageous to the 
dispatch of business. I allude particularly to 
Penn'a. In this State, Justice, as far as 
respects our State Courts, is in a state of dis- 
solution, from the excess of business, and the 
parsimony of the Legislature. 
With this view of the subject, you will perceive, that I think 

1. There ought not to be a total repeal. 

2. There ought to be amendments. 

If, however, a repeal should take place, I am clearly of 
opinion, that it would be unjustifiable to make any provision 
for the Ex-Judges. On this point, and on the introduction of 
amendments, I will, if you desire it, amplify by a future post. 

The zealous Republicans are exciting some intemperance 
here, in opposition to a Memorial from our Bar, which, you 
will perceive, is confined to the operation of the Law in this 

112 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

State, as a matter of fact, and not to any controversy of a 
Constitutional, or political nature. 

I shall be anxious to hear from you, as often as you can spare 
a moment; and particularly while the Judiciary Bill is de- 

I am, with great regard, Sir, 

A. J. Dallas. 
M. Willett to Aaron Burr. 78 

New York 4th February 1802. 

Dear Sir, — What a racket this vile Judiciary Law makes. 
It must be repealed. But how the Judges who have their 
appointment during good behaviour are to be removed without 
making a breach in the Constitution is beyond my abilities to 
develope. It will not however be the first rape on that instru- 
ment, and if two wrongs could make one right this account 
might be squared. But that horrid Law must, indeed it must 
be repealed. 

I have received your two favours together, one dated 28th 
January and the other without date. The effect of the 
abolision of the internal taxes on Mr. 0[sgood] gives me no 
concern. He has plenty of other business and money enough 
without that. I am more concerned about the nonentity of 
my fortification agency. This is an opperation which might 
be executed with peculiar advantage the ensuing summer nor 
do I think a substantial reason can be assigned for omiting it. 
I shall be glad to hear that our memorial has succeded. The 
omission of the Governmental officers in suffering such large 
and long defalcations is our strong ground. As the present 
Comptroler is one of those officers, some watchfulness may be 
necessary to prevent foul play. I have nothing new. Mr. 
V Derline 79 is at Col. Smiths with his drawing materials and 
has taken lodgings with Capt. Pearsey. He has made me a 
beautifull picture. He promises to be more attentive in 
writing to you. 

God bless you. You have my prayers always. And who 
dare say they are not as good as a Bishops, or any member of 

"Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron Burr, " vol. 2, p. 173. 

"John Vanderlyn (1775-1852) painted :i portrait of Aaron Burr which belongs to the 
New York Historical Society. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 113 

a Presbiterian Synod. Sometimes 1 think I'll turn presbi- 
terian that I may have the benefit of their prayers not to out 
live my uscfull days. An event I deprecate above all others. 
And this is a prayer I never heard in our Church. I mean my 
church which you know is the Episcopal. 
Most sincerely am I Dear Sir Yours, 


Col. Burr. 

[Addressed] Aaron Burr Esquire, Vice President of the 

United States. Washington City. 

Thomas Truxtun 80 to Aaron Burr. 

Norfolk 14th February 1802. 

My Dear Sir,— I got here a few days ago and have seen 
many, very many of your friends indeed, and you are toasted 
daily which gives me much pleasure; Altho' I knew it was the 
case and would daily be more and more so with certain charac- 
ters, yet I had no idea changes could have become so great as 

I find them in half a year. P is your friend but he 

exceeds a want of common decency in his declaration of other 
gentlemen. It is true his observations are calculated for the 
mob on election grounds — but they ought to be dispensed with 
in the society of gentlemen; but upon the whole he will do 
good and I most sincerely anticipate the pleasure of seeing you 
in the possession of the first office under our blessed Constitu- 
tion after the 3d of March 1805, and I pray that events may 
turn up to put you there before. I cannot be a hypocrite to 
effect even the esteem of a man or of men who I don't believe 
has at heart those principles which are necessary to give 
character and consequence to our beloved country, which 
under the auspices of sence and greatness, would rival in a 
few years the greatest powers of Europe. 

I am not afraid to think and to speak whenever I deem it 
necessary or usefull and if I was mean enough to be actuated 
by a fear of losing an appointment, I hold none that can 
check me. My friends in politiks are aware of your situation 
and hoAv cautious you ought to be just now. And there are 
those here who you dont know — that have lately been at 

80 ( 1755-1822.) He went to Norfolk to take command of the fleet for the war with Tripoli. 

114 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Washington and have heard enough drop from certain char- 
acters, to convince them and this society, that you are not in 

the confidence of . The repeal of the Judiciary law 

has roused here Federalists and even Jacobins, and will unite 
them against such proceedings which threatens annihilation 
to our Constitution. 

I have delivered your message to W. respecting the affairs 
of R. he thanks you, but I have not delivered your message 

to the lovely S that you wish to see her and her father at 

Washington — tho' I have told her I had a message which I 
should deliver before I sailed, and like all women she is 
impatient to hear it and declares I must tell her immediately. 
I find the Chesapeake in a backward state, but shall hurry her 
preparations and equipment. You must take care of Alexan- 
der Hamilton, King, Pinckney, and Patterson, besides all 
those at the head of Departments, at least one of those 
nearest to . 

M is not satisfied where he is and if his friendship for 

is at an end, you have none to calculate from him. I 

am this moment called to sup with the amiable and the fair 
and we shall talk of you as usual before we rise. 

With great attachment I have the honor to be -Dear Sir 
Your very obedient humble Servant, 

Thomas Truxtun. 
Hon'ble Aaron Burr, Esq., 
V.P., U.S. 

[Addressed] Honorable Aaron Burr Esqr., Vice President of 
the U. S. Washington. 

James Jackson 81 to Aaron Burr. 

Saturday Morning. 
[March, 1802.] 
Dear Sir, — I have positively declined the being run for the 
Chair. Who do you think best qualified on our side the house? 
it will not do to spare General Mason, 82 or Breckenridge. 83 

8»(1757-180G), United States Senator from Georgia. 

MStcvens Thomson Mason (1700-1803), United States Senator from Virginia. 

MJohn Breckinridge (1700-1806), United States Senator from Kentucky. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 115 

What I mentioned last evening as to a publication I wish 
to go no further, as I have decided to drop it. I allude to 
T & D . 

I take this opportunity to express my thanks to you (for 
I suppose it must have come from you) for the Medal of 
General Gates, and should I not see you again, wish you a safe 
and pleasant journey and shall expect to be honored with a 
line on my reaching Savannah. 

I am Dear Sir with great respect, Your Obedient Servant, 

Jas. Jackson. 
Hon'ble Aaron Burr 

Vice President U. States. 

It is objected to Baldwin 84 that it is improper as the same 
honor is not paid twice. What think you of Bradley? 85 

[Addressed] Hon'ble Vice President, U. States. 

Gideon Granger to Aaron Burr. 

March 10th 1802. 
Allow me my friend to Introduce to your acquaintance Mr. 
Luther Pratt a republican Printer of East Windsor in Con- 
necticut, He proposes establishing a Political Magazine and 
wishes Patronage. His sufferings while a Printer as Tory and 
his merits as a steadfast Republican entitle him to Patronage. 
Yours sincerely, 
The Vice President Gid'n Granger. 

Samuel S. Smith to Aaron Burr. 

Princeton March 13th 1802. 
Dear Sir, 

The edifice of the college in this place, together with three 
libraries containing about three thousand volumes, was, a few 
days ago, entirely consumed by fire. It is not known whether 
this event was the effect of accident or of design; but common- 
ly supposed to be of design. In our determination immediate- 
ly to rebuild it, and, if possible, to improve its structure, it 
is become necessary to apply to the benevolence of the public; 
and in order to do this with success, to solicit the influence and 

^Abraham Baldwin (175-1-1S07), United States Senator from Georgia, and at this time 
President pro tern of the Senate. 

8 5 Stephen Row Bradley (1751-1830), United States Senator from Vermont. 

116 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

aid of those of its sons who are most distinguished for their 
talents, and the high reputation of their names. But, besides 
these advantages which point you out to the trustees among 
the first, the college holds, perhaps, a peculiar relation to you, 
owing its existence, as it does, principally to the extraordinary 
merits and exertions of a father so greatly and justly respected. 
Can I hope, Sir, for your particular interest in this important 
object, and your recommendation of it, both at the seat of 
government, and to your friends in New-York?' And will you 
be good enough to suggest any improvement in the general 
plan of the institution which may occur to you. Subscrip- 
tions are opening with considerable vigor in different parts of 
New Jersey, and in Philadelphia; and, hitherto, we entertain 
sanguine hopes of completing the building in the course of the 
next Summer. I have written also to Mr Madison, and some 
other gentlemen in Congress on the same subject requesting 
them to co-operate with you, if you will be good enough to take 
the intrest in it which we hope. I am, most respectfully, 
Dear Sir, Yr Mo obdt & Mo hble Servt. 

Samuel S. Smith. 
[Addressed] His Excellency Aaron Burr, Vice President of 
the United States. 

Uriah Tracy 86 to Aaron Burr 
The Sermon for which I am indebted to your goodness, is now 
returned with many thanks for the loan. 

I have perused it with pleasure, & I hope, profit. It is an 
excellent treatise, worthy of the attention of every man and 
more emphatically so of men in high & responsible stations in 
Govt. ' 

Our time is short, my friend, too short to allow an opp'y of 
retrieving almost any mispence of it; much more so, to allow a 
redemption for any neglect to perform great public services, 
when once happily in our power. God grant that you may be 
profited by this and in turn be more profitable to this dis- 
tracted Nation. 

U. Tracy. 
29th March, [1802.] 
Vice Prest. 

86 (1755-1807), once a United States Senator from Connecticut, at this lime a reaident 
of Washington. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 117 

John Randolph to Aaron Burr 
John Randolph finds, to his extreme surprize and chagrin, 
that the house of representatives, instead of acting on the 
business of the nation, have, by the vote of a great majority, 
gone into committee of the whole on a complicated private 
claim, not comprised in the report of the joint committee of 
the two houses. He therefore despairs, utterly, of getting 
away before the middle of next week. He is not vain enough 
to suppose that Col. B. will postpone his departure on that 
account: — but he shall be highly gratified by any cause of 
detention not disagreable to Col B. which shall give J. R. the 
pleasure of accompanying him thro Virginia, 
friday Noon. 
15 April [1802] 
[Addressed] Col. Burr. 

James Biddle to Aaron Burr. 87 

U. S. Ship Constellation at 
Gibraltar May 8. 1802. 

Dear Sur, — As the frigate Philadelphia will sail in a few 
days for America, I cannot neglect so good an opportunity of 
writing and returning you my sincere thanks, for the marked 
civilities I have received at all times from you, particularly at 
New York, the summer of 1800. Be assured, Sir, I feel the 
livliest sense of the obligations I am under for the many 
favours conferred upon me, and shall ever feel extremely 
happy to have it in my power to render you any service. 

Owing to our being perplexed with almost constant easterly 
winds, we did not make the land until the 24th Ulto. when we 
made Cape Cantin on the Coast of Africa. On the 28th we 
got into the Streights of Gibraltar, but the wind heading us off 
the Rock, we were obliged to bear away for Malaga. There 
we found the Essex and Philadelphia at anchor. On the 3rd 
Inst, we left Malaga, and arrived here in company with the 
Philadelphia and Essex, on the fifth and I expect to remain 
here until Commodore Truxtun arrives on the Station. 

While the ship lay at Malaga, I had an opportunity of seeing 
everything that could attract the eye of a stranger. The 

"'Printed in Davis's "Memoirs of Aaron Burr," vol. 2, p. 197. 

118 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

country round the city is extremely fertile, abounding with all 
the different kinds of fruit trees. Indeed the lower class of 
the Spaniards subsist almost entirely upon fruit, the produce 
of the country, the chief articles of exportation being grapes, 
figs, anchovies, raisins, oranges, wines etc. etc. Their streets 
are very narrow, running at random in every direction, their 
houses are mostly built of marble, four stories high, different 
families occupying different stories of the same house. They 
have two or three forts built on eminences adjacent to the 
city, for its protection, but they are decaying, and out of order. 

I anticipate enjoying a very pleasant cruize, as we seem to 
be favored with every thing that could render our situation 
agreeable. Capt. Murray is one of the best of men, and 
treats us with all the kindness and attention we could wish; 
the climate is very healthy and mild; the Tripolitans, keep 
among themselves, and never venture out, so that we shall 
have nothing to do, but visit the different ports of the Medi- 
terranean; and the closest friendship, and social harmony pre- 
vails among the officers of the ship ; every thing, in short, that 
we could wish, we seem to have, to make our situation com- 

Pray remember me kindly to Mrs. Alston, and Believe me, 
with much esteem and respect, Dear Sir, Your most obedient 
humble Servant, 

James Biddle. 
Hon. A. Burr Esq'e. 

[Addressed] The Hon'ble A. Burr Esquire, V. President of 
the U. States, City of Washington. [The "City of Washing- 
ton" is crossed out, the letter evidently being forwarded from 
there to "New York. "] Favored by Mr. CI. Biddle Jun'r. 

John Taylor to Aaron Burr. 88 

Virginia, Caroline, May 25, 1802. 
Dear Sir, — Your favor, covering the medal struck to com- 
memorate the most brilliant exploit of the American War, 
from some cause unknown to me, never arrived until this 
instant; it is particularly acceptable, from the circumstance 

"Printed in Davia's "Memoira of Aarou Burr," vol. 2, p. 198. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 119 

of my having imbibed a personal affection for General Gates, 
by having served under him for a few months. 

It would be quite premature in me to consider, whether I 
would go into congress, unless it was probable that I could. 
The government have no means of providing for the gentle- 
man you mention, and if they had, to do so, for the purpose of 
making room for another, might expose them to censure, 
which they will hardly encounter. As to a voluntary resigna- 
tion of his station, there are some circumstances in his case, 
which do really justify him in refusing to do it, unless for some 
better prospect of public benefit. 

Not until some days after you had left this, was it dis- 
covered that you had forgotten your traveling map. I 
lamented the inconveniences to which the oversight would 
expose you, but had no mode of removing them, despairing, 
from a recollection of your horses, that either of mine would be 
fleet enough to overtake you. The map could therefore only 
be taken care of, for the purpose of being restored to you. 
Permit me to hope, that you will allow me to do this at my 
own house as you return, and that you will apprise me of your 
resolution to do so, both that I may be at home, and that I 
may enjoy the hope of your company, before the pleasure is 
realized. Farewell. Yours sincerely and respectfully, 

John Taylor. 
[Addressed] The Vice President of the United States, Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. 

James Hillhouse 89 to Aaron Burr 
Mr. Hillhouse will have the honor of dining with the Vice 
President tomorrow agreeably to his invitation. 
Dec. 20th. [1802] 
[Addressed] Vice President United States. 

James Madison to Matthew L. Davis. 

Washington Nov. 26, 1803. 

I have read your letter of the 21st making certain enquiries 
relative to your brother Ceorge Davis. 90 The last letter from 

B9 (1751-1832), United States Senator from Connecticut. 

•"Appointed a surgeon in the United Stale* Navy, Junuary, 1800, by John AdiunB. 
He later was consul at Tunis and Tripoli. 

»'Jame3 Leandcr Cathcart, was nominated July 7, 1797, by President Adams, to bo 
Consul General of the United States for the city and kingdom of Tripoli. Cathcart was 
a citizen of the United States, but had been for many years a prisoner in Algiers and for 
some years "head Christian clerk" to the Dey of Algiers. In February, 1802, Jefferson 
had nominated him to be consul at Algiers in place of Richard O' Brian, and in November, 
1803, to be consul at Tunis, in place of William Eaton, resigned. 

» 2 (1755-1843), United States Senator from New York. 

120 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

him to the Dept. of State was dated July 3d last. From the 
communications of Mr. Cathcart 91 it appears that he left your 
brother at Tunis early in September. Mr. Cathcart was 
appointed successor to Mr. Eaton, but was not reed, by the 
Bey. No successor to Mr. Cathcart has been named by the 
President. I am Sir respectfully, Yr. obed. Ser. 

James Madison. 

John Armstrong 92 to Aaron Burr 

Mr. Armstrong will have the honor of dining with Mr. Burr 
on Tuesday next. 

[Addressed] The Vice President. 

Daniel D. Tompkins to Aaron Burr. 

New York 5 Dec. 1803 
Dear Sir, 

I have filed the Bill in Chancery and obtained and served 
an injunction. The rules of the Court requiring a deposit 
with the Register of $100, I paid him that sum. 

By the newspapers it appears that Genl. Ledyard is dead, 
and I should not be surprised if Phelps should attempt to 
avail himself of this circumstance to obtain an order to dis- 
solve the injunction; which will enable him to try his cause at 
the sittings in this month in case the Court should proceed far 
enough in the calendar of causes for trial. 

I am not advised who are the heirs of Mr. Ledyard and in 
case a successful attempt should be made to dissolve the in- 
junction, my ignorance of the names of the persons to make 
parties in Mr. B. Ledyard's stead, will put it out of my power 
immediately to obtain another injunction. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 121 

Would it not be well for you to drop me a letter stating the 
material papers in Mr. Ledyard's possession wanted upon a 
trial, which letter will enable me I doubt not to postpone the 
trial of the suit at law, should an effort to postpone become 

I presume my agent in Albany has not arrived to the grade 
of a Counsellor in Chancery. Should you therefore have any 
friend in Albany to whom you could refer me to oppose a 
motion before the Chancellor, have the goodness to mention 
it in your letter. I am Dr Sir respectfully your Sert 

Daniel D. Tompkins 
The Honb. A. Burr. 

[Addressed] The Honorable xVaron Burr, Washington. 

Jonathan Dayton' J3 to Aaron Burr 

December, 1803. 
Dear Sir, 

Owing to the weather and another cause not necessary or 
proper to be explained, 1 have entirely abandonded my inten- 
tion of visiting Annapolis. 

I know of no party going there. Mr. Purviance 04 was to 
have accompanied me, and taken dinner with General Stone 95 
tomorrow, but he now speaks doubtfully of the jaunt, and I 
suspect will give it up. 

I hope that you will not dissapoint Genl. S. especially as he 
has taken from hence three or four pairs of ducks to treat you, 
and something still better will have been prepared for me at 
his house, which I herewith transfer to you. Sincerely 

J. Dayton. 
If you meet with Miss Murray, take an occasion, I pray you, 
of saying that I was coming to Anns, but prevented by sick- 

[Addressed] Honorable A. Burr, Esqr. 

"(17C0-1824), United States Senator from New Jersey. 

"Samuel D. Purviance, a member of Congress from North Carolina. 

"Probably John Hoakin Stone (1745-1804). 

122 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Mr. Adams present his respects to the Vice-President, and 

m'y 1804. 
[Addressed] The Vice President of the United States. 

Robert G. Haepeb to Aarox Burr. 

fMBNMl Mar. 5th. 180*. 

It has occurred to me that the Court of Impeachment, in 
deciding on the question now before it, may he desirous of 
seeing the evidence intended to be adduced, in support of the 
suggestion of Judge Pk-kering ? s 3 * insanity. I have therefore 
:i'^- -'.:.-. -'.-.r: :: H- .: --_ *:- :v".:;:..i: :•; ;• . _ _i; :: 
requesting that you will be pleased to lay them before the 

If you have no objection, my dear Sir, to receive suck a 
letter as the above, and to present it with the papers to the 
". . - ■ I ■ ... -. . - 

[til my wish that in ease the court should refuse to hear the 
suggestion of Insanity, it may hereafter appear that they did 
5: -".".:_ zz'.-'.i ::.--::.'.:.■::.::..-:_ 1 ;_rs "r.Lj 

Hob. G. Habfer. 
The Vke President 

PA The depositions themselves, except one 
by Judge Terry of the H. M. which is not 
yet complete, are enclosed for your 

R. G. H. 

Aii:~-^y 71.: V;.- : ?;— lirii: : :Lr 'Jil-.-r-i -:_:.. 

James A. T . _ ra Aarox Bcbb. 

To save time of which I need much and have but little, I 
propose to take a Bed with you tins night, if it may be done 
without observation or intrusion — Answer nut and if in the 

.; :__ :- .._./ -: .-.--.: 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 123 

affirmative, I will be with [you] at 30' after the 8th Hour, 
Yours truly, 

J. A. Wilkinson. 
23rd May 1804 
Col. Burr. 

[Addressed] The Hon'ble A. Burr, Richmond. 

Luther Martin to Joseph Alston. 

Richmond, 26th June, 1807. 
Sir, — I have the painful task to inform you that my much 
esteemed friend, Col. Burr, was yesterday committed to 
Prison in consequence of a Bill for Treason being found by the 
Grand Jury against him. I arrived here the evening of May 
twenty-seventh, and have been with Col. Burr ever since. 
Nor shall I leave him until his Trial is at end. Never, I 
believe, did any Government thirst more for the Blood of a 
victim than our enligtend, philosophic, mild, philanthropic 
Government for the Blood of my friend. Two Gentlemen, 
considered here of the first talents, are employed to assist in 
the prosecution, or, as it may be truly said, the persecution — 
and the unfeeling, the savage manner each of these three 97 
have adopted, in the course of the prosecution, would dis- 
honor any Beings but Demons from Hell. That Col. Burr is 
as innocent of every thing of a treasonable nature as the child 
unborn I remain fully convinced, that he never had any object 
in view, but what did honor to himself, and would have been 
greatly useful to the United States, and to all Europe, except 
France and Spain, I am fully convinced. That a Bill has been 
found, has been owing to the Jury not being well informed 
what facts constitute Treason, and to gross perjury in swear- 
ing to facts not true. We feel the utmost confidence that he 
will be acquitted upon his Trial, and that he will ultimately 
Triumph over that malignant jealousy and inveterate hatred 
by which he is now persecuted. That Government ardently 
desire to destroy Col. Burr, that it would feel no more com- 

•'George Hay, William Wirt and Alexander McRae. On Burr's trial in Henry Adams' 
History, III, 441. 

124 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

punction in taking his life, that that with which a philosopher 
views a rat expiring, with convulsions, at the bottom [of] an 
exhausted receiver, I have not a doubt. And I am confident 
that Government does not believe him to have been guilty of a 
treasonable act or design. 

Under Col. Burr's present situation, you may be assured, 
it would be most pleasing, most consolatory to him, could you 
visit Richmond. He has many warm friends here at this time, 
who are not, and have not been, deterred from proving their 
attachment to him in the hour of adversity. And the popular 
odium, which had been so artfully and so basely excited against 
him has greatly decreased, and is still decreasing. While 
Wilkinson is viewed by many as the basest of villains. Nay 
such are the sentiments of the Grand Jury concerning him, 
that they were, yesterday, equally divided on the question, of 
finding a Bill against him for Treason. 

Present my most respectful Compliments to your amiable 
Lady — tell her my Daughter, Maria, who came to Richmond 
with me, and who shares in all my sollicitudes for the fate of 
Col. Burr, wishes to be remembered by her — tell her, that, for 
her sake as well as her father's, all the professional powers I 
possess, are devoted to him, with all the zeal and ardency of 
friendship — tell her that, if on this occasion I had not come 
forward and offered my aid, — my services — every exertion of 
my mind, to shield him from his Enemies, I should have felt 
myself most deservedly liable to her eternal reproaches— 
and finally tell her she has my fervent prayers for her happiness. 

You will forgive this intrusion upon you by a person, who 
has not the honor to be personally known to you, but who is 
with sentiments of respect and esteem for you, Your very 
obedient Servant, 

Luther Martin. 

The Hon'ble Joseph Alston. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 125 

Theodosia Burr Alston to Mrs Herman 
Blennerhassett. 98 

Virginia, Richmond, Aug. 5th, 1807. 

It was with great regret, my dear Friend, that I learned your 
determination to remain at Natchez; we had been told that 
you were actually on your way hither; so well authenticated 
was this report, that after the arrival of Mr. Blennerhassett 
I still hoped to hear from him that you were not far off. Your 
absence is the more to be regretted as you might without any 
inconvenience have resided with Mr. B— I intended to have 
added to your comforts by my attentions, and hoped to have 
cheered you by the society of myself and friends. 

Mr. B. is in perfectly good health, and Mr Alston who has 
visited him twice since his arrival, which took place yesterday, 
assures me that his spirits are good. The rooms in which he 
is confined are very comfortable, they were occupied by my 
Father till within a few days, I spent several days and one 
night in them; they are cool, clean and retired from all un- 
pleasant company, I hope however that in a few days I shall 
be able to give you more pleasant and cheering information. 
Do not, then, suffer yourself to be depressed by apprehensions 
which must be unfounded. In the meantime rest assured 
that nothing shall be neglected to contribute to the comfort of 
your Husband in his present situation which, however, I 
repeat it, is more tolerable than you may imagine. 

Adieu — Kiss your little ones for me. That Heaven may 
shower blessings on you all is the sincere wish of your affec- 

My Father's trial will commence in a few days and we look 
forward to it with all the cheerfulness we must derive from 
innocence supported by talents; — for some of the most eminent 
advocates in the Union have volunteered their services in his 

•"Adeline Agnew, daughter of the governor of the Isle of Man, married Blennerhassett 
in 179G. This letter crossed one from Mrs. Blennerhassett to her husband, August 3, 
1807, saying: "Apprise Colonel Burr of my warmest acknowledgments, for his own and 
Mrs. Alston's kind remembrance; and tell him to assure her she has inspired me with a 
warmth of attachment which never can diminish. I wish him to urge her to write to me. " 
Quoted in Barton's, "Life of Aaron Burr," p. 501. 

12G American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

A. Prevost 99 to Aaron Burr. 

Weybridge, 1 September, [1808.] 
I began the fear that you had returned to the Antipodes, 
dear Sir, when your wellcome letter informed me of your 
desirable Situation; I apply'd to the Aehards; 100 they say'd 
you was gone out of Town; had ehanged your loddgings, and 
did not know your address; the arrival of the Packet made me 
more anxious. I had no letters from Sir George 101 by the last 
Halifax Mail; but my Daughter in law, Mrs. James Prevost, 
received one from him, dated the 31st July; when he was 
preparing, with Sir J. B. Warren 102 to go to various parts of 
Nova Scotia, in a Tour, which was to last three weeks, at the 
expiration of which he nattered himself, his family would 
arive, which unfortunately cannot be having only sailed from 
Portsmouth the 17th Ult, 

I trust to your promise of revisiting Weybridge soon ; where 
you will meet Mr. and Mrs. Barnett; the Gunns have enjoy'd a 
whole week of happiness during the Egham Races; where they 
went every days; the fetes ended with a ball, to which the 
Dutchess of York presided; the Dukes of York, and Cumber- 
land, having been the Stewards; I supose they mett the other 
Duke, tho I have not heard it; and he has not been here since; 
et je suis privee du plaisir tie vous donner le denouement de la 
Piece; Mrs. Mallet, 103 of Brianston Street, has lamented her 
absance from it, when you left your card, she was then in 
Hert's, and is now in London; I believe alone, for every body 
is out of it; you'll find it deserted at your return; the general 
War to Partridges begins to day; some unexpected visitors 

"This may be from Anne Prevost, mother of Sir George Prevost. She was Anno 
Grand, daughter of Chevalier George Grand of Amsterdam and married Augustine 
Prevost, a major-general in the British army. Burr had been at Weybridge, July 20. 
Diary, I, 2. 

l0 <>Madame Achard was cousin to Frederick Prevost", son of Mrs. Burr by her first 

1 «(1767-1826), who in 1808 became lieutenant-governor and commander-in-chief of 
Nova Scotia. 

»<>2Sir John Borlase Warren (1753-1822), admiral in British Navy. 

io3\vife of John Lewis Mallett, a second cousin of Frederick Prevost. 

1919.] Some Papers of Aaron Burr. 127 

obliges me to conclude, and gives me only time to assure you 
of the sincere best wishes of, Dear Sir, Your obliged humble 

A. Prevost. 
[Addressed] A Burr Esq. at J. Bentham Esqr. near Godstow, 
Barrow green. 104 

Martin Van Buren to Aaron Burr. 

23 July 1814. 

Your polite note with Hatsel I have received and acknowl- 
edge my obligation for your particular politeness and friendly 
solicitude. I shall lodge at the Eagle Tavern formerly Greg- 
ories now Baird's, where I should be happy to meet you. 


M. V. Buren 
[Addressed] Col. A. Burr, N. York. 

Aaron Burr to Joseph Arnold. 

New York, 5 August, 1816. 

Sir, — Your order is still unpaid and the gentlemen on whom 
it is drawn preemptorily refuse to pay. 1 thought it might be 
necessary for your justification to protest it, which has been 
done as you have been many days since advised by the Notary. 

I have received a letter from Ransom dated 30th July, 
requesting that the taxed bills may be reviewed and giving me 
a deal of advice how to do my own business. I am really 
quite ashamed and mortified to see such a letter. It is a very 
trifling and silly attempt to gain a little time and to impose on 
me. He knew perfectly well that the measures he pretends 
to advise were unnecessary and if necessary, that I must be 
much better informed of it than he could be. My bills are 
against him and not against Campbell. Hansom has not 
answered one of my letters for the last six months. How 
often have I bid him to send me the bond— and yet he dares 
to tell me that he wishes to [be?] placed in a situation to compel 

1M IIe went to Bentham on August 18th and again on the 2Gth, remaining over the 2'Jth. 
See Burr, Memoirs, II, 414. 

128 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Campbell to pay? Why then does he not send me the bond. 
He has been speculating on my money for nearly nine months 
and now writes me a letter of two pages without a word from 
which I can infer that he ever means to pay me, nor do I 
believe that he does if he can any way avoid it. Whilst the 
suit was pending he was very liberal of his promises. Now he 
has got his money, he seems resolved to keep it. 

If I should not by return of mail receive the money or a 
satisfactory reply, I shall not write again and he may blame 
himself for the consequences. 105 I am Sir Your humble ser- 

A. Burr. 

Please to transmit my receipt and take up your order. 
Joseph Arnold, Esqr., Pawlings Town. 

John C. Calhoun to Mattheav L. Davis. 
Department of War, 

January 6th. 1818. 

Enclosed herewith, you will receive the other part of your 
Contract for the supply of rations to the troops of the United 
States within the States of Vermont, New York and New 
Jersey, commencing the 1st. of June 1818, and ending the 
31st. of May 1819, executed on the part of the government. I 
have the honor to be, Your obt. Servant, 

J. C. Calhoun 

wBurr first wrote: "I beg that he will uot trouble himself to give me any more 

1919.1 Ohio. 129 


Part XI: OHIO 


The following bibliography attempts, first, to present a 
historical sketch of every newspaper printed in the United 
States from 1690 to 1820; secondly, to locate all files found in 
the various libraries of the country; and thirdly, to give a 
complete check list of the issues in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society. 

The historical sketch of each paper gives the title, the date 
of establishment, the name of the editor or publisher, the fre- 
quency of issue and the date of discontinuance. It also 
attempts to give the exact date of issue when a change in title 
or name of publisher or frequency of publication occurs. 

In locating files to be found in various libraries, no attempt 
is made to list every issue. In the case of common papers 
which are to be found in many libraries, only the longer files 
are noted, with a description of their completeness. Rare 
newspapers, which are known by only a few scattered issues, 
are minutely listed. 

The check list of the issues in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society follows the style of the Library of Con- 
gress "Check List of Eighteenth Century Newspapers," and 
records all supplements, missing issues and mutilations. 

The arrangement is alphabetical" by States and towns. 
Towns are placed according to their present State location. 
For convenience of alphabetization, the initial "The" in the 
titles of papers is disregarded. Papers are considered to be of 
folio size, unless otherwise stated. There are no abbreviations 

130 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

except in the names of the libraries where files are located, and 
these should be easily understood. A superior italic "m" is 
used in the listing of the Society's fdes to signify mutilated 
copy. The bibliography includes only newspapers, and does 
not list magazines; the distinction lias sometimes been difficult 
to draw, but the test lias generally been the inclusion of current 
news. Neither in the historical sketches nor in the listing of 
files is any account taken of the existence of the paper after 

All files, except in a few instances, have been personally 
examined by the compiler of this list, and the facts staged have 
been drawn from an inspection of the papers themselves and 
not based on secondary authorities. 

The bibliography will be published in the Proceedings in 
about fifteen installments, after which the material will be 
gathered into a volume, with an historical introduction, ac- 
knowledgement of assistance rendered, and a comprehensive 
index of titles and names of printers. Reprints of each in- 
stallment will not be made, nor will the names of papers or 
printers be indexed in the Proceedings. Since the material 
will be held in type until alter the printing of the final in- 
stallment, the compiler will welcome additions and corrections. 

1919.1 Ohio. 131 


[Burlington] Scioto Telegraph, see under Portsmouth. 

Cadiz Informant, 1816-1818. 

Weekly. Established in December, 1816, judging from 
the date of the first and only issue located, that of Jan. 9, 

1818, vol. 2, no. 55, published by Smith & Harris ( 

Smith and John Harris), with the title of "The Cadiz 
Informant. " It was published in the spring of 1818 by 
Smith & Harris (Kilbourn, "Ohio Gazetteer," 1818, p. 
141). In the "Cadiz Republican" of Jan. 18, 1917, the 
statement is made that the first Cadiz newspaper was 
established Sept. 15, 1815, which statement was based 
upon an article in the Republican about 1843 noting an 
old copy of a Cadiz newspaper which was brought in for 
the editor's examination. No copy of a paper earlier 
than "The Cadiz Informant" has been located. 
A. A. S. has: 
1818. Jan. 9. 

[Cadiz] Ohio Luminary, 1819. 

Published in the spring of 1819 by John Harris (Kil- 
bourn, "Ohio Gazetteer," 1819, p. 169). No copy 

[Canton] Ohio Repository, 1815-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 30, 1815, by John Saxton, 
with the title of "The Ohio Repository, " and so continued 
until after 1820. 

Canton Repository office has Mar. 30, 1815 -Dec. 28, 
1820. Ohio Arch. & Hist, Soc. has Mar. 30, 1815. 
Western Reserve Hist. Soc. has Mar. 6, July 24, 1818. 
A. A. S. has: 

1817. Oct. 30. 

[Chillicothe] Fredonian, 1807-1809. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 19, 1807, by Hinde & 
Richardson (Thomas S. Hinde and Robert D. Richardson), 
with the title of " The Fredonian. " In July, 1807, Hinde 

132 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

retired and R. D. Richardson became the publisher. 
Early in 1808 the title was changed to "Fredonian." 
The last issue located is that of Aug. &, 1808, vol. 2, no. 
67. Richardson advertises in "The Independent Repub- 
lican" of Sept. 8, 1809, to collect his debts, and refers to 
his paper as "the late Fredonian. " 

Harvard has Feb. 19, Mar. 7, 14, Apr. 4, May 16, June 
6, 13, 26, July 31, Aug. 28, Sept. 11, 25, Oct. 16, 23, Nov. 
20, 27, 1807. Lib. Congress has Mar. 14, 1807; Jan. 5, 
1808. H. W. Phelps, Columbus, has June 13, 1807. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has July 22, 1808. A. A. S. has: 

1807. Mar. 7. 

May 2, Aug. 7. 

1808. July 22, 29. 
Aug. 5. 

[Chillicothe] Fredonian, 1811, 1812-1813. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of "The Independent Republican." The 
first issue with the title of "The Fredonian," was that of 
Sept. 19, 1811, vol. 3, no. 106, published by R. 3D. Rich- 
ardson & Co. (Robert D. and Thomas H. Richardson). 
It was discontinued at Chillicothe with the issue of Oct. 3, 
1811, vol. 3, no. 108, and removed to Circleville, where it 
was published from Oct. 9, 1811 to Aug. 11, 1812. For 
these issues, see under Circleville. 

With the issue of Aug. 25, 1812, vol. 3, no. 48, it was 
returned to Chillicothe, it then being published by Robert 
D. Richardson. With the issue of Sept. 1, 1812, Richard- 
son formed a partnership with John Bailhache under the 
firm name of Richardson & Bailhache, who continued the 
paper to the last issue located, that of Oct. 26, 1813, vol. 
4, no. 52. 

Ohio State Lib. has Sept. 19, Oct. 3, 1811; Aug. 25, 
1812-Oct. 26, 1813. Harvard has Oct. 3, 1811; Jan. 26, 
Mar. 16, 23, May 11, June 1, Aug. 3-17, 31, Oct. 26, 1813. 
A. A. S. has: 

1812. Sept. 16. 

1813. Aug. 10. 

1919.] Ohio. 133 

[Chillicothe] Freeman's Journal, 1800. 

Edmund Freeman, publisher of ''Freeman's Journal" 
at Cincinnati, removed to Chillicothe in 1800 (Daniel 
Drake, "Natural and Statistical View, or Picture of Cin- 
cinnati," 1815, p. 152). This was evidently because of 
the Act of Congress, approved May 7, 1800, making 
Chillicothe the capital of the Ohio territory. In the 
records of the territorial court at Chillicothe in 1800 is to 
be found an order that certain advertisements should be 
inserted in "Freeman's paper" ("Ohio Centennial Cele- 
bration," 1903, p. 565). In "The Western Spy," of 
Cincinnati, of Nov. 5, 1800, is the following death notice: 
" On Saturday, the 25th ult. at his father's place, on Bever 
Creek, Mad River settlement, Mr. Edmund Freeman, 
printer, formerly of this place." No copies of the Chilli- 
cothe issues have been located. 

[Chillicothe] Independent Republican, 1809-1811. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 8, 1809, by Peter Parcels, 
with the title of "The Independent Republican." The 
last issue with this title was that of Sept. 13, 1811, vol. 
3, no. 105, when Parcels sold out to 11. D. Richardson 
& Co., who continued the paper under the title of "The 
Fredonian, " which see. 

Ohio State Lib. has Dec. 13, 1809; Sept. 13, 1810-Sept- 
13, 1811. Lib. Congress has Nov. 20, 1809; Feb. 1, 1810- 
Cincinnati Y. M. M. Lib. has Apr. 4, 1811. Harvard has 
May 23, 30, June 6, 27, Aug. 1, 1811. A. A. S. has: 

1809. Sept. 8, 18, 25. 
Oct. 9, 30. 
Nov.. 27. 

1810. Jan. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Feb. 8. 

Mar. 1, 8* 15, 22. 
May 24. 
June 28. 
July 5, 19. 

134 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Sept. 27. 
Dec. 27 m . 
1811. May 9*^ 

[Chillicothe] Ohio Herald, 1805-1807. 

Weekly. Established July 27, 1805, by Thomas G. 
Bradford & Co., with the title of " The Ohio Herald. " In 
July, 1806, the title was altered to " Ohio Herald. " The 
last issue located is that of Nov. 15, 1806, vol. 2, no. 67. 
The paper was succeeded by "The Fredonian" early in 

Harvard has July 27, Aug. 17, Sept. 7, 21, 28, Oct. 12, 
Nov. 2, Dec. 21, 1805; June 28, Aug. 2, 30, Oct. 18, 25, 
Nov. 8, 15, 1806. Detroit Pub. Lib. has Nov. 30, 1805. 
A. A. S. has: 

1805. July 27. 
Aug. 17. 

[Chillicothe] Scioto Gazette, 1800-1820-f. i 

Weekly. Established late in April, 1800, judging from 
the volume numbering of the earliest regular issue located, 
that of Sept. 17, 1801, vol. 2, no. 74. The paper was 
probably printed during its first year by Winship & Willis 
(Winn Winship and Nathaniel Willis) as they were chosen 
printers of the legislative journals on Nov. 5, 1800. 
Before August, 1801, N. Willis became sole publisher of 
the paper, which was entitled "The Scioto Gazette." 
In the issue of Oct. 15, 1804, Willis says "Our next paper 
will complete four years since it came into the hands of 
the present editor." The issue of Oct. 24, 1805, accord- 
ing to an editorial, "completes five years since its first 
publication." With the issue of Dec. 29, 1805, Willis 
sold out to J[oseph] S. Collins & Co. From 1805 to 1809 
Peter Parcels was editor, although his name did not 
appear in the imprint. At some time between Sept. 30, 
1812, and Apr. 7, 1814, James Barnes became publisher. 
In August, 1815, John Bailhache became publisher, 
changed the title to "The Scioto Gazette, and Fredonian 

1919.] Ohio. 135 

Chronicle, " and adopted a new volume numbering. 
With the issue of Oct. 2, 1818, Bailhache transferred the 
proprietorship to John Scott, but with the issue of Apr. 
16, 1819, he again became a proprietor and the paper was 
published by Bailhache & Scott. With this issue, more- 
over, the initial "The" was dropped from the title. The 
paper was so continued until after 1820. 

Scioto Gazette Company has Aug. 2, 9, Sept. 10, Nov. 
7, 28, Dec. 19, 1801; Jan. 9-Apr. 17, May 22-Oct. 2, 1802; 
Jan. 1, 1803 -Dec. 29, 1814; Apr. 24, June 5, July 24, 31, 
Sept. 11, 1818; Feb. 10, 1820. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has 
Sept. 17, 1801; Mar. 10, 1810. Harvard has Oct. 17, Dec. 
5, 1801; Feb. 26, May 14, June 25, July 9, 30, Aug. 6, 
20, 27, Sept. 17-Oct. 15, 1803; June 11, July 16, Oct. 29, 
Nov. 12, Dec. 3, 1804; Mar. 18, 25, Apr. 8-22, May 6-20, 
June 10, 24, July 1, 8, 22, 29, Aug. 19-Sept. 2, 23-Oct. 7, 
24 -Dec. 5, 29, 1805; Jan. 9, 1806. Lib. Congress has 
Apr. 10, 1802; Mar. 5, 1807; Nov. 28, 1816; Jan. 1, 1819- 
Dec. 28, 1820. Chillicothe Pub. Lib. has June 19, 1802- 
June 25, 1803. Chicago Hist Soc. has Jan. 30 -Feb. 20, 
1806; Sept. 3, 1807; Sept. 26, 1810; Sept. 25, 1818- Dec. 
28, 1820. Cincinnati Y. M. M. Lib. has May 30, June 6, 
1810; May 22, Oct, 2, 1811. Ohio Hist. & Phil. Soc. has 
Sept. 10, 1804. Univ. of Chicago has Nov. 27, 1806. 
Western Reserve Hist. Soc. has Dec. 12, 1810. Wis. 
Hist. Soc. has Dec. 4, 1818. A. A. S. has: 

1800. Supplement: [U. S. Cong. Act, passed May 

10, 1800.] 

1801. Extra: Aug. 2. 
Supplement: Oct. 17. 

1803. Oct. 1, 8, 15, 22. 
Nov. 5, 12, 19. 
Dec. 3, 10. 
Extra: [August]. 

1804. Jan. 2, 16, 23. 
Feb. 20. 
Mar. 12. 

Apr. 16, 23, 30. 
May 14, 28. 

136 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

June 4, 11, 18, 25. 
July 9, 1G, 23. 
Oct. 15, 29. 
Nov. 5, 19, 2G. 
Dec. 3, 10. 

1805. Mar. II" 1 , 18. 
Apr. 1, 15, 22, 29. 
May 6, 13, 27. 
June 10, 24. 

July 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Aug. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Sept. 9, 1G, 23, 30. 
Oct. 7, 14,24,31. 
, Nov. 7, 28. 

1806. Jan. 23, 30. 

Feb. 6, 13, 20, 27. 

Mar. 6, 13, 27. 

Apr. 3, 10, 17, 24. 

May 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 

June 5, 26. 

July 3, 10. 

Aug. 7, 28. 

Sept. 4, 18. 

Oct. 9, 23, 30. 

Nov. 6, 13, 20, 27. 

Dec. 25. 

Supplement: Mar. 29. $ 

1807. Jan. 8. 
Feb. 5, 12. 
Mar. 5, 12, 19. 
Apr. 9. 

June 4, 11. 
July 30. 
Aug. 20, 27. 
Sept. 3, 10, 17. 
Oct. 1, 8, 15, 29. 
Nov. 19. 
Dec. 21. 

1919.] Ohio. 137 

1808. Jan. 4. 11. 
Mar. 21. 
Apr. 4, 11, 18. 
May 16, 23, 30. 
June 6, 20. 
July 1, 19, 20. 
Aug. 9, 23. 
Sept. 6, 23. 
Dec. 26. 

1809. Jan. 16, 30. 
Feb. 6, 13, 27. 
Mar. 6, 20, 27. 
Apr. 24. 
May 8, 29. 
June 5, 12, 26. 
July 10, 17. 
Aug. 7. 

Sept. 11, 25. 
Oct. 2, 9, 16. 
Nov. 6, 13, 20, 29. 
Dec. 6, 13, 20. 
Supplement: Dec. 15. 

1810. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 
Feb. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Mar. 7, 14, 21. 

Apr. 11, 18, 25. 

May 9, 16. 

June 6, 27. 

July 4, 11. 

Aug. 1, 22. 

Sept. 5, 26. 

Oct. 10, 24. 

Nov. 7, 21, 28. 

Dec. 12, 19. 

Supplement: Jan. 3, 10. 

1811. Jan. 9, 23. 
Feb. 6, 13. 
Mar. 13, 27. 

138 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Apr. 17, 24. 

May 1, 8, 15. 


Sept. 30. 


Apr. 7, 28. 


Nov. 2. 


Sept, 26. 


Apr. 3, 24. 

May 22. 


June 18™. 

July 23. 

Extra: Jan. 29. 

[Chillicothe] Supporter, 1808-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 6, 1808, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Dec. 8, 1808, vol. 
1, no. 10, published by Nashee and Denny (George 
Nashee and George Denny, according to their proposals 
in "The Scioto Gazette" of Aug. 23, 1808), with the title 
of "The Supporter." In March, 1815, the partnership 
was dissolved and the paper published by George Nashee. 
It was so continued until after 1820. 

Ohio State Lib. has Dec. 8, 1808 -Sept. 26, 1815; Oct. 
29, 1816 -Nov. 22, 1820. Cincinnati Y. M. M. Lib. has 
Dec. 30, 1809; Mar. 2, 23, May 25, June 8-29, July 13, 
Aug. 3, 17, Nov. 23 -Dec. 7, 21, 1811. Western Reserve 
Hist. Soc. has May 18, 1809. Lib. Congress has Aug. 6, 
1816. Marietta Coll. has Aug. 29, Oct. 31, Nov. 14, 21, 
Dec. 12, 1815; Jan. 16, Feb. 6-27, Apr. 2-Nov. 26, 1816; 
Oct. 14, Nov. 4-18, Dec. 2-30, 1818; Jan. 6, 1819-Dec. 
20, 1820. Ohio Hist. & Phil. Soc. has Dec. 1, 1813. 
Ohio Arch. & Hist. Soc. has June 3, 1818. Wis. Hist. Soc. 
has July 5, 1820. A. A. S. has: 

1809. Jan. 5 to Dec. 30. 
Extra: July 15. 

Missing: Jan. 19, Mar. 23, May 4, Aug. 11, 
Nov. 10, Dec. 30. 

1919.] Ohio. 139 

1810. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Missing: Jan. '20, Apr. 28. 

1811. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Missing: Mar. 23. 

1812. Jan. 4 to Dec. 20. 

Mutilated: Dec. 26. 

Missing: July 11, Aug. 15, Oct. 17. 

1813. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 
[Extra]: Feb. 2. 

Mutilated: Dec. 8. 
Missing: Sept. 29, Oct. 6. 

1814. Jan. 5 to Dec. 31. 

Missing: Jan. 12, 19, Feb. 2, Apr. 9, May 7, 
July 2, 30, Aug. 6, 27, Oct. 8, 22, Nov. 26, 
Dec. 3, 10. 

1815. Jan. 7, 17, 24. 
Feb. 14. 
May 30. 

June 13, 20, 27. 
July 18"\ 
Aug. 8, 15 m . 
Sept. 4 m , 26. 
Extra: May 10. 

1816. Feb. 6. 

Apr. 2, 9, 16, 30. 
May 14. 

June 4™, 11, 18, 25. 
July 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Aug. 6, 13, 20. 
Nov. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Dec. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 

1817. Jan. 14, 21. 

Feb. 4, 11, 18, 25. 

Mar. 4, 11. 

Apr. 1, 15, 22. 

May 13, 27. 

June 3, 10. 

July 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 

Aug. 26. 

140 American Antiquarian Society. [^pr., 

Oct. 7, 14, 21. 
Nov. 4, 11, 18. 
Dec. 2, 9, 30. 
1818. Jan. G, 13, 20. 

[Chillicothe] Weekly Recorder, 1814-1820+. 

Weekly. Established July 5, 1814, by John Andrews, 
with the title of "The Weekly Recorder." It was of 
quarto size, with eight pages to the issue, and each volume 
had a title-page and index. Although primarily a 
religious newspaper, it contained considerable local news, 
obituaries, etc. With the issue of Aug. 18, 1819, John 
Andrews took his son John C. Andrews into partnership 
under the firm name of John Andrews & Son. So con- 
tinued until after 1820. 

Western Reserve Hist. Soc. has July 5, 1814 -Dec. 27, 
1820. Carnegie Lib. of Allegheny has July 5, 1814 — Aug. 
17, 1820. Ohio Hist. & Phil. Soc. has July 5, 1814- June 
28, 1815; July 31, 1816 -July 31, 1818; Aug. 18, 1819 -Aug. 
17, 1820. Wis. Hist. Soc. has July 5, 1814- July 16, 1819; 
Mar. 2 -Aug. 3, 1820. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has July 5, 1814- 
June 28, 1815. Ohio Arch. & Hist. Soc. has Jan. 19- 
June 14, 1815. Marietta Coll. has Dec. 4, 1813; Feb. 20, 
1816 -Dec. 27, 1820, scattering issues. Univ. of Chicago 
has Sept. 18, Dec. 4, 1818; Jan. 1-Oct. 6, 1819. Detroit 
Pub. Lib. has Aug. 24 -Dec. 27, 1820. A. A. S. has: 

1815. Mar. 16**, 23. 
Apr. 6, 13, 20. 
May 3, 17, 24, 31. 
June 14, 21, 28. 

1816. July 31 to Dec. 24. 

1817. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1818. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 

1819. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

1820. Jan. 6 to Dec. 27. 

1919.] Ohio. 141 

[Cincinnati] Advertiser, 1810-1811. 

Weekly. Established June 13, 1810, by Francis Men- 
nessier, with the title of "The Advertiser. " It succeeded 

"The Whig, " continuing its advertisements, but adopting 
a new title and volume huinbermg. Daniel Drake, in 
his "Natural and Statistical View, or Picture of Cincin- 
nati," 1815, p. 152, states that it expired in November, 
A. A. S. has: 

1810. June 13, 27. 

Cincinnati Advertiser, 1818-1820, see [Cincinnati] Inquisitor. 

[Cincinnati] Centinel of the North -Western Territory, 1793- 


Weekly. Established Nov. 9, 1793, by W[illiam] Max- 
well, with the title of "The Centinel of the North-Western 
Territory." It was of quarto size, but with the issue of 
July 12, 1794, was enlarged to folio. It was discontinued 
in June, 1796, probably with the issue of June 11, 1796, 
as Maxwell inserted an advertisement, dated June 13, 
1796, in the early numbers of the "Freeman's Journal," 
stating that he had discontinued the printing business. 

. It was succeeded by the "Freeman's Journal." 

Ohio State Lib, has Nov. 9, 1793 -Nov. 8, 1794. Ohio 
Hist. & Phil. Soc. Nov. 23, 1793 -June 4, 1796. Harvard 
has June 7, 27, July 4, Aug. 1, Oct. 31, Dec. 26, 1795; 
Apr. 9, 23, 30, 1796. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has May 23, 1795. 

[Cincinnati] Freeman's Journal, 1796-1800. 

Weekly. Established June 18, 1796, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of July 9, 1796, vol. 
1, no. 4, published by S. Freeman, and Son (Samuel and 
Edmund Freeman), with the title of "Freeman's Jour- 
nal." At some time between Mar. 25, 1797, and Oct. 
27, 1798, Edmund Freeman became sole proprietor and 
published the paper up to the time of the last issue 
located, that of Oct. 1, 1799, vol. 4, no. 19. Daniel Drake 
in his "Natural and Statistical View, or Picture of 

142 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Cincinnati, " 1815, p. 152, states that Freeman continued 
the paper until the beginning of 1800, and then removed 
to Chillicothe. Freeman advertises in "The Western 
Spy" of Cincinnati, under date of Mar. 1, 1800, that he 
has "this day given all accounts into the hands of Thomas 
Morris, for collection. " See under Chillicothe-Freeman's 

Harvard has July 9, 23 -Sept. 3, 17, Oct. 8, 22, Nov. 5, 
12, 26-Dec. 31, 1796; Mar. 4-25, 1797; Mar. 5, 1799. 
Ohio Hist. & Phil. Soc. has Oct. 27, 1798; Oct. 1, 1799. 
A. A. S. has: 

1797. Mar. 25. 

Cincinnati Gazette, 1815. 

Weekly. Established July 15, 1815, by Thomas Pal- 
mer, with the title of "The Cincinnati Gazette." In 
December, 1815, it was consolidated with "Liberty Hall," 
which with the issue of Dec. 11, 1815, was entitled 
"Liberty Hall & Cincinnati Gazette." 

Ohio Hist. & Phil. Soc. has July 15 -Sept. 2, 1815. 

[Cincinnati] Inquisitor, 1818-1820+. 

Weekly. Established June 23, 1818, by Cooke, Powers 
& Penney (Edward B. Cooke, Benjamin F. Powers and 
Thomas Penney), with the title of "The Inquisitor, and 
Cincinnati Advertiser." With the issue of Aug. 4, 1818, 
the title was changed to "Inquisitor Cincinnati Adver- 
tiser," the word "Inquisitor" being in smaller type 
above the main title "Cincinnati Advertiser," which 
might cause the paper to be alluded to as the "Cincinnati 
Advertiser." although the editors usually referred to it as 
the "Inquisitor." With the issue of May 11, 1819, the 
firm was dissolved and a new firm was formed of Powers 
& Hopkins (Benjamin F. Powers and George F. Hopkins). 
With the issue of Sept. 12, 1820, Benj. F. Powers became 
sole publisher and so continued until after 1820. 

Ohio Hist. & Phil. Soc. has June 23, 1818 -July 18, 
1820. Ohio State Lib. has July 21, 181 8 -Dec. 12, 1820. 
Cincinnati Y. M. M. Lib. has June 30, 1818-Dec. 21, 

1919.] Ohio. 143 

18.19. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has June 23, 1818 -June 15, 1819. 
Lib. Congress has May 4, 1819 -Sept. 5, 1820. Wis. Hist. 
Soc. has Nov. 24, 1818. Univ. of Chicago has Jan. 2G, 
1819; June 29, 1820 A. A. S. has: 

1818. Aug. 4, 11'". 

Sept. 8". 

1819. Mar. 2 m , 30". 
May 25 m . 

[Cincinnati] Liberty Hall, 1804-1820-f. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established Dec. 4, 1804, by 
John W. Browne, with the title of ''Liberty Hall and 
Cincinnati Mercury." With the issue of Apr. 13, 1809, 
the title was shortened to "Liberty Hall," and John W. 
Browne took his son, Samuel J. Browne, and James II. 
Looker into partnership, under the firm name of J. W. 
Browne, & Co. John W. Browne died Jan. 3, 1813, and 
with the issue of Jan. 12, 1813, the paper was published by 
the surviving partners, Browne & Looker. S. J. Browne 
disposed of his interest to Andrew Wallace, and with the 
issue of Nov. 16, 1813, the paper was published by J. H. 
• Looker & A. Wallace. With the issue of Dec. 11, 1815, 
"The Cincinnati Gazette" was consolidated with it, and 
the title was changed to "Liberty Hall & Cincinnati 
Gazette," published by Looker, Palmer & Reynolds 
(James H. Looker, Thomas Palmer and S — Reynolds), 
Wallace having sold out his interest. The "&" in the 
title was changed to "and" with the issue of Ma}' 20, 
1816. With the issue of Dec. 30, 1816, Looker and Rey- 
nolds were replaced by Ephraim Morgan in the firm, which 
became E. Morgan & Co. (changed to Morgan, Palmer & 
Co. with the issue of Jan. 20, 1817). With the issue of 
Sept. 1, 1817, James Lodge replaced Palmer in the firm 
which became Morgan, Lodge and Co. The paper 
became a semi-weekly with the issue of Mar. 9, 1819 and 
was so continued until after 1S20. 

144 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Cincinnati Y. M. M. Lib. has Dec. 4, 1804 -Feb. 3, 
1817; Oct. 20, 1818 -Mar. 3, 1820. Ohio State Lib. has 
Dec. 16, 1805-Nov. 19, 1808; Jan. 19, 1814-Dec. 4, 1815; 
Mar. 11, 1816-Dec. 30, 1820. Cincinnati Pub. Lib. has 
Apr. 10, 1811 -Dec. 22, 1812; Jan. 7, 1813; June 14, 1814- 
June 3, 1818; Aug. 11, 1818 -Dec. 30, 1820. Lib. Con- 
gress has Sept. 21, 1807; Apr. 9, 30, June 25, July 9, 10, 
Aug. 20-Scpt. 10, 24, Nov. 26, 1808-Apr. 3, 1811; Apr. 
26, Oct. 11, 1814-Sept. 11, 1815, fair; June 9, 1^18-Dec. 
30, 1820. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 17, 1811 -Aug. 30, 
1814, fair; June 24, 1816. Ohio Hist. & Phil. Soc. has 
Jan. 3, Oct. 28, 1816 -June 3, 1818; Mar. 9, 1819 -Mar. 3, 
1820. Western Reserve has Jan. 5, 1819 -Mar. 24, 1820. 
Harvard has Sept, 15, 1812 -Dec. 13, 1814, fair. N. J. 
Hist. Soc. has June 22, 1813; Jan. 6-Sept. 22, 1817, fair; 
Jan. 21, Mar. 18, June 30, July 14, Aug. 4, Dec. 15, 1818. 
Marietta College has Mar. 18 -Apr. 1, Aug. 18, 25, Sept. 
29, Oct. 6, 1818; Jan. 19 -Dec. 28, 1819; Nov. 11, Dec. 2- 
16, 1820. Port Jervis, N. Y., Lib., has Aug. 4, 1807. 
Yale has Jan. 7, 1813. A. A. S. has: 

1806. Oct. 21. 
Nov. 18. 
Dec. 16. 
Supplement: Dec. 16. 

1807. Jan. 20. 
Feb. 3. 
Mar. 3, 31. 
Apr. 14, 28. 
June 2. 

1808. June 18. 

1809. Feb. 16. 

1810. Aug. 8. 

1812. June 23. 

July 14, 21, 28. 
Aug. 4, 11, 18. 
Sept. 15, 21, 25, 29. 
Oct, 13. 




Nov. 3, 10, 17, 24. 
Dec. 8. 
Extra: July 11. 

1813. Feb. 16, 23. 
Mar. 2, 23, 30. 
Apr. 6, 20, 27. 
May 4, 18, 25™. 
June 1, 8, 22, 29 m . 
July G, 13, 20, 27. 
Aug. 24. 

Sept. 7, 21, 28. 
Oct. 12- 26. 
Nov. 30. 
- Dec. 7, 14, 21. 

1814. Jan. 11, 25. 
Feb. 1, 8. 
Mar. 15. 

Apr. 12, 19, 26. 
May 10, 17. 
June 14, 28. 
July 12. 
Aug. 2, 16. 
Sept. 27. 
Oct. 4, 18. 
Nov. 22, 29. 
Dec. 30. 

1815. Jan. 5, 11, 28. 
Feb. 4, 11, 18. 
Mar. 25. 
Apr. 1, 15, 22. 
May 8, 15, 22. 
June 5, 19, 26. 
July 3, 17. 
Aug. 7, 14, 28. 
Sept. 4, 18. 
Oct. 16, 23. 
Nov. 13, 20, 27. 

Dec. 11 (fac-sim), 18, 25. 

146 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

1816. Jan. 8. 
Mar. 4. 

Apr. 15, 22, 29. 
May 6, 13, 20, 27. 
June 3, 10, 17, 24. 
July 1, 8, 22, 29. 
Aug. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Sept. 2, 9, 16, 22, 25, 30. 
Oct. 7, 21, 28. 
Nov. 4, 11, 18, 25™. 
Dec. 2, 9, 16, 23. 

1817. Jan. 27. 

Feb. 3, 10, 17. 
Mar. 3, 17, 31. 
Apr. 7, 14, 28. 
May 12. 
June 30 m . 
Dec. 1. 

1818. Sept. 15. 

[Cincinnati] Literary Cadet, 1819-1820. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 22, 1819, with the title of 
" The Literary Cadet," edited by Joseph Buchanan and 
printed by Looker, Reynolds & Co. (James II . Looker and 

S Reynolds). It was of quarto size. With the 

issue of Jan. 3, 1820, the size was enlarged to folio and the 
title was changed to "Literary Cadet, and Cheap City 
Advertiser." The last issue was that of Apr. 27, 1820, 
vol. 1, no. 23, after which it was consolidated with the 
" Western Spy." 

Ohio State Lib. has Nov. 22, 1819 -Apr. 27, 1820. 

[Cincinnati] Spirit of the West, 1814-1815. 

Weekly. Established July 26, 1814, by M[— ] S. 

Pettit, with the title of " Spirit of the West," and so 
continued until Apr. 29, 1815, vol. 1, no. 41. 

Cincinnati Pub. Lib. has July 26, 1814 -Apr. 29, 1815. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has July 26, 1S14. Ohio Hist. & Phil. Soc. 

1919.] Ohio. 147 

has Nov. 29, 1814; Mar. 4-18, Apr. 8, 15, 1815. A. A. S. 

1814. July 26. 

Aug. 2, 9, 16, 23. 

Sept. 6, 13, 27. 

Nov. 15. 

[Cincinnati] Western Spy, 1799-1820+. 

Weekly. Established May 28, 1799, by Joseph Car- 
penter, with the title of "The Western Spy, and Hamilton 
Gazette." With the issue of Dec. 10, 1799, Jonathan S. 
Findlay was taken into partnership and the paper was 
published by Carpenter & Findlay. With the issue of 
Aug. 3, 1803, Findlay's name disappeared from the im- 
print, which became Joseph Carpenter & Co., but Findlay 
still retained his interest in the firm. With the issue of 
Sept. 4, 1805, he finally sold out and Joseph Carpenter 
became sole proprietor. With this issue of Sept. 4, 1805, 
the title was changed to "The Western Spy, and Miami 
Gazette." With the issue of July 29, 1806, David L. 
Carney became the publisher. With the issue of Aug. 6, 
1.808, George Williamson became the publisher, and 
continued the paper until April, 1809, when he sold it to 
its former editor, David L. Carney, who established 
"The Whig" in its place. 

On Sept. 1, 1810, Joseph Carpenter & Co. reestablished 
"The Western Spy" with a new volume numbering., 
Carpenter died Mar. 10, 1814, and with the issue of Apr. 
9, 1814, E[phraim] Morgan & Co. became the publishers, 
Carpenter's estate, however, retaining an interest. With 
the issue of July 23, 1814, a new series volume numbering 
was started and the paper was published by E. Morgan & 
Mpcajah] T. Williams, they having bought out the 
Carpenter interest. With the issue of Apr. 26, 1816, the 
firm was dissolved and Williams admitted James M. 
Mason to partnership, under the firm name of Williams & 
Mason. With the issue of June 20, 1818, Samuel Todd 
was admitted to the firm, which became Williams, Mason, 
and Co. In the issue of Jan. 9, 1819, it was announced 

148 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

that the firm of Williams & Mason had been dissolved on 
June 8, 1818, by the transfer of Williams's interest to 
Todd, and that the new firm of Williams, Mason & Co. 
was now dissolved, to be succeeded by a firm comprising 
James M. Mason and Thomas Palmer. With the issue of 
Jan. 16, 1819, the title was changed to " Western Spy, and 
Cincinnati General Advertiser," and with that of Jan. 23, 
1819, the firm name of Mason and Palmer appeared in 
the imprint. With the issue of Apr. 29, 1820, the 
''Literary Cadet" was absorbed, and the title was changed 
to "Western Spy, and Literary Cadet," edited by Joseph 
Buchanan, and published by Looker, Palmer & Reynolds 
(James H. Looker, Thomas Palmer and S Rey- 
nolds). With the issue of Sept. 14, 1820, the title was 
slightly altered to "Western Spy & Literary Cadet." 
Continued until after 1820. 

Cincinnati Y. M. M. Lib. has May 28, 1799 -Jan. 4, 
1804; Aug. 1, 1804-Apr. 8, 1806; Aug. 20, 1806 -July 2, 
1808; Sept. 15, 1810-Oct. 17, 1812. Ohio Hist. & Phil. 
Soc. has Dec. 3, 1799; Feb. 4, 1801; Sept. 18, 1802; Aug. 
31, 1803; Jan. 25, 1804; Oct. 23, Nov. 13, 1805 -Feb. 11, 
1806; Mar. 25-July 29, 1800; Sept. 12, 1812 -May 30, 
1818; Feb. 26, Apr. 29 -Dec. 28, 1820. Wis. Hist. Soc. 
has July 23, 1814 -Dec. 28, 1820. Lib. Congress has 
Feb. 11, 1801; Aug. 21, Sept. 4, Oct. 16, 1805; Apr. 6, 
1807; July 28, 1815 -Sept. 7, 1820. Ohio State Lib. has 
May 24, 1816 -Dec. 28, 1820. Cincinnati Pub. Lib. has 
July 25, 1817- Dec.28, 1820. Harvard has Jan. 7, 1801; 
Sept. 15, 1810-Nov. 9, 1811, scattering file; Nov. 28, 
1812 -Dec. 10, 1814, scattering file. Ohio Arch. & Hist. 
Soc. has Sept. 31, 1799. Hist. Soc. of Northwestern Ohio, 
Toledo, has Aug. 1, 1804. Western Reserve Hist. Soc. 
has Aug. 16, 1816. Univ. of Chicago has Jan. 23, 1819. 
A. A. S. has: 

1803. Aug. 10, 17. 

1804. Sept. 12*. 

1807. Apr. 13. 
May 4. 

1919.] Ohio. 149 

Sept. 21. 
Nov. 30. 
Dec. 7. 
1808. Aug. 13. 

1810. Sept. 1. 
Oct. 6. 
Dec. 1. 

1811. Feb. 9, 16,23. 
Mar. 23, 30. 
June 15. 
July 20. 
Sept. 28. 

1812. Mar. 21. 
Dec. 19. 

1813. Jan. 1", 23. 
Mar. 27. 
Apr. 3, 10. 
June 26. 
Extra: Mar. 24. 

1815. Jan. 28. 
Apr. 15. 
June 16. 
July 7. 
Oct. 20, 27. 
Nov. 17, 24. 

1816. Feb. 2. 
Aug. 23. 

Nov. 15, 22, 29. 
Dec. 13. 

1817. Jan. 17, 24, 31. 
Feb. 7, 14. 
Apr. 11. 

Dec. 5. 
1819. Supplement: Nov. 6. 

[Cincinnati] Whig, 1809-1810. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 13, 1809, by David L. 
Carney, with the title of "The Whig," succeeding "The 

150 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Western Spy. " Willi the issue of Apr. 20, 1809, Ephraim 
Morgan was admitted to partnership x under the firm 
name of Carney & Morgan. In either March or April, 
1810, Morgan retired and Daviu 1 L. Carney became sole 
publisher. The last issue was that of June G, 1810, vol. 2, 
no. 58, when the title was changed to "The Advertiser," 
which see. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Apr, 20, 1809. A. A. S. has: 

1809. Apr. 13. 
May 11. 
July 19. 
Sept. 6, 13-. 

1810. Feb. 28. 
Apr. 25. 

[Circleville] Fredonian, 1811-1812. 

Weekly. Removed from Chillicothe and continued at 
Circleville with the issue of Oct. 9, 1811, vol. 3, no. 4, 
published by R. D. Richardson & Co. (Robert D. and 
Thomas H. Richardson), with the title of "The Fre- 
donian." With the issue of Apr. 15, 1812, this firm was 
dissolved, and R. D. Richardson became sole publisher. 
The last issue at Circleville was that of Aug. 11, 1812 ,vol. 
3, no. 47, after which the paper was removed back to 
Chillicothe, where it was continued as "The Fredonian." 

Ohio State Lib. has Oct. 16, 1811 -Aug. 11, 1812. 
Harvard has Oct. 30, Nov. 6, 20, Dec. 18, 1811; Feb. 12, 
19, Mar. 18, 1812. 

[Circleville] Olive Branch, 1817- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Aug. 10, 1817, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue recorded, that of Oct. 20, 1817, 
vol. 1, no. 12, published by James Foster, with the title of 
"The Olive Branch." After a suspension of "more than 
five weeks," it resumed publication Jan. 21, 1818, with 
William Henry Benson as printer and Renick, Doan & 
Co. (James Renick, Guy W. Doan and Joseph M. Hayes) 
as publishers. Benson's name was omitted from the 

1919.] Ohio. 151 

imprint as printer in April, 1818, the firm of publishers 
remaining the same. In February, 1819, the publishers 
became Olds & Thrall (Joseph Olds and William B. 
Thrall). With the issue of Apr. 10, 1819, Thrall trans- 
ferred his interest to Silas S. Geohegan, but in October, 

1819, resumed as publisher, the firm again becoming Olds 
& Thrall. The paper was continued until after 1820 
(see Van Cleaf, "History of Pickaway Co.," p. 337). 

Circleville Union-Herald Office has Oct. 26, 1817. 
Lib. Congress has Feb. 18, June 12, July 24, Aug. 18, 
Nov. 6, 1818; Jan. 1, 8, Feb. 5, 1819; July 7, 1820. N. Y. 
Pub. Lib. has Jan. 14, 1820. A. A. S. has: 

1818. Jan. 21. 
Apr. 11. 
May 23, 30"'. 

Cleaveland Gazette, 1818. 

Weekly. Established July 31, 1818, by A[ndrew] 
Logan, with the title of "The Cleaveland Gazette, and 
Commercial Register. " The last issue with this title 
was that of Sept. 29, 1818, vol. 1, no. 9, after which it was 
changed to " Cleaveland Register," which see. 

Western Reserve Hist. Soc. has July 31 -Sept. 29, 1818. 

Cleaveland Herald, 1819- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Oct. 19, 1819, by Z. Willes & Co. 
(Ziba Willes and Eber D. Howe), with the title of "Cleave- 
land Herald," and so continued until after 1820. 

Western Reserve Hist. Soc. has Oct. 19, 1819 -Dec. 26, 

1820. A. A. S. has: 

1819. Dec. 28. 

1820. Jan. 18. 
Mar. 28. 
Apr. 25. 
May 9. 
June 13. 
Aug. 8 m , 29. 
Sept. UP, 26 rn . 

152 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Cleaveland Register, 1818-1820. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of "The Cleaveland Gazette, and Commercial 
Register. " The first issue with the new title of " Cleave- 
land Register" was that of Oct. 6, 1818, vol. 1, no. 10, 
published by A[ndrew] Logan. With the issue of Nov. 9, 

1819, Logan admitted Carlos V. J. Hickcox to partner- 
ship, under the firm name of Logan & Plickcox. The 
paper was discontinued with the issue of Mar. 7, 1820, 
vol. 2, no. 29. 

Western Reserve Hist. Soc. has Oct. 6, 1818 -Mar. 7, 

1820. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 20, 1818. N. Y. Pub. 
Lib. has Mar. 23, 1819. 

[Clinton] Ohio Register, 1813-1816. 

Weekly. Established June 26, 1813, by John C. Gil- 
kison & Co., with the title of "The Ohio Register." At 
some time between Aug. 3 and Oct. 12, 1813, the imprint 
was changed to published by John C. Gilkison, for 
Samuel H. Smith. The early issues were of the usual 
folio size, but within a few months, probably in December, 
1813, the size was reduced to quarto, eight pages to the 
issue, and the publishers to Smith & M'Ardle (Samuel H. 
Smith and John O. M'Ardle). The last issue located is 
that of Sept. 19, 1815, vol. 3, no. 4, but in April, 1816, 
the paper was removed to Mount Vernon, a town a mile 
and a half away, and there reestablished under the same 

Lib. Congress has Feb. 14, Sept. 19, 1815. A. A. S. has: 
18 1 3. June 26. 
Aug. 3. 
Oct. 12, 19. 

[Columbus] Columbian Gazette, 1815. 

W. T. Martin, in his "History of Franklin County," 
1858, p. 61, states: "After the discontinuance of the 
paper by Mr. Gardiner [the 'Freeman's Chronicle/ of 
Franklinton, expired 1815], the materials passed into the 

1919.] Ohio. 153 

hands of John Kilbourne, who removed them to Colum- 
bus, and published two numbers of a paper called the 
Columbian Gazette; but his enterprise was not likely to 
succeed to his satisfaction, and the materials were sold out 
by parcels, and the paper and office discontinued." No 
copy has been located. 

Columbus Gazette, 1817-1820+. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of the "Western Intelligencer." The earliest 
issue located with the new title of "Columbus Gazette" is 
that of Dec. 4, 1817, vol. 7, no. 2, published by P[hilo] H. 
Olmsted. It was so continued until after 1820. 

Ohio State Lib. has Dec. 4, 1817 -Dec. 31, 1818; Jan. 
7, 14, Mar. 4, Aug. 26, 1819. A. A. S. has: 

1817. Dec. 11. 

1818. Mar. 19. 
Oct. 1. 

1819. July 1. 

[Columbus] Ohio Monitor, 1816-1820+- 

Weekly. Established May 16, 1816, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Aug. 1, 1816, vol. 
1, no. 12, published by Smith & Griswold (David Smith 
and Ezra Griswold, Jr.), with the title of "Ohio Monitor." 
With the issue of Jan. 1, 1817, the paper was printed by 
Ezra Griswold, Jun. for David Smith, editor and pro- 
prietor. At some time between May 14 and June 11, 
1818, Griswold's name disappeared from the imprint and 
the paper w r as published by David Smith, and was so con- 
tinued until after 1820. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Aug. l,Dec. 12, 1816; Aug. 14, 1817; 
May 7, June 11, 18, July 9-23, Sept. 3-17, Oct. 1-15, 29, 
Nov. 5, Dec. 3, 10, 31, 1818; Jan. 14, Feb. 4, Apr. 1, 22, 
June 17, July 1, 15-29, Sept. 9, 30, Dec. 2-23, 1819; Apr. 
29, June 10, Aug. 5 -Sept. 2, Nov. 4, Dec. 2, 1820. Wes- 
tern Keserve Hist. Soc. has Aug. 15, 1816; Jan. 1, 1817; 
Aug. 13, 1818; Apr. 8, 1819. N, J. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 14, 

154 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Nov. 13, 1817; Nov. 12-Dec. 3, 17-31, 1818; May 27, 
June 3, Sept. 2, 16, 23, Oct. 28, Nov. 11, Dec. 16, 1819; 
Jan. 13, Mar. 28, Apr. 18, May 27, June 10, Nov.. 18, 25, 
1820. Lib. Congress has Aug. 1, 1816; Feb. 22, 1820. 
Marietta College has Jan. 9, 30, 1817. 

[Columbus] Western Intelligencer, 1814-1817. 

Weekly. Removed from Worthington and established 
at Columbus, without change of title or volume number- 
ing, on Mar. 16, 1814, vol. 3, no. 25, published by Olm- 
sted, Buttles & Griswold (Philo H. Olmsted, Joel Buttles 
and Ezra Griswold), with the title of "Western Intelli- 
gencer. " Early in 1815, the firm name was changed to 
Olmsted, Buttles & Co., and at some time between May 
25, 1815, and June 13, 1816, it was again changed to 
P. H. Olmsted & Co. The title was changed, apparently 
at the close of 1817, to "Columbus Gazette/' which see. 

Ohio State Lib. has Mar. 16, 26, June 4, 1.1, Aug. 13, 
1814; Apr. 20 -May 4, 18, 25, 1815. Western Reserve 
Hist. Soc. has June 13, 1816. A. A. S. has: 
1814. Dec. 10. 

[Dayton] Ohio Centinel, 1810-1813. 

Weekly. Established May 3, 1810, by Isaac G. 
Burnet, with the title of "The Ohio CentineL" The 
paper was discontinued with the issue of May 19, 1813, 
vol. 3, no. 156, when Burnet stated that he had disposed 
of his interest and that the paper would not again appear 
until May 31. Upon this date it was succeeded by the 
"Ohio Republican." 

Dayton Pub. Lib. has May 10, 1810 -May 19, 1813. 
A. A. S. has: 

1813. Apr. 21, 28. 

[Dayton] Ohio Republican, 1813-1816. 

Weekly. Established May 31, 1813, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Nov. 1, 1813, vol. 

1, no. 23, published by Petti t <fc Strain (M S. Pettit 

and Strain), with the title of "Ohio Republican." 

1919.] Ohio. 155 

In this issue of Nov. 1, the publishers state that they had 
purchased the interest of Capt. A[braham] Edwards. In 
March 1814, M. S. Pettit became sole publisher, but with 
the issue of May 3, 1814, he disposed of the paper to 
Addison Smith & Co. In the issue of July 18, 1814, 
Smith stated that James Lodge had become the proprietor, 
but the imprint of Addison Smith & Co. continued until 
Sept. 26, 1814. With the issue of Oct. 3, 1814, Burnet & 
Lodge (Isaac G. Burnet and James Lodge) became the 
publishers and adopted a new volume numbering. With 
the issue of Nov. 20, 1815, Burnet removed from the 
county and James Lodge became sole publisher. The 
paper was discontinued with the issue of Oct. 9, 1816, vol. 
3, no. 106. 

Dayton Pub. Lib. has Oct. 3, 1814 -Oct. 9, 1816. 
A. A. S. has: 

1813. Nov. 1. 

1814. Jan. 4. 

Feb. V% 8, 15"*; 22. 
Apr. 12, 19. 
May 16, 23, 30. 
June 27. 
July 18, 25. 
Aug. 8, 15. 
Sept. 26. 

Oct. 3, 10, 17, 24. 
Nov. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Dec. 3, 17. 

1815. Jan. 2. 
Feb. 20, 27. 
Mar. 13. 
May 22. 
June 12, 26. 
July 3, 17, 24. 
Aug. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Sept. 18, 25. 
Oct. 9, 30. 

Dec. 18. 

156 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

1816. Jan. 1, 8, 15. 
Feb. 5. 
May 13, 29. 
June 5, 12, 19. 
July 10, 17. 
Aug. 14, 28. 
Sept. 4, 11, 18. 
Oct. 2. 

[Dayton] Ohio Watchman, 1816-1820-f. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 27, 181G, by Robert J. 
Skinner, with the title of "The Ohio Watchman. " With 
the issue of Dec. 25, 1820, the title was changed to 
"Dayton Watchman and Farmers' and Mechanics' 
Journal," published by George S. Houston and R. J. 
Skinner. The above facts are taken from the " History 
of Montgomery County," 1882, p. 707, since the practi- 
cally complete file. once owned by the Dayton Public 
Library was lost in the flood of Mar. 25, 1913. 

N. J. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 1, 1818; Jan. 14, 1819. A. A.S. 

1817. Oct. 23. 

Dayton Repertory, 1808-1809. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 23, 1808, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Sept. 30, 1808, 
vol. 1, no. 2, published by William M'Clure & George 
Smith, with the title of "The Dayton Repertory." 
Because of the removal of the office, the paper was sus- 
pended with the issue of Oct. 21, 1808, and not resumed 
until Feb. 1, 1809, when the title was altered to "Dayton 
Repertory" and the publishers became Hemy Disbrow & 
William M'Clure, Smith having sold put his interest. 
With the issue of Mar. 8, 1809, the title of "The Dayton 
Repertory" was resumed. The last issue located is that 
of Dec. 14, 1809, vol. 1, no. 51. 

Dayton Pub. Lib: has Sept. 30, 1808 -Dec. 14, 1809. 

Dayton Watchman, see [Dayton] Ohio Watchman. 

1919.] Ohio. 157 

Delaware Gazette, 1818-1820+. 

Weekly. Established in October, 1818, according to 
the date of the earliest issue located, that of July 22, 1819, 
vol. 1, no. 42, published by J. Drake & Co., with the title 
of " Delaware Gazette, and Religious Informer." Its 
first publishers were Drake & Hughs (Jacob Drake and 
Joseph S. Hughs), and in the spring of 1819 it was pub- 
lished by this firm (see Kilbourn, "Ohio Gazetteer," 1819, 
p. 169). It must have started a new volume numbering 
in May, 1820, since the issue of Jan. 3, 1821, printed by 
Jay Handy for Rev. Jacob Drake, is vol. 1, no. 32. 

Western Reserve Hist. Soc. has Jan. 3, 1821. A. A. S. 

1819. July 22. 

Eaton Weekly Register, 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established in 1820 by Samuel Tizzard (see 
Kilbourn, "Ohio Gazetteer," 1821, p. 191). No copy 

[Eaton] Western Telegraph, 1817-1818. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 1, 1817, judging from the 
date of the earliest and only issue located, that of Dec. 
5, 1817, vol. 1, no. 17, published by C[omelius] Vanausdal 
& Co., with the title of "The Western Telegraph." It 
is recorded as published by Cornelius Vanausdal in the 
list of papers of the spring of 1818 in Kilbourn's "Ohio 
Gazetteer," 1818, p. 141, but is not included by Kilbourn 
in the 1819 list. The 1881 "History of Preble County" 
states that the paper was started in 18 16 by Messrs. 
Blackburn and John A. Daly, and was continued by 

A. A. S. has: 
1817. Dec. 5. 

[Franklinton] Freeman's Chronicle, 1812-1815. 

Weekly. Established June 25, 1812, by James B. 
Gardiner, with the title of "Freeman's Chronicle." The 

158 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

last issue located is that of Nov. 14, 1814, vol. 3, no. 8, 
and the paper was discontinued in 1815.- 

Harvard has Sept. 5, 12, 20, Oct. 10, 24, Dec. 5, 1812; 
Jan. 22, Mar. 12, Apr. 16, July 16, Aug. 13, 27, Oct. 1, 29, 
Nov. 19, 26, 1813; Feb. 18, 25, Apr. 8, 15, May 20, June 3, 
10, Sept. 16, 23, Oct. 14, Nov. 14, 1814. A. A. S. has: 
1812. July 2, 9, 16. 
1814. Feb. 11. 
May 20. 

[Gallipolis] Gallia Gazette, 1819-1820-f . 

Established in November, 1818, by Joshua Cushing, 
and continued after 1820 (Kilbourn, "Ohio Gazetteer," 
1819, p. 169, and "Ohio Centennial Celebration," 1903, 
p. 575). No copy located. 

Hamilton Gazette, 1819-1820-f. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 12, 1819, by Camron & 
Murray (James B. Camron and John L. Murray), with 
the title of "Hamilton Gazette & Miami Register." It 
succeeded "The Miami Herald," and continued its ad- 
vertisements, but adopted a new volume numbering. 
With the issue of Jan. 25, 1820, the title was altered to 
"The Hamilton Gazette and Miami Register." Con- 
tinued until after 1820. 

Ohio State Lib. has Oct. 12, 1819 -Dec. 20, 1820. 
N. J. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 21 -Mar. 6, Apr. 3, June 12, July 
17, 1820. 

[Hamilton] Miami Herald, 1817-1819. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 12, 1817, by W. & J. 
Camron, & Co. (Wesley and James B. Camron), with the 
title of "The Miami Herald." It succeeded "The 
Philanthropist" and continued its advertisements, but 
adopted a new volume numbering. The last issue with 
this title was that of Oct. 5, 1819, vol. 2, no. 104, when it 
was succeeded by the Hamilton Gazette, which see. 

Ohio State Lib. has Sept. 12, 1817 -Oct. 5, 1819. N. J. 

1919.] Ohio. 159 

Hist. Soc. has Nov. 4, 1818; Jan. 5, July 20, Aug. 17, 
1819. A. A. S. has: 

1817. Dec. 5. 

1818. July 8. 

[Hamilton] Miami Intelligencer, 1814-1816. 

Weekly. Established June 22, 1814, with the title of 
" Miami Intelligencer. " There was no imprint giving the 
names of publishers, but the prospectus was signed by 
Keen & Stewart (William C. Keen and Andrew Stewart) 

and Colby & Bonnell (Zebulon Colby and Bonnell), 

who had planned rival newspapers, but had decided to 
consolidate their two establishments. With the issue of 
July 20, 1814, the firm was termed Keen, Colby & Co. 
With the issue of Sept. 19, 1814, Colby and Bonnell with- 
drew, the publishers became Keen & Stewart, and the 
title was altered to "The Miami Intelligencer." With 
the issue of Nov. 14, 1814, Colby returned to the firm, 
which became Keen, Colby & Co. With the issue of May 
4, 1815, Andrew Stewart disposed of his interest to 
William Murray, and the firm became Keen, Colby & 
Murray. The last issue located with this title is that of 
Feb. 2, 1816, vol. 2, no. 76, and in the following month 
it was succeeded by ''The Philanthropist," which see. 

Ohio State Lib. has June 29, 1814 -Feb. 2, 1816. 
Harvard has Aug. 29, Sept. 19, Oct. 3, 10, 24, Nov. 7, 28, 
Dec. 5, 1814. A. A. S. has: 
1814. June 22. 

Aug. 3, 7, 15, 22, 29. 

Sept. 5, 12. 

[Hamilton] Philanthropist, 1816-1817. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 29, 1816, by Smith, Colby 
& Co. (Addison Smith and Zebulon Colby), with the title 
of "The Philanthropist." It succeeded "The Miami 
Intelligence]'," and continued its advertisements, but 
adopted a new volume numbering. With the issue of 
Aug. 23, 1816, Smith withdrew, and the firm became Z. 
Colby & Co. The last issue located with this title is that 

160 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

of Apr. 17, 1817, vol. 1, no. 51, and in September, 1817, it 
was succeeded by "The Miami Herald,'' which see. 

Ohio State Lib. has Mar. 29, 1816-Apr. 17, 1817. 
A. A. S. has: 

1816. Apr. 12, 26. 
May 31. 
Aug. 9, 23. 
Oct. 11. 
Dec. 12. 

Hillsborough Gazette, 1818-1820+. 

Weekly. Established June 18, 1818, by Moses Caro- 
thers, with the title of "Hillsborough Gazette; and High- 
land Advertiser." Continued until after 1820. 

Hillsboro Gazette office has June 18, 1818 -Dec. 28, 

Lancaster Correspondent, 1814. 

In "The Ohio Eagle" of July 13, 1814, published at 
Lancaster, the publishers, Shseffer, Clifton & Gastor, 
state "The publication of the Lancaster Correspondent 
will in future be discontinued, its proprietors having 
become partners in the establishment of the Ohio Eagle." 
In "The Supporter," of Chillicothe, of Mar. 12, 1814, 
there is an advertisement signed by Edward Shaeffex, Feb. 
26, 1814, stating that a German newspaper was being 
published at Lancaster, in which same issue was another 
advertisement from the "Ohio Eagle" office at Lancaster. 

[Lancaster] Independent Press, 1811-1812. 

Weekly. Established probably in March, 1811, since 
its recent beginning is referred to in "The Ohio Centinel" 
of Dayton, of Apr. 18, 1811, and it is quoted in "The 
Supporter," of Chillicothe, of Mar. 30, 1811. The only 
issue located is that of Sept. 12, 1812, vol. 2, no. 70, 
printed by R[ussell] E. Post, for the Proprietors. A.. A. 
Graham, "History of Fairfield and Perry Counties," 
1883, pt. 3, p. 171, states that the proprietor was George 
Sanderson, and mentions a copy of Nov. 21, 1812. 

A. A. S. has: 
1812. Sept. 12. 

1919.] Ohio. 161 

[Lancaster] Ohio Adler, see Ohio Eagle. 

[Lancaster] Ohio Eagle, 1807-1820-f . 

Weekly. It is stated in Seidensticker, " First Century 
of German Printing in America," p. 170 (quoting "Der 
Deutsche Pionier," vol. 10, p. 218), that this paper was 
established in 1807 by Carpenter & Green (Joseph 
Carpenter and John Green), with the title of "Der 
Westliche Adler von Lancaster," the name being later 
changed to "Der Ohio Adler." The English paper 
probably began in 1812. In "The Fredonian, " of Chilli- 
cothe, of Sept. 1G, 1812, there is an advertisement, dated 
Aug. 22, 1812, asking that all subscriptions for the Ohio 
Eagle and also the German Ohio Eagle should be sent to 
the editor at Lancaster, as the first number of each paper 
was expected to appear about September 1. The first 
issue located is that of July 9, 1813, vol. 4, no. 1GG, new 
series, published by Jacob D. Dietrick, with the title of 
"Ohio Eagle," which would seem to show that the new 
series began in May, 1810. The issue of July 30, 1814, 
entitled "The Ohio Eagle," was published by Shaffer, 
Clifton, & Gastor, and was the first issue published by 
them. In this issue Jacob D. Dietrick states that he has 
disposed of the establishment to the new proprietors, and 
that the subscribers owe him for the English Eagle up to 
no. 57, and for the German Eagle up to no 78. With the 
issue of Aug. 13, the firm was dissolved and the paper was 
published by Slueffer, & Gastor. With the issue of Oct. 
15, 1814, the title reverted to "Ohio Eagle," and the 
names of the publishers were given as E[dward] Shaeffer & 
H. Gastor. In 1817, and possibly before, the paper was 
published by John Herman, the title being "The Ohio 
Eagle," and he continued it until after 1820. 

All the early issues located are wholly in English. The 
earliest issue in German located is that of Dec. 20, 1817, 
no. 249, published by Johann Herman, with the title of 
"Der Deutsche Ohio Adler." The next located, also by 
Herman, is entitled "Ohio Adler," Jan. 22, 1820, old no. 
334, new no. 48. So continued until after 1820. 

162 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Harvard has July 9, 1813, Sept. 10, 21, Oct. 15, Nov. 
12, 19, 1814. Allen Co. Hist. Soc, Lima, has Nov. 13, 
1817. A. A.-S. has: 
1814. July 30. 

Aug. 13, 20. 
Sept. 24. 
Oct. 1. 
181*. May 15. 
Dec. 11. 
1817. Ohio Adler, Dec. 20. 
1820. Ohio Adler, Jan. 22. 

[Lancaster] Political Observatory, 1810-1811. 

Weekly. Established July 28, 1810, judging from the 
earliest issue located, that of Sept. 8, 1810, vol. 1, no. 7, 
published by George Sanderson, for Peter Parcels & Co., 
with the title of "Political Observatory, and Fairfield 
Register. ,, It was continued into 1811, and the "Inde- 
pendent Press/' which was established in that year, 
succeeded it. The fact that it had " recently changed its 
name" is recorded in the " Muskingum Messenger," of 
Zanesville, of Apr. G, 1811. 

A. A. S. has: 

1810. Sept. 8, 15. 

[Lancaster] Western Oracle, 180G-1807. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 24, 180G, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Feb. 6, 1807, 
printed by J[acob] Hinkle, with the title of "Western 
Oracle and the Farmers Weekly Museum." Hinkle evi- 
dently retired, for the issue of Apr. 10, 1807, announced 
that the paper had been purchased by Ejlijah] B. Merwin 

and J[ ] Wilson, although the only imprint was 

"Printed for the Editors. " The last issue located is that 
of May 29, 1807, vol. 1, no. 32. In the "Scioto Gazette," 
Chillicothe, Dec. 21, 1807, is an advertisement regarding 
Chillicothe subscribers to the Western Oracle, signed by 
E. B. Merwin and J. Wilson. 

Harvard has Mar. 20, Apr. 10-24, May 29, 1807. 
A. A. S. has: 

1807. Feb. 6. 

1919.] Ohio. 163 

Lebanon] Farmer, 1816-1818. 

Weekly. Established in December, 1816, judging from 
the first and only issue located, that of Dec. 12, 1817, vol. 
2, no. 53, published by George Smith, with the title of 
"The Farmer." It was published early in 1818 by 
George Smith (Kilbourn, "Ohio Gazetteer," 1818, p. 
141) and is referred to in the "Ohio Monitor" of Colum- 
bus, Aug. 13, 1818. 

A. A. S. has: 
1817. Dec. 12. 

[Lebanon] Western Star, 1807- 1820+. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 13, 1807, by John M'Clean, 
with the title of "The Western Star." At the beginning 
of 1810, the paper was published by Crane & M'Clean 
(I. Thomas, "History of Printing," ed. 1874, vol. 2, p, 
304). Noah Crane, one of the editors, died Aug. 21, 
1810 ("The Western Spy," Cincinnati, Sept. 1, 1810). 
In "The History of Warren County," 1882, p. 310, it is 
stated that the issue of Sept. 10, 1810, was published by 
Nathaniel M'Clean; that John M'Clean disposed of the 
paper to his brother Nathaniel, who from 1810 to 1814, 
had as successive partners, Noah Crane, Adjet McGuire, 
Samuel H. Hale, Henry Lazier, William Blackburn, 
Samuel Blackburn and Joseph Henderson; and that about 
1814 he disposed of the paper to his brother William 
M'Clean. The only paper located during these four 
years is that of Sept. 23, 1813, reduced in size to a quarto 
of 8 pages and published by Nathaniel M'Clean & William 
Blackburn. During the year prior to November, 1816, 
George Smith was publisher, for nine months as sole editor 
and for three months in company with John Eddy (see 
Eddy's statement in issue of Jan. 31, 1817). A new 
series was started, in folio, Nov. 29, 1816, by Van Vleet & 
Eddy (Abram Van Vleet and John Eddy). With the 
issue of Jan. 10, 1817, William A. Camion was added to 
the firm, which became known as Van Vleet, Eddy and 
Camron. With the issue of Feb. 19, 1817, Eddy was 
replaced by Cunningham, and the firm became 

164 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Van Vleet, Camron and Cunningham. With the issue of 
Apr. 30, 1817, Cunningham withdrew, the firm becoming 
VanVleet and Camron. Late in 1818' or early in 1819, 
Abram VanVleet became sole publisher and continued the 
paper until after 1820. 

Lib. Congress has May 8, 1807. Western Reserve 
Hist. Soc. has Sept. 25, 1807. N. J. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 
23, 1813; Apr. 13, 20, May 18, 1819; June 6, July 11, 1820. 
Ohio Hist. & Phil. Soc. has Aug. 4, 1808. A. A. S. has: 

1807. Feb. 13. 

1808. June 30. 

1816. Dec. 27. 

1817. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 24, 30. 
Feb. 7, 19, 2G. 
Mar. 8* 12, 19, 26. 
Apr. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
May 7. 

Dec. 11. 

1818. Jan. 24. 

[Mansfield] Olive, 1818-1820. 

Weekly. Established in April, 1818, by John C. Gilki- 
son, with the title of the " Olive. " Shortly after it 
started, John Fleming became a partner of Mr. Gilkison, 
and they continued the paper for about a year, when Mr. 
Gilkison sold his interest to Robert Crosthwaite, who, in a 
few weeks, also purchased Fleming's interest. Cros- 
thwaite then carried on the paper Very irregularly for 
eight or ten months, when he failed (A. A. Graham, 
"History of Richland County," p. 487.) No copy 

[Marietta] American Friend, 1813-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 24, 1813, with the title of 
"American Friend/' edited by D[avid] Everett, and 
printed by T[homas] G. Ransom for D. Everett, Tim- 
othy] Buell & D[aniel] II. Buell. Everett died Dec. 21, 
1813, and with the issue of Jan. 1, 1814, the paper was 
edited by D. H. Buell, and printed by T. G. Ransom for 

1919.] Ohio. 165 

T. & D. H. Buell. From scarcity of paper, publication 
was suspended from Feb. 26 to Apr. 9, 1814, and with the 
issue of Apr. 1G, 1814, the paper was printed and pub- 
lished by T. & D. H. Buell and R[oyal] Prentiss. From 
scarcity of paper, publication was again suspended from 
Jan. 12 to Mar. 15, 1816, with which latter issue the 
paper was purchased and published by Royal Prentiss, 
who adopted a new series volume numbering. Publica- 
tion was suspended from Mar. 6 to May 8, 1818, for want 
of patronage. The paper was continued by Prentiss 
until after 1820. 

Marietta Coll. has Apr. 24, 1813 -Dec. 29, 1820. Har- 
vard has May 29, June 12 -July 17, 31, Aug. 14, 28, Sept. 

11, 18, Nov. 6, 27, Dec. 4, 25, 1813; Jan. 8, 15, 29 -Feb. 

12, 26, Apr. 9-23, May 14, June 18, 1814. Western 
Reserve Hist. Soc. has May 10, Aug. 16, 1816; Jan. 1, Feb. 
5 -Mar. 5, 1819; May 5, 1820. Chicago Hist. Soc. has 
July 14, 1815. Lib. Congress has Aug. 30, 1816. A. A. S. 

1813. Apr. 24 to Dec. 25. 

Missing: May 1, 8, 22, June 5, 19, July 3, 
Sept. 25, Oct. 2, 9, 16, 23, Nov. 6, Dec. 
11, 18. 

1814. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: May 28, July 30. 
Missing: Jan. 8, Feb. 26, Apr. 23, May 7, 
July 23, Aug. 20, Nov. 12, Dec. 17. 

1815. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: May 5. 

Missing: Feb. 4, Mar. 31, Apr. 7, 14, 21, 
28, June 9, 16, 23, 30, July 28, Aug. 4, 11, 
25, Sept. 1, Oct. 13, Nov. 17, Dec. 15. 

1816. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Apr. 26. 

Missing: Jan. 5, Apr. 12, May 24, June 7, 
21, 28, July 5, 12, 19, 26, Aug. 2, 30, 
Sept. 6, Oct. 4, 18, Nov. 1. 

166 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

1817. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 31. 

Feb. 7, 14, 21. 
Mar. 28. 
Apr. 11, 18, 25. 
Dec. 12. 

[Marietta] Commentator, 1807-1810. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 16, 1807, by James B. 
Gardiner, with the title of "The Commentator; and 
Marietta Recorder." After a suspension of nearly four 
months in the summer of 1808, it was resumed with the 
title of "The Commentator. " In October, 1808, judging 
from the volume numbering of subsequent issues, Joseph 
Israel was taken into partnership, under the firm name of 
Israel & Gardiner, and a new volume numbering was 
adopted. This firm was dissolved Sept. 21, 1810 (see 
advertisement in "Western Spectator" of Oct. 30, 1810), 
and the paper was discontinued. 

Harvard has Oct. 14, 1807; Mar. 25, Aug. 25, 1808. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 4, 11, 1808. Cincinnati 
Y. M. M. Lib. has Apr. 3, 1810. ^Detroit Pub. Lib. has 
June 19, 1810. A. A. S. has: 

1807. Sept. 16. 
Oct. 14, 29. 

1808. Aug. 25. 

1809. June 10, 24. 
July 1. 
Nov. 25. 

1810. Jan. 16". 
Mar. 13. 
Apr. 3, 17. 
June 5, 26. 

[Marietta] Ohio Gazette, 1801-1811. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 18, 1801, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Jan. 1, 1802, vol. 
1, no. 3, printed by Wyllys Silliman, with the title of 
"The Ohio Gazette, and the Territorial and Virginia 
Herald." Elijah Backus was the editor of the paper, 

1919.] Ohio. 167 

although his name did not appear in the imprint. I. W. 
Andrews, in his "Washington County/' 1877, p. 55, 
states that within two years, Silliman sold his interest to 
Backus, who soon afterwards sold to Fairlamb & Gates. 
In April, 1805, Samuel Fairlamb became sole publisher 
and adopted a new volume numbering, judging from the 
issue of Sept. 26, 1805, vol. 1, no. 23, published by Samuel 
Fairlamb, with the title of "The Ohio Gazette, and 
Virginia Herald. M It was so continued, although some- 
what irregularly, to the date of the last issue located, that 
of Dec. 9, 1811, vol. 5, no. 215. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 26, 1805. Western Reserve 
Hist. Soc. has Sept. 18, 1806; Mar. 7, 14, May 11, June 
16, 23, 1808. Detroit Pub. Lib. has Aug. 11, Sept. 15, 
1808; Sept. 7, 1809; May 21, 1810; Oct. 7, 28, 1811. 
Marietta Coll. has Aug. 25, 1808. Chicago Hist. Soc. 
has Mar. 20, 1809. Lib. Congress has Oct. 28, 1811. 
A. A. S. has: 

1802. Jan. 1, 15. 

Feb. 5. 

Aug. 17, 31. 

Sept. 7, 14, 28. 

Oct. 4, 11, 18. 
1806. Apr. 24. 

1809. Feb. 20. 
Mar. 20. 
Apr. 3, 10. 

1810. May 21. 

1811. Oct. 14, 28. 
Nov. 11, 25. 
Dec. 9. 

[Marietta] Western Spectator, 1810-1813. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 23, 1810, with the title of 
"Western Spectator, " printed by Joseph Israel, for Caleb 
Emerson. Israel retired in November, 1811. The paper 
bore no imprint from Nov. 23 to Dec. 7, 1811, and with 
the issue of Dec. 14, 1811, it was published by Thomas G. 
Ransom for Caleb Emerson. After a long struggle with 

168 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

scarcity of paper and patronage, it was suspended with 
the issue of May 22, 1813, vol. 3, no. 25, although a later 
and final issue appeared on July 31, 1813, vol. 3, no. 20. 

Marietta Coll. has Nov. 6, 13, 27, Dec. 4, 18, 25, 1810; 
Jan. 21, Feb. 5-19, Mar. 5, 19, 20 -Apr. 20, Aug. 17, Sept. 
7-21, Oct. 5, 19, 1811 -July 31, 1813. Harvard has Nov. 
13, 1810; Jan. 14, Mar. 5, 12, May 4, June 8, 29, July 6, 
23, Aug. 3, Sept. 7, 21, Oct. 8, 26, Nov. 2, 11, Dec. 21, 
1811; Jan. 11, 18, Feb. 1, 15, 29, Mar. 21, May 2-23, 
July 11, 18, Aug. 8, Oct. 3, 17, 1812; Jan. 23, Mar. 6, 13, 
20, May 5, July 31, 1813. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 30, 
1810. Detroit Pub. Lib. has May 18, Oct. 8, 1811. N. Y. 
Hist. Soc. has Feb. 22, Mar. 14, 1812. Western Reserve 
Hist. Soc. has May 12, 1813. A. A. S. has: 

1810. Oct. 30. 
Nov. 6, 13, 27. 
Dec. 4. 

1811. Mar. 12. 
May 11. 
June 1. 

1812. Jan. 25. 

1813. July 31. 

[Mount Pleasant] Philanthropist, 1817-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 8, 1817, by Charles Osborn, 
with the title of "The Philanthropist. " It was a quarto 
newspaper of eight pages, with pagination. On Oct. 8, 
1818, it was purchased by Elisha Bates, who with the issue 
of Dec. 11, 1818, changed it to a sixteen-page octavo and 
adopted a new series volume numbering. It was so 
continued until after 1820. The octavo volumes each 
had a title-page and index (see also J. B. Doyle, "History 
of Steubenville and Jefferson County," 1910, pp. 310). 

Western Reserve Hist Soc. has Dec. 11, 1818-Dec. 30, 
1820. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 24, 1817. A. A. S. has: 
1817. Dec. 20. 

[Mount Vernon] Ohio Register, 1810-1819. 

Weekly. Removed from Clinton and established at 
Mount Vernon, Apr. 24, 1810, by John P. M'Ardle, with 

1919.] Ohio. 109 

a new volume numbering, but the same title, "The Ohio 
Register." It was a paper of quarto size, with eight 
pages to the issue. The last issue recorded is that of 
Apr. 15, 1818, vol. 2, no. 52 (A. B. Norton, "History of 
Knox County," p. 247), but it was still published in the 
spring of 1819 (J. Kilbourn, "Ohio Gazetteer," 1819, p. 

Lib. Congress has May 8, June 5-July 17, 31, 1816. 
Marietta College has Oct. 9, 1816. A. A. S. has: 
1817. Dec. 10. 

[New Lisbon] Ohio Patriot, 1808- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established in December, 1808, by William 
D. Lepper, as a small German sheet, entitled "Der 
Patriot am Ohio." It was soon discontinued, and in 
1809, it was reestablished as an English paper, with the 
title of "The Ohio Patriot" ("History of Columbiana 
County, " 1879, p. 114). The earliest issue located is that 
of Dec. 2, 1809, vol. 1, no. 4, published by William D. 
Lepper. It was continued by Lepper until after 1820. 

Ohio State Museum has Dec. 2, 1809. Lib. Congress 
has Mar. 31, 1813; June 29, July 20, Dec. 21, 1816. 
A. A. S. has: 
* ; 1818. May 2. 

[New Philadelphia] Tuscarawas Chronicle, 1819-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 24, 1819, by James Patrick, 
with the title of "The Tuscarawas Chronicle," and so 
continued until after 1820 (see "History of Tuscarawas 
County", 1884, p. 485). 

Piqua Gazette, 1820+. 

Weekly. Established July 6, 1820, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of July 27, 1820, 
vol. 1, no. 4, published by William R. Barrington, with 
the title of "The Piqua Gazette." Continued until after 

J. A. Rayner, Piqua, has July 27, 1820. 

170 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Portsmouth Gazette, 1818-1819. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 5, 1818, by Abbott & 

Chaney (Jeremiah Abbott and Chaney), with the 

title of "Portsmouth Gazette. " It was discontinued with 
the issue of Mar. 17, 1819, vol. 1, no. 26. 

Ohio State Lib. has Aug. 5, 1818 -Mar. 17, 1819. 

[Portsmouth] Scioto Telegraph, 1820 + . 

Weekly. Established Mar. 4, 1820, by C[harles] 
Hopkins, with the title of "The Scioto Telegraph." 
With the issue of Oct. 5, 1820, the title was altered to 
"The Scioto Telegraph and Lawrence Gazette," the 
paper being edited by C. Hopkins and printed by Jeremiah 
Abbott. It was "published in Portsmouth on Thursday, 
and in Burlington on Friday," although the printing- 
office was located in Portsmouth. The paper was so 
continued until after 1820. 

Ohio State Lib. has Mar. 4 -Dec. 28, 1820. Wis. Hist. 
Soc. has Mar. 4, 1820. 

[St. Clairsville] Belmont Journal, 1818-1820+. 

Weekly. Established in August, 1818, by Alexander 
Armstrong (Caldwell, "History of Belmont and Jefferson 
Counties," 1880, p. 233). It was published in the spring 
of 1819 by Armstrong and also in 1821 (Kilbourn, "Ohio 
Gazetteer," 1819, p. 169, and 1821, p. 191). No copy 

[St. Clairsville] Belmont Repository, 1811-1814. 

Weekly. Established. Dec. 14, 1811, by Alexander 
Armstrong, with the title of "Belmont Repository." 
There is a quotation from the paper in the Zanesville 
"Muskingum Messenger" of Jan. 19, 1814. 

Cincinnati Y. M. M. Lib. has Dec. 21, 1811; Feb. 8, 29, 
Mar. 7, 1812. 

[St. Clairsville] Impartial Expositor, 1809. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 25, 1809, by John C. Gilki- 
son, & Co., with the title of "Impartial Expositor/' 
This initial issue is the only one located. 
A. A. S. has: 
1809. Mar. 25. 

1919.] Ohio, 171 

[St. Clairsville] Ohio Federalist, 1813-1818. 

Weekly. Established May 12, 1813, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Sept. 15, 1813, 
vol. 1, .no. 19, printed by J[ohn] Berry, for C[harles] 
Hammond (see also reference in "Western Spectator," 
Marietta, of May 22, 1813). With the issue of Nov. 23, 
1814, Berry withdrew and the paper was published by 
C. Hammond & Alexander] Armstrong, the title was 
changed to "Ohio Federalist, and Belmont Repository," 
and a new volume numbering was adopted. It was so 
continued to the last issue located, that of Jan. 15, 1818, 
vol. 4, no. 158. 

Marietta Coll. has Jan. 15, 12, Mar. 2, 16, May 4, June 
8, 29, Aug. 3, Nov. 30, 1814; Jan. 5, 26, Oct. 6, 1815; Jan. 
4, 18, Feb. 22, Mar. 14, 28, Apr. 25, May 16, June 6, 13, 
July 25, Sept. 5-26, Oct. 31, Nov. 7, 21, Dec. 12, 1816; 
Jan. 2, 9, 30, Mar. 20, Aug. 28, Sept. 18, Nov. 6, Dec. 11, 
1817; Jan. 15, 1818. Univ. of Chicago has Sept. 15, 
1813; Apr. 13, 1814-Sept. 14, 1815, fair. Ohio Hist. & 
Phil. Soc. has Nov. 2, 1814. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 18, 
1816. A. A. S. has: 
1813. Sept. 29. 
1817. Dec. 11. 

St. Clairsville] True American, 1815. 

There is a quotation from the "St. Clairsville True 
Amer.," in the Zanesville "Muskingum Messenger" of 
Mar. 15, 1815. No copy located. 

[Springfield] Farmer, 1819- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established in February, 1819, judging from 
the date of the earliest issue located, that of Aug. 4, 1819, 

vol. 1, no. 25, published by Geoghegan & Rogers ( 

Geoghegan and Henry Rogers), with the title of "The 
Farmer." At some time between Aug. 4 and Nov. 10, 
1819, Henry Rogers became sole publisher. The paper 
was continued until after 1820, although probably in that 
year the title was changed to "Farmer's Advocate"; at 
least this was the title early in 1821 (Kilbourn, "Ohio 
Gazetteer," p. 191. 

Lib. Congress has Nov. 10, 1819. A. A. S. has: 
1819. Aug. 4. 

172 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

[Steubenville] Western Herald, 1806- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established June 7, 1806,, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Aug. 16, 1806, 
vol. 1, no. 11, published by W[illiam] Lowry, and J[ohn] 
Miller, with the title of "The Western Herald." At 
some time between Aug. 19, 1808, and Nov. 6, 1811, John 
Miller became sole publisher, but at some time between 
the latter date and Nov. 5, 1812, Miller entered the mili- 
tary service and William Lowry became the publisher. 
With the issue of April 20, 1815, Lowry sold the paper 
to James Wilson. With the issue of Jan. 3, 1817, Wilson 
enlarged the title to "Western Herald <k Steubenville 
Gazette." It was so continued until after 1820. 

Western Reserve Hist. Soc. has Aug. 16, 1806 -Aug. 19, 
1808; Mar. 18, 1820. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 6, 1815- 
Dec. 26, 1817. Lib. Congress has Nov. 6, 1811; Jan. 28, 
1813; Aug. 17, 1815; Nov. 1, 1816; Mar. 21, 1817; Jan. 2, 
1819 -Dec. 30, 1820. Ohio State Lib. has Feb. 7, 1817- 
Nov. 20, 1820. Penn. State Lib. has July 3, 1819. 
A. A. S. has: 

1812. Nov. 5, 12. 

1816. Feb. 23. 
June 21. 
Sept. 6, 27. 

1817. July 4". 
Dec. 12. 

[Troy] Miami Weekly Post, 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Mar. 16, 1820, judging from the 
date of the only issue noted, that of June 15, 1820, vol. 1, 
no. 14 (see Venable, "Beginnings of Literary Culture in 
the Ohio Valley," 1891, p. 42). Early in 1821 the paper 
was published by W. Doherty & Co. (Kilbourn, "Ohio 
Gazetteer," 1821, p. 191.) 

[Urbana] Farmer's Watch -Tower, 1812. 

Established in June, 1812, by Corwin and Blackburn, 

(Moses B. Corwin and — Blackburn) with the title 

of "The Farmer's Watch-Tower " (Venable, "Beginnings 

1919.] Ohio. 173 

of Literary Culture in the Ohio Valley, " 1891, p. 41). No 
copy located. 

Urbana Gazette, 1817-1819. 

Weekly. Established in May, 1817, judging from the 
date of the only issue Located, that of Dec. 23, 1817, vol. 
1, no. 32, published by Allen M. Poff, with the title of 
"Urbana Gazette." It was still published by Poff in the 
spring of 1819 (Kilbourn, "Ohio Gazetteer/' 1819, p. 

A. A. S. has: 
1817. Dec. 23. 

[Urbana] Spirit of Liberty, 1814. 

There is a reference to the "Spirit of Liberty/' dated at 
Urbana, Feb. 8, 1814, in the Zanesville "Muskingum 
Messenger" of Feb. 16, 1814. No copy located. 

[Urbana] Ways of the World, 1820 + . 

Weekly. Established in July, 1820, by A[ ] R. 

Col well, with the title of "The Ways of the World" 
(Venable, "Beginnings of Literary Culture in the Ohio 
Valley," 1891, p. 41; Kilbourn, "Ohio Gazetteer," 1821, 
p. 191). No copy located. 

[Warren] Trump of Fame, 1812-1810. 

Weekly. Established June 9, 1812, with the title of 
"Trump of Fame," by David Fleming for Thomas D. 
Webb. The second issue, on June 16, was also numbered 
vol. 1. no. 1, by mistake, or possibly June 9 was considered 
a preliminary issue. With the issue of Nov. 3, 1813, the 
paper was published by James White & Co. [Thomas D. 
Webb]. Samuel Quinby replaced Webb in the firm in 
1814, but retired in about a year, as James White was sole 
publisher at some time previous to May 10, 1816. With 
the issue of Aug. 9, 1816, White sold out to P[itch] BisselL 
The issue of Sept. 27, 1816, was the last with the title of 
"Trump of Fame," and on Oct. 4, IS 16, the title was 
* changed to "Western Reserve Chronicle." which see. 

174 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Western Reserve Hist. Soc. has June 16, 1812 -Oct. 26, 
1814; May 10, 17, July 12 -Aug. 16,' Sept. 13-27, 1816. 
Ohio Arch. & Hist. Soc. has June 16 - Dec. 23, 1812. New 
London Co. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 17, 1813. Chicago Hist. 
Soc. has Mar. 16, 1814. Detroit Pub. Lib. has July 5, 

1816. Several libraries have the facsimile issue of June 
9, 1812. A. A. S. has: 

1812. June 9 (fac-sim) 
Nov. 5. 
Dec. 30. 

1814. Jan. 19. 

Feb. 2, 9, 16. 
Mar. 2, 10, 30. 
June 15. 
July 27. 

[Warren] Western Reserve Chronicle, 1816-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 4, 1816, by F[itch] Bissell, 
with the title of ■" Western Reserve Chronicle," and 
succeeding the " Trump of Fame/' but adopting a new 
volume numbering. With the issue of Jan. 24, 1817, the 
title became "The Western Tleserve Chronicle," and the 
publishers F. Bissell & W. Smith, but with Feb. 28, 1817, 
F. Bissell was given as sole publisher, and with Mar. 14, 

1817, S. Quinby, & Co. (Samuel Quinby and Elihu 
Spencer) became the publishers. With the issue of Mar. 
4, 1819, George Hapgood replaced Spencer in the firm, 
and with July 1, 1819, Otis Sprague replaced Quinby, the 
firm then becoming Hapgood & Sprague. With the issue 

of Oct. 1820, E R. Thompson replaced Sprague, 

and the firm became Hapgood & Thompson. It was so 
continued until after 1820. 

Western Reserve Hist. Soc. has Oct. 11, 1816 -Sept. 
24, Oct. 29, 1818; Aug. 19, Sept. 30, 1819; May 4-18, 
June 15, 22, Sept. 14, Nov. 9, Dec. 14, 1820. Detroit 
Pub. Lib. has Dec. 20, 1816; May 25, June 15, Sept. 14, 
1820. Chicago Hist. Soc. has July 17, 1817. A. A. S. 

1919.] Ohio. 175 

1816. Nov. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Dec. 6. 

1817. July 3, 17. 
Dec. 4. 

[West Union] Political Censor, 1815-1820-f-. 

Weekly. Established in March, 1815, judging from 
the first and only issue located, that of Dec. 20, 1817, vol. 
3, no. 42, published by James Finley, with the title of 
" Political Censor," The paper is listed in the 1818, 1819 
and 1821 editions of Kilbourn's "Ohio Gazetteer" as 
published by James Finley. 

A. A. S. has: 
1817. Dec. 20. 

[Williamsburgh] Clermont Sentinel, 1818-1819. 

Weekly. Established July 4, 1818, by Charles D. 
McManaman ("History of Clermont County," 1880, p. 
151). It is referred to in Kilbourn's ''Ohio Gazetteer," 
1819, p. 169, as published in the spring of 1819 by C. D. 
M'Manaman. No copy located. 

[Williamsburg] Farmers' Friend, 1820 -f-. 

Weekly. Established in February, 1820, judging from 
the only copy noted, that of July 21, 1821, no. 77, pub- 
lished by William A. Camron, with the title of "The 
Farmers' Friend" (Venable, "Beginnings of Literary 
Culture in the Ohio Valley," 1891, p. 42). No copy 

[Williamsburgh] Political Censor, 1813. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 15, 1813, by Thomas S. 
Foote and Robert Tweed, with the title of "The Political 
Censor," but discontinued probably within a year 
("History of Clermont County," 1880, p. 150). The 
prospectus was published in the Chillicothe "Supporter" 
of June 20, 1812. No copy located. 

176 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

[Williamsburg] Western American, 1814-1816. 

Weekly. Established in August, 1814, judging from 
the earliest issue located, that of Feb. 25, 1815, vol. 1, 
no. 30, published by Morris & Ely. The date of estab- 
lishment is given as Aug. 5, 1814, and the names of the 
publishers as David Morris and George Ely ("History 
of Clermont County," 1880, p. 151). The paper is 
quoted in the " Union" of Washington, Ky., of May 31, 

Wis. Hkt, Soc. has Feb. 25, Mar. 11, 1815. 

[Wooster] Ohio Spectator, 1817-1820+. 

Weekly, Established June 6, 1817, judging from the 
volume numbering and advertisements of the earliest 
issue located, that of Nov. 21, 1817, vol. 1, no. 25, pub- 
lished by fcox & Hickcox (Levi Cox and Asa W. Hickcox), 
with the title of "The Ohio Spectator." Before the end 
of 1817, Cox withdrew, and the paper was published by 
Hickcox & Baldwin ("Ohio Monitor," Columbus, Jan. 
1, 1818). Within a year, certainly-previous to the spring 
of 1819, Samuel Baldwin, Jr., became sole publisher 
(Kilbourn, "Ohio Gazetteer," 1819, p. 169). Baldwin died 
in office May 18, 1820 ("Ohio Monitor," Columbus, June 
10, 1820). It is stated in Douglass, "History of Wayne 
County", 1878, p. 357, that after Baldwin's death, the 
paper was edited by Thomas Townsend and printed by 
Joseph Clingan, and expired before the end of the year, 
although later revived. 

A. A. S. has: 
1817. Nov. 21. 

[Worthington] Columbian Advocate, 1820-j-- 

Weekly. Established Jan. 7, 1820, by Ezra Giiswold, 
Jr., with the title of "Columbian Advocate and Franklin 
Chronicle", according to the evidence of a complete file 
described in the "History of Delaware County," 1880, 
p. 249, but now not located. The prospectus of the paper 
is printed in the "Ohio Monitor," of Columbus, of Sept. 

1919.] Ohio. 177 

2, 1819. At some time previous to June 19, 1820, the 
title was shortened to "Franklin Chronicle," and the 
publishers became Griswold & Spencer, by whom the 
paper was continued after 1820. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has June 19, 1820. 

[Worthington] Franklin Chronicle, see Columbian Advocate. 

[Worth ington] Western Intelligencer, 1811-1814. 

Weekly. Established in August, 1811, judging from 
the date of the earliest issue located, that of Feb. 7, 1812, 
vol. 1, no. 25, published by Buttles & Smith (Joel Buttles 
and George Smith), with the title of " Western Intelli- 
gencer." In December, 1812, the firm was dissolved and 
Smith retired. The issues early in 1813 bear no publish- 
er's imprint, but according to A. E. Lee, " History of 
Columbus," vol. 1, p. 423, the publishers at this period 
were Joel Buttles, James H. Hills and Ezra Griswold. In 
the spring of 1813, Buttles retired in favor of Philo II. 
Olmsted, and the publishing firm became Olmsted, Hills 
& Griswold. The last Worthington issue located is that 
of Nov. 3, 1813, vol. 3, no. 8, although judging from later 
volume numbering it was discontinued at Worthington with 
the issue of Feb. 23, 1814, vol. 3, no. 24, and removed to 
Columbus, where it was reestablished under the same title 
on Mar. 16, 1814. 

Wis. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 7, 1812. Long Id. Hist, Soc. 
has Dec. 9, 16, 1812. Harvard has Dec. 16, 1812; Jan. 
20, Feb. 10, 17, 1813. Ohio State Lib. has Feb. 17, June 
9, 23, July 14, 28, Aug. 4, Oct. 6-20, Nov. 3, 1813. 
Western Reserve Hist. Soc. has Sept. 1, 1813. A. A. S. 

1813. Oct. 13. 

[Xenia] Ohio Vehicle, 1814-1815. 

Weekly. Established in January, 1814, judging from 
the date of the earliest issue located, that of Feb. 14, 1815, 
vol. 2, no. 5, published by Pelham & Smith (Samuel 
Pelham and George Smith), with the title of "Ohio 

178 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

Vehicle." The last issue located is that of Oct. 24, 1815, 
vol. 2, no. 39. 

Green Co. Lib., Xenia, has Feb. 14 -Oct. 24, 1815. 

[Xenia] Reading Room, 1819. 

Weekly. A paper with the title of "Reading Room" 

was published in the spring of 1819 by John Kendall 
(Kilbourn, "Ohio Gazetteer," 1819, p. 109). No copy 

Zanesville Express, 1812-1820. 

" Weekly. Established Dec. 30, 1812, by Putnam & 
Israel (Edwin Putnam and Joseph Israel), with the title 
of "Zanesville Express, and Republican Standard,." 
With the issue of Dec. 28, 1814, Jonathan Clark was 
added to the firm, which became Putnam, Israel & Clark. 
With the issue of May 25, 1815, Israel withdrew and the 
firm became Putnam & Clark. With the issue of Nov. 
14, 1816, Dunham replaced Clark in the firm, which 
became Putnam & Dunham. In 1817, the paper was 
transferred to Horace Reed & Co., changed early in 1818 
to Horace Reed. In June, 1820 the paper was purchased 

by O'Hara & Barrett ( O'Hara and Barrett) 

and the title was changed to "The Express & Public 
Advertiser." It was so continued until after 1820. 

Ohio State Lib. has Dec. 30, 1812 -Dec. 19, 1816. 
Detroit Pub. Lib. has Jan. 5, 1813; Jan. 30, 1817; June 3, 
1818; Nov. 3, Dec. 29, 1819; Jan. 5-19, Feb. 2, 23, Mar. 
1, 8, 1820. Cincinnati Y. M. M. Lib. has Jan. 5, 1813. 
Marietta Coll. has Mar. 16, June 8, Aug. 31, Nov. 9, Dec. 
21, 1815; Sept. 1, 1819; Feb. 2, 16- June 3, July 1 -Aug. 5, 
Sept. 12, 19, 1820. Lib. Congress has Dec. 28, 1815. 
A. A. S. has: 

1813. June 30. 

1815. Oct. 5. 

1817. Dec. 18. 

1818. July 29. 

1919.] Ohio. 179 

[Zanesville] Muskingum Messenger, 1809-1820. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 18, 1809, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Jan. 6, 1810, vol. 
1, no. 8, published by White, Sawyer, & Co. (Joseph W. 
White and Porter Sawyer), with the title of " Muskingum 
Messenger/' In either July or August, 1810, the "Co." 
was omitted and the paper published by White & 
Sawyer. With the issue of Dec. 8, 1810, the title was 
enlarged to "Muskingum Messenger and Ohio Intelli- 
gencer" and David Chambers was added to the firm, 
which became White, Sawyer & Chambers. With the 
issue of July 24, 1811, White withdrew from the firm, which 
became Sawyer & Chambers. With the issue of Apr. 8, 
1812, the title was shortened to "Muskingum Messen- 
ger." With the issue of Mar. 30, 1814, David Chambers 
became sole publisher, and with Nov. 2, 1814, the title 
was slightly altered to "The Muskingum Messenger. ,, 
With the issue of May 16, 1810, Josiah Heard was ad- 
mitted to partnership, the firm becoming Chambers and 
Heard. With the issue of Nov. 7, 1816, Josiah Heard 
became sole publisher. Early in 1819 Ezekiel T. Cox 
became the publisher and continued the paper until after 

Zanesville Pub. Lib. has May 12, 1810. Cincinnati 
Y. M. M. Lib. has July 17, 1811; July 6, 1814. Marietta 
College has Sept. 13, 1815; Feb. 21, 1816-Dec. 31, 1817; 
Feb. 11-25, Mar. 25-Apr. 22, 1818. Chicago Hist. Soc. 
has Jan. 12, 1814. H. W. Phelps, Columbus, has June 1, 
1814. Western Reserve Hist. Soc. has June 16, 1813. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 17, 1817; Feb. 3, 1819. A. A. S. 

1810. Jan. 6 to Dec. 26. 

Missing: Jan. 13 -Feb. 10, 24, Mar. 3-24, 
Apr. 28, July 21 -Aug. 18, Sept. 15, 22, 
29, Oct. 20. 

1811. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Missing: Jan. 16, Feb. 6, 13, 27, Mar. 2, 9, 
23, 30, Apr. 27, June 5, 12, July 10, Aug. 
14, 21. 

180 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

1812. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 
Extra: Apr. 4. 

Missing: Jan. 22, Feb. 26, Mar. 18, Apr. 15, 
22, 29, May 13, 20, 27, July 29, Aug. 12, 
26, Sept. 9, Oct. 7, 21, 28, Nov. 11, 25. 

1813. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 
Extra: Apr. 7. 

Missing: Jan. 6, Feb. 10, June 9, 16, 23, 
July 7, 14, Sept. 22, Nov. 10, 17. 

1814. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 
[Extra: June 17] 

Missing: Mar. 4, Apr. 13, 20, July 6, 27, 
Aug. 3, 17, Sept. 21, Oct. 5, 12, 19, Nov. 
9, 23, Dec. 7. - 

1815. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Missing: Jan. 4, 11, Feb. 1, Apr. 26, May 
3, 17, June 7, 28, July 12, 26, Aug. 2, 
Sept. 13, 20, Oct. 4, Nov. 1, 22, Dec. 6. 

1816. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Missing: Jan. 17, Feb. 21, Mar. 6, 13, Apr. 
3, 10, June 6, 13, July 18, Aug. 8, 29, 
Sept. 5-26, Oct. 10, Nov. 28. 

1817. Jan. 2, 9, 16, 30. 
Feb. 6, 13, 20. 
Mar. 6, 20, 27. 
Apr. 3, 10, 17. 
Dec. 17. 

1919.] Proceedings. 181 



The annual meeting was called to order in Antiqua- 
rian Hall, at 10.45 a. m., President Lincoln in the 

There were present the following members: 

Franklin Bowditch Dexter, Reuben Colton, Henry 
Herbert Edes, William Eaton Foster, Francis IJenshaw 
Dewey, William Trowbridge Forbes, George Henry 
Haynes, Arthur Lord, Charles Lemuel Nichols, Waldo 
Lincoln, Edward Sylvester Morse, George Parker 
Winship, Samuel Utley, Benjamin Thomas Hill, 
Daniel Berkeley Updike, Clarence Saunders Brigham, 
Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt, Worthington Chauncey 
Ford, Frederick Jackson Turner, Julius Herbert 
Tuttle, Samuel Bayard Woodward, George Hubbard 
Blakeslee, Arthur Prentice Rugg, Wilfred Harold 
Munro, Henry Winchester Cunningham, Frank Far- 
num Dresser, Rev. Shepherd Knapp, Homer Gage, 
Livingston Davis, Archer Butler Hulbert, Rev. Her- 
bert Edwin Lombard, Howard Millar Chapin, Grenville 
Howland Norcross, Thomas Hovey Gage, Charles 
Francis Jenney, John Whittemore Farwell, Leonard 
Wheeler, Alexander George McAdie, Nathaniel Thayer 
Kidder, William Lawrence Clements, Richard Ward 
Greene, George Anthony Gaskill, John Woodbury, 
Alfred Lawrence Aiken, Charles Knowles Bolton, 
John Henry Edmonds, Leonard Leopold Mackall, 
Samuel Lyman Munson, Robert Kendall Shaw, 
Harold Marsh Sewall. 

182 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

The call for the meeting having been read, it was 
voted to dispense with the reading of the records of 
the last meeting. 

The President read the report of the Council, the 
financial report was read by the Treasurer, Dr. 
Woodward, and the Librarian's report was read by 
Mr. Brigham. It was voted, on motion of Mr. Edes, 
that these papers be accepted as the Report of the 
Council and referred to the Committee of Publication. 

The President appointed Messrs. Blakeslee, Aiken 
and Colton a committee to collect and count the 
ballots for new members. They reported the election, 
as resident members of the following: 

Isaac Newton Phelps Stokes, of New York, N. Y. 
Robert Digges Wimberly Connor, of Raleigh, N. C. 

The unanimous election of Waldo Lincoln as 
President was announced by the committee, Messrs. 
Edes, Gaskill and Edmonds, appointed by the chair. 
Messrs. Cunningham, Woodbury and Munson, as a 
committee to nominate the other officers, reported the 
following list: 


Waldo Lincoln, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

Andrew McFarland Davis, A.M., of Cambridge, 

Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 


Granville Stanley Hall, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

Samuel Utley, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., of Worcester, 

Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M., of Worcester, 

Henry Winchester Cunningham, A.B., of Milton, 

1919.] Proceedings. 183 

Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Ph.D., of New York 
N. Y. 

George Parker Winship, Litt.D., of Dover, Mass. 

William Howard Taft, LL.D., of New Haven, Conn. 

George Hubbard Blakeslee, Ph.D., of Worcester, 

Henry Herbert Edes, A.M., of Cambridge, Mass. 

Secretary for Foreign Correspondence: 
James Phinney Baxter, Litt.D., of Portland, Me. 

Secretary for Domestic Correspondence: 
Worthington Chauncey Ford, Litt.D., of Boston, 


Recording Secretary: 
Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., Litt.D., of Worces- 
ter, Mass. 

Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., of Worcester, 

Committee of Publication 
• George Henry Haynes, Ph.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
Julius Herbert Tuttle, of Dedham, Mass. 
John Henry Edmonds, of Boston, Mass. 

Benjamin Thomas Hill, A. B., of Worcester, Mass. 
Homer Gage, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

The above named officers were then unanimously 
elected by the Society by ballot. The oath was 
administered to the recording secretary by Judge 

The secretary then read on recommendation of the 
Council the Constitution of the American Council of 
Learned Societies devoted to Humanistic Studies, 
which was adopted by the society, on motion of Judge 
Forbes. It was moved, and so voted, that the President 
appoint delegates to represent this Society in the new 

184 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

organization. The delegates appointed were Messrs. 
Hiram Bingham for four years and Frederick J. 
Turner for two years. 

There being no further business, the members 
listened to the following papers: " Greater New Eng- 
land in the Middle of the Nineteenth Century/' by 
Frederick Jackson Turner, of Cambridge, Mass, and 
"The Conciliatory Proposition in the Massachusetts 
Convention of 1788," by George Henry Haynes, of 
Worcester. A paper by Barrett Wendell, entitled 
" A Gentlewoman of Boston, 1742-1805", was read by 
title. It was voted that these papers be referred 
to the Committee of Publication. 

Rev. Herbert Edwin Lombard called the attention 
of the society to the exhibition of the engraved work of 
Edwin D. French in the cases in the gallery and 
emphasized its iniportance as a contribution to the 
study of American engraving and bookplates. 

Mr. Edes proposed and the Society voted to send the 
following resolution to Andrew McFarland Davis: 
"We, the members of the American Antiquarian 
Society, assembled at our annual meeting, send cordial 
and affectionate greeting to our honored senior Vice- 
President, Andrew McFarland Davis. We wish to 
record an expression of our regret at his absence and 
of our hope to welcome him at the April meeting in 
Boston. We miss the genial presence of Mr. Davis. 
We miss also his participation in our proceedings 
and his wise counsel in our various discussions and 
undertakings to which he has always been a generous 

The President invited the members to lunch at his 
house, 49 Elm Street, at the close of the exercises. 
There being no further business, the meeting was 


Recording Secretary. 

1919.] Report of the Council 185 


During the past six months two deaths have 
occurred among the active members, both very 
recently. William Roscoe Livermore of Boston, a 
member since October, 1897, died at New York, 
September 28, after a brief illness. On Saturday last, 
October 11, Henry Ernest Woods of Boston died very 
suddenly at Greenfield. He was elected to the 
Society in October, 1907. 

Brief memoirs of these gentlemen will be prepared 
for publication in the Proceedings. So far as known 
to the Council there have been no deaths among the 
foreign members. It may be well to repeat the 
suggestion made two years ago, that members notify 
the secretary or librarian of the decease of any 
foreign member that may come to their knowledge. 

The Society has recently received from the estate of 
the late Samuel Abbot Green a legacy of five thousand 
dollars with which the Samuel Abbot Green Fund 
has been established, the income of which, under the 
terms of Doctor Green's will, is to be expended for 
"the purchase of works relating to American history, 
including all publications in any way connected with 
the town of Groton, " Massachusetts. Doctor Green 
at the time of his death was the senior member of the 
Society, having been elected in October, 1865, and for 
forty-four years was a member of the Council, the last 
fourteen as Vice-President. It is peculiarly gratifying 
therefore, to have his name associated with the large 
benefactors of the Society. 

A petty source of annoyance, which has existed for 
many years, has been removed during the past 

18G American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

summer, by the action of the local society in changing 
its name from "The Worcester Society of Antiquity" 
to "The Worcester Historical Society." The simi- 
larity of the former name to that of this Society led to 
constant misunderstanding in the mind of the public 
as to which was which, and to frequent misdirection of 
letters. This Society has always wished to encourage 
and assist the local society and, in the past, has sent 
much material to it for its cabinet and library, but 
many individuals have refrained from joining it 
because of its unfortunate name. The Council now 
hopes that every member of this Society from Worces- 
ter County will join the Worcester Historical Society 
and give it every aid in his power. 

It should be one of the most important objects of 
this Society to encourage local historical societies all 
over the United States. The more there are of them 
and the more active they are in collecting and preserv- 
ing the records, maps, manuscripts, and newspapers of 
their respective localities the better. It is manifestly 
impossible for any national library to cover the whole 
country. The Library of Congress, which has the 
government itself behind it, is swamped with the 
vast mass of material which it attempts to preserve. 
There are seventeen thousand newspapers published 
in this country alone, and many hundreds, if not 
thousands, more in Canada and Spanish America. 
This library preserves about thirty of these thousands. 
If every local historical society would make a point of 
preserving and binding a file of the newspapers 
published in its neighborhood, it would advance the 
cause of local history very much, and bring great 
relief to the national libraries. But it is not necessary 
to have a local society to accomplish this, since the 
local library can do this work as we'll, and many in 
Massachusetts, where every town has a library, are 
already doing it. Let it be the business of every 
member of this Society to see that his own local society 
or library adopts this plan, if it has not already done so. 

1919.] Report of the Council 187 

By the sale of the larger part of the duplicate news- 
papers, as was mentioned in the last annual report, 
the Purchasing Fund has been restored to its original 
sum and considerably increased. This has made 
possible the purchase of several important collections 
which otherwise could not have been secured. The 
most notable of these is the Marshall collection of 
book-plates, the acquisition of which has placed the 
Society's collection well at the front of all others. 
The financing of this purchase has been done partly 
with the Purchasing Fund and partly with the aid of 
our ever generous recording secretary. It will proba- 
bly be a year before the sale of duplicates from this 
collection will enable the Society to repay the secretary 
and return something to the fund. Through the 
good will of Mrs. E. D. French, the Society's collection 
of the book-plates designed by her husband has been 
made practically perfect, and an exhibition of his 
work has been arranged in the upper hall, which will 
undoubtedly interest the members and will be con- 
tinued for some weeks for the benefit of the public. 
It should attract the attention of all who are interested 
in this branch of art. 

Partly owing to the war, partly to the death of the 
most active member of the committee of publication, 
and partly to a depleted staff and consequent increase 
of work for those remaining, the published Proceedings 
are six months in arrears, and the printed records of 
the last annual meeting have but just now reached the 
members. One result of such delay is that any appeal 
of the Council is received, by those members who are 
not present at the meeting when it is made, so late as 
to lose much of its force. An effort will be made 
during the coming year to return to the former custom 
of having the printed Proceedings of each meeting 
distributed before the holding of the next meeting. 
Even this delays too long the presentation of recom- 
mendations of the Council. It is, therefore, proposed 
to print and distribute the report of the Council, as a 

188 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

separate publication, as soon as possible after each 
meeting. Thus the members may be more promptly 
advised of the Society's doings. A year ago reference 
was made to an offer which would enable the Society 
to acquire a valuable collection of engraved portraits 
of distinguished Americans, and the hope was expressed 
that some member, not too far removed from Worces- 
ter, would volunteer to care for the arrangement and 
increase of such a collection, the staff being too small 
and too much occupied with other work to take over 
such a task. Owing to the delay in printing the 
Proceedings this suggestion has reached those mem- 
bers, not present when the report was read, within the 
last week, and naturally no response has been received. 
This is a concrete example of the advantage to be 
gained by a£ separate publication of the Council's 
report. Fortunately the offer of the portraits is still 
open and the suggestion is now renewed. 

One of the specialities in which this library holds 
first rank is that of American school books, or educa- 
tional textbooks as they are frequently designated. 
This collection has recently been completely re- 
arranged and classified, and by a careful estimate 
contains ten thousand eight hundred and seventy 
volumes, probably nine-tenths of them being pub- 
lished before the Civil War. No other collection of 
which any record has been found approaches this 
in point of numbers and importance. A Bulletin of 
the United States Bureau of Education on " Special 
Collections in Libraries in the United States," issued 
in 1912, claims for that Bureau ten thousand textbooks, 
but a large proportion of these are foreign, while the 
collection in the Library of Congress consists mainly 
of textbooks published since 1870 and acquired 
through the operation of the copyright law. The 
next largest collection noted in the Bulletin is that in 
the Wadsworth Athenaeum, Hartford, Conn., which 
numbered forty-five hundred volumes, and many of 
these are foreign. A better idea, perhaps, can be 

1919.] Report of the Council. 189 

gained of the importance of this accumulation of early 
school books, for a study of the history of education 
of the United States, by stating that, by actual 
count, there are on the shelves eight hundred and 
twenty arithmetics, six hundred and ten geographies 
and atlases, six hundred and thirty English grammars, 
nine hundred and forty readers, and three hundred and 
ninety spellers,* yet these subjects, which include the 
classic "three R's, " make up only about a third of the 
whole number. 

On August 22, 1919, the presidents and secretaries 
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the 
American Historical Association invited this Society, 
with twelve other representative American learned 
societies devoted to humanistic studies, to send 
delegates to a conference to be held in Boston on 
September 19. The purpose of the conference was 
to consider what action should be taken by American 
societies to enable them to take part effectively in the 
new international Union Academique, which was 
organized in Paris in May, to further international 
undertakings in bibliography, archaeology and history. 
The suggestion was made in the invitation that each 
society be represented by its president, its secretary 
and one other member, and accordingly the Council 
appointed the president, the recording secretary and 
the librarian to attend the conference. Doctor 
Nichols was unable to accept, but President Lincoln 
and Librarian Brigham were present at the conference, 
which was held in the building of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences and was attended by 
twenty delegates representing the following ten socie- 
ties: — The American Philosophical Society, The Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences, The American 
Antiquarian Society, The American Oriental Society, 
The American Philological Association, The Archaeo- 
logical Institute of America, The Modern Language 

♦This includes school aliases only and not the larger and more important atlases in the 
map room. Neither are the New England Primers, of which the society owns ninety-two 
editions, counted among the nine hundred and forty readers. 

190 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Association of America, The American Historical 
Association, The American Economic Association, and 
The American Philosophical Association. Three other 
societies had been invited but were not represented, 
viz.: — The American Political Science Association, 
The American Sociological Society, and The American 
Society of International Law. Mr. William Roscoe 
Thayer was chosen permanent chairman and Mr. 
Waldo G. Leland permanent secretary, and the origin 
and purposes of the Union Academique were explained 
to the conference by Professor Charles H. Haskins of 
Harvard University. After discussion the following 
resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this conference that 
American learned societies devoted, to humanistic 
studies should participate as a group in the Union 

The conference then appointed Professor James T. 
Shotwell of Columbia University and Mr. William M. 
Buckler of Baltimore, as American delegates to the 
October session of the Union Academique, with power 
to fill vacancies, and adopted the following votes of 
instruction: — 

Voted, That all projects of research of publication which societies 
desire to have presented to the Union Academique at its October session 
in Paris shall be transmitted to the Secretary of the Conference not later 
than September 28 for forwarding to the American delegates. 

Voted, That until the action of this conference shall have been ratified 
by the bodies represented and an organization of the societies for national 
representation in the Union Academique shall have been perfected, the 
delegates are instructed that they have no authority to commit the 
American societies to any particular project but should confine them- 
selves to a cordial endorsement of the general plan by those present at 
this Conference, and that any projects submitted to the delegates should 
be regarded as the suggestions of individual scholars. 

Voted, That it is the sense of those present at this Conference that 
some form of bibliography of humanistic studies should be approved as 
an international undertaking. 

Voted, That this Conference desires to express its deep interest in the 
subject of explorations and researches in western Asia and hopes that a 
scheme of co-operation may be considered by the Union Academique. 

1919.] Report of the Council. 191 

The secretary of the conference presented a draft 
of a convention for establishing an American Council 
of Learned Societies accompanied by a form of 
constitution for such a council, which after some 
amendment was adopted. This convention and con- 
stitution will be presented to the Society by the 
recording secretary later in the meeting, with the 
recommendation of the Council that it be accepted 
and ratified. 

By the liberality of four of our members a scholar- 
ship bearing the name of this Society has been 
established for two years at Clark University, for the 
encouragement of the study of American history.* 
A closer connection is thus formed between the 
Society and the University which should redound to 
the benefit of both, but the benefit accruing to the 
Society will come indirectly from the advertising by 
the University of the educational advantages possessed 
by it through the use of this library. It is true that 
the University has always had the free use of the 
library, but it is now not only at liberty to advertise 
that fact, but it has become its duty to extol the 
facilities which the library offers to students and 
writers of American history. The more generally 
this becomes known among the friends of education, 
the greater the chance that a "good angel 5 ' will 
appear who will relieve the Society of its financial 
distress. Should that "good angel 7 ' prove to be one 
of the Society's own members the greater the credit to 
the Society, but should it be a non-member the greater 
the credit to the "angel." Though attention has 
frequently been called to it in these reports, many 
members may not yet appreciate the extent to which 
the Society's collections are used by advanced 
students, in their preparation of theses for higher 
degrees. This alone justifies the work of the Society 

*The scholarship has boon awarded to Mr. F. Lee Bonus, a graduate of Syracuwe 
University in 1014 and, from that, time until February, 1918, an instructor in history and 
a graduate student in history and economies at Syracuse. For the next six months he 
was a teacher in the Bloomheld, N. J., High School and for the past year head of the 
historical department in the Danbury, Conn., High School. He is thirty years old. 

192 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

in continuing to collect American historical material, 
but it is sometimes questionable if the library is not 
better known to students not connected with the 
Society than to the members themselves. One object 
sought by this report is to excite such an interest 
among the members, that everyone will feel it his duty 
not only to contribute what he can to the Society's 
funds, but to represent the merits and needs of the 
library to all liberal minded friends of education whom 
he may know, so that not one but many " angels" 
may spread their beneficent wings over this institution. 

At the last annual meeting, held while the world war 
was at its height, some fear was expressed lest the 
scarcity of coal might seriously interfere with the 
usefulness of the library, and lest the Society might 
even be deprived of the services of its librarian. 
Fortunately in less than a month the armistice was 
signed and anxiety on those two points was allayed, 
but the high cost of living, which still continues, has 
been and is a serious handicap for which the only 
remedy seems to be an increase of endowment. The 
need for this has been mentioned so frequently that 
it may be superfluous to mention it now, but the 
members should bear it in mind when approached by 
solicitors for other educational institutions, whose 
appeals are receiving a wide, free advertising which a 
small institution like this cannot command. Com- 
pared with the vast sums demanded by others the 
wants of this Society can be met by a sum which is 
modesty itself, yet with the small constituency on 
which it can call, it looms so large as to seem almost 
unobtainable. One hundred thousand dollars added 
to the interest-bearing endowment would furnish the 
much needed addition to the staff, and provide an 
equally needed sum for binding and book purchases. 

But the most imperative need is for a similar sum of 
one hundred thousand dollars for the enlargement of 
the stack to double its present size, for which plans 
were submitted by the architects nearly three years 

1919.] Report of the Council. 193 

ago. These plans are now before you and will be 
printed in reduced facsimile in the Proceedings for the 
information of those not present today. Estimates of 
the cost were made at the time and it was the intention 
of the Council to make an effort to raise a sufficient 
sum to build the extension, but the war interfered and 
the matter has rested until now. It can rest no 
longer for the time has come when the storage capacity 
of the building must be increased or a check must be 
put on collecting. Already several hundred volumes 
of newspapers are stored in the basement and are 
inaccesssible for consultation, except with an ex- 
penditure of much time and labor which the present 
force is too small to supply, and even this method 
of storage must soon cease, as little room remains 
unoccupied and that is required for new acquisitions 
now awaiting classification and arrangement which 
cannot be hastened for lack of means. The fact is 
that the Society must have financial help or its 
usefulness will be seriously impaired, and the sooner 
the members realize that fact the better. They must 
themselves feel, and they must impress upon that 
portion of the general public on whose liberality all 
educational establishments must depend for support, 
that the great assistance given by this library to 
advanced students of American history, who come 
hither from graduate schools as far west as the 
Mississippi, and even from more remote universities, 
for research work which they cannot pursue as well 
elsewhere, must not be curtailed. They should 
realize that writers in almost every branch of this 
subject must prosecute their studies here, if they would 
exhaust the sources of information, for these walls 
contain larger and more complete collections of 
printed matter on many topics relating to American 
history, than any other library in the United States; 
and in certainly a dozen important lines more than 
any other library in New England. This is not said 
in any spirit of boastfulness but simply in an attempt 

194 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

to impress on the minds of the members, that this is 
an educational institution which is entirely worthy 
of their financial assistance, and that its needs, 
though comparatively small, are quite as imperative 
as those of institutions whose appeals are now being 
so vigorously advertised. 


For the Council. 

■Proposld l 3 _ T Addition 

^Latlr Addition — 

y-^.,y w ^ j u 




19G American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 



Henry Ernest Woods died suddenly of heart trouble 
at the Hotel Weldon in Greenfield, Mass., October 11, 
1919, while on the performance of his duties as State 
Commissioner of Public Records. He was born in 
Boston, June 5, 1857, the son of Henry Thayer and 
Ellen (Thayer) Woods and descended on both sides 
from a long line of New England ancestors. He was 
educated at the old Chauncy Hall School in Boston, 
but was prevented from continuing his studies at 
Harvard by ill health and trouble with his eyes, and 
instead, travelled for a year or two in England, on the 
Continent, and in North Africa, and from then 
till the last ten years of his life was a traveller in this, 
and other countries. 

After a few years in Mercantile life, he devoted 
himself to genealogical and historical investigation of 
New England people and places, and to editorial work 
along these lines. He was a prominent member of 
the New England Historic Genealogical Society, and 
from 1901 to 1907 was Editor of the Register and the 
other publications of that Society. He was prominent 
in the movement for publishing the Vital Records of 
the Massachusetts towns and edited many of these 
volumes. In 1907, he was appointed by the Governor, 
State Commissioner of Public Records, and performed 
a notable service in this office. He was made a mem- 
ber of this Society in 1907. In 1903, Bowdoin College 
conferred upon him the honorary degree of Master of 
Arts. He was clever with his pencil, being at one 
time a contributor to Life, and was well posted in the 

1919.] Obituaries. 197 

science of heraldry. His chief literary work was 
editorial, though he published an excellent genealogy 
of the Woods Family and many shorter genealogical 
sketches, and was ever ready to put his time and 
talents at the disposal of friends in genealogical, 
historical or heraldic investigations. He never mar- 
ried, but made his home in Boston with an invalid 
mother until her death. Later he lived on Newbury 
Street, making his home at the near-by St. Botolph 

H. W. C. 


William Roscoe Livermore, son of George and 
Elizabeth (Cunningham) Livermore, was born in 
Cambridge, January 11, 1843, and died at the Army 
Hospital in New York City from heart failure, 
September 28, 1919. He was fitted for college at the 
Cambridge High School and entered Harvard College 
in 1860, but left at the end of his freshman year to 
attend the Military Academy at West Point, from 
which he was graduated in 1865, as second lieutenant of 
engineers. He rose by successive promotions to be- 
come colonel, which appointment he received in 1904, 
and was retired from service on June 11, 1907, after 
forty-two years of varied activities in connection with 
army engineering work. May 10, 1917, he returned 
to active duty and was assigned to special duty with 
the Chief of United States Engineers. After re- 
tirement in 1907, he lived in Boston, but removed to 
Washington after the declaration of war with Germany. 
He was author, in 1882, of "The American Kriegspiel, " 
a game for practising the art of war on a typographical 
map, and, in 1884, of "Manoeuvres for Infantry'', 
which reached a second edition. After his retirement 
he devoted his time to writing on military and his- 
torical subjects, publishing the "Story of the Civil 
War — Vicksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg", and 

198 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

contributing papers to the several societies of which 
he was a member. He was a Fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, the Massachusetts 
Military Historical Society, and the American Histori- 
cal Association, and was elected to this Society in 
October, 1897, contributing a paper on " America's 
Place in History" to the Proceedings for April, 1908. 
In 1883, he married Augusta Keen of Philadelphia, 
who survives him. 

w. L. 

1919.] Report of the Treasurer. 199 


The Treasurer presents herewith his annual report of receipts 

and expenditures for the year ending Sept. 30, 1919, to which is 

appended a statement of the Society's investments and of the 

condition of the various funds. 

Oct. 1, 1919, the net assets were invested as follows: 

Library Building $189,905 .71 

Public Funds 102,147.50 

Railroad bonds 101,515.50 

Miscellaneous bonds 62.807 . 00 

Railroad shares 22,017.00 

Bank shares 5,345 . 00 

Miscellaneous shares 8,234 . 50 

Mortgages 15,100.00 

Bank deposit 2,000.00 

Cash on deposit 7,076. 10 

Which sum includes unexpended income 

amounting to 562.70 

Less Library Building 189,905 . 71 

Capital bearing interest $325,739 . 90 

Bonds of the City of Boston to the amount of $15,000 and of 
the City of Waterbury to the amount of $10,000 became due 
and were paid during the year, and in their place the Treasurer, 
with the consent of the Finance Committee, purchased $5,000 
Consumers Power Company 5% bonds; $5,000, Detroit Edison 
Company 5% bonds; $5,000, Southern Power Company 5% bonds; 
$1,000, Southern California Edison Company 5% bond, and 
$11,000 United States Government 4th fyi% bonds. 

200 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Principal account has been increased by receipt of $57.23 from 
the James Lyman Whitney Estate; $5,000 from the Samuel A. 
Green Estate; $150 by Life Memberships; $237.25 by income 
added to principal; $215 by gifts; $7,502 by sale of duplicates; 
$625 by profit on City of Boston bonds and $400 by profit on 
City of Waterbury bonds. 



Report of the Treasurer. 



Principal Oct. 1, 1918 (less unexpended income for 1918) 

Principal received since Oct. 1, 1918 

Alfred L. Aiken Life Membership $50.00 

John Woodbury " " 50.00 

John H.Edmonds" " 50.00 

Income added to principal: 

James L. Whitney Fund $20.25 

Purchasing Fund 217.00 


G. II. Norcross: for Special Gifts Fund 215.00 

Samuel A. Green Estate 5,000. 00 

James Lyman Whitney Estate 67.23 

Profit: City of Boston bonds 625.00 

Profit: City of Waterbury bonds 400.00 

Sale of duplicates 7,502. 00 

Expended from Purchasing Fund $0,777.43 

Expended from Special Gifts Fund 215.00 






Unexpended Income 1918 $5 . 90 

Income from Investments 14/264 . 99 

Assessments 295 . 00 

Sale of Publications 233.95 



Income carried to Principal $237. 25 

Incidental Expense 395. 49 

Salaries 7,165.66 

Light, Heat, Water, and Telephone 935 . 26 

Office Expense 628. 52 

Supplies 398.42 

Books 2,179.21 

Publishing 1,208. 15 

Binding 600.00 

202 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Care of Grounds 111.23 

Extra Service 377.95 


ASSETS $510,208.33 

Real Estate $189,905.71 

Mortgages 15,100.00 

Bonds 200,530.00 

Stocks 35,590.50 

Bank Deposit 2,000.00 

Cash on deposit 7,070. 10 


Unexpended Balance October 1, 1919 $502.70 

Principal October 1, 1919 $515,045.61 

Oct. 1, 1919 
Condition of the Fund Accounts 

Balance Income Expended 
Fund Title Principal 1918 1918 1918 Balanoe 

1-Alden $1,000.00 $45.00 $45.00 

2-Bookbinding 7,500.00 337.50 337.50 

3-George Chandler 500.00 22.50 22.50 

4-Collection and Research 17,000.00 765.00 765.00 

5-1. and E. L. Davis 23,000 . 00 1,035 . 00 928 . 00 $107 . 00 

6- John and Eliza Davis . . 4,900.. 00 220 . 50 220 . 50 

7-F.H.Dewey 4,800.00 $1.09 216.00 217.09 

8-G. E.Ellis....- 17,500.00 787.50 787.50 

9-Librarian's and General. 35,000 . 00 1,575 . 00 1,575 . 00 

10-Haven 1,500-. 00 3.02 67.50 .70.52' 

12-Life Membership 3,900.00 175.50 175.50 

13-Lincoln Legacy 7,000.00 315.00 315.00 

14-Publishing 32,001.91 1,420.00 1,420.00 

17-Salisbury 104,348.39 . 4,780.54 4,080.54 100.00 

18-Tenney 5,000.00 225.00 225.00 

19-B. F. Thomas 1,000.00 0.57 45.00 45.57 

22-Special Gifts 497 . 82 22 . 50 22.50 

23-F.W. Haven 2,000.00 90.00 90.00 

24-Purchasing... 1,101.55 217.00 217.00* 

25-Chas. F. Washburn .... 5,000 . 00 225 . 00 225 . 00 

26-Centennial 34,500.58 1,002.70 1,247.00 355.70 

27-Eliza D. Dodge 3,000.00 1.22 135.00 136.22 

28-Hunnewell 5,000.00 215.00 215.00 

29-Jas. Lyman Whitney... 489.08 20.25 20.25 

30^Samuel A . G reen ..... 5, 000 . 00 

1919.] Report of the Treasurer. 203 

Statement ov Investments 

Pap. Book 

Name Rate Maturity Val. Val. 

Public Funds: 

Baltimore, Md 4 May, 1955 $15,000 $15,000 . 00 

Cuyahoga County, Ohio.... 5 Oct., 1922 3,000 3,151.00 

Duluth, Minn 4 April, 1936 2,000 1,940.00 

Jersey City, N. J 4 April, 1928 5,000 4,931.00 

Memphis, Term 4 May, 1933 5,000 4,887 . 00 

Middletown, Conn 3^ May, 1925 5,000 4,700.00 

New York, N. Y AH May, 1957 20,000 20,000.00 

Omaha, Neb 43^ Mar. 1928 15,000 15,000.00 

San Francisco, Cal 4 J^ July, 1948 5,000 4,014 . 00 

Woonsocket, R. 1 4 June, 1929 12,000 11,179.00 

United Kingdom of Great 

Britain and Ireland 53^ Feb., 1937 2,000 1,977.50 

United Kingdom of Great 

Britain and Ireland 5^ Nov., 1921 1,000 985.00 

United States of America. .AM May, 1942 3,000 3,000.00 

United States of America. A l A Oct., 1938 11,000 10,483.00 


Atchison, Topeka & Sante 

Fe 4 May, 1995 2,000 $1,540.00 

Atchison, Topeka & Sante 

Fe 4 May, 1995 1,000 885.00 

Baltimore & Ohio 3^ July, 1925 5,000 4,637.00 

Boston Elevated... 4 May, 1935 2,000 2,000.00 

Boston Elevated 4 ]/ 2 April, 1937 8,000 7,900 . 00 

Boston & Maine 33^ Feb., 1925 5,000 4,593.00 

Chicago, Burlington & 

Qaincy 4 July, 1949 5,000 5,000.00 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois . . 5 Nov., 1937 4,000 4,000 . 00 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 

Paul 4^June, 1932 2,000 1,932.60 

Chicago, Indiana & 

Southern 4 Jan., 1956 12,000 10,920.00 

Chicago & Northwestern... 4 Aug., 1920 1,000 945.00 

Fitchburg 33^ Oct., 1921 10,000 9,300.00 

Illinois Central 3 V 2 July, 1952 2,000 2,000 . 00 

Illinois Central 5 Dec, 1963 2,000 2,010.00 

Lake Shore & Michigan 

Southern .....4 May, 1931 5,000 4,021.00 

Lowell, Lawrence & Haver- 
hill. 5 June, 1923 7,000 6,570.00 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Marlboro & Westboro 5 July, 1921 

N. Y., N. H. & Hartford.. . .4 May, 1954 

N. Y., N. H. & Hartford.. .3M Jan., 1950 

N. Y., N. H. & Hartford.. .6 Jan., 1918 

Old Colony 4 Jan., 1938 

Penobscot Shore Line 4 Aug., 1920 

Pere Marquette 4 July, 195G 

Pere Marquette 5 July, 195G 

Southern Indiana.. 4 Feb., 1951 

Union Pacific 4 July, 1927 

Wilkesbarre & Eastern 5 June, 1942 

Worcester & Webster 5 Dec, 1919 

Miscellaneous Bonds: 

Amer. Tel. & Tel. Co 4 July, 1929 

Bethlehem Steel Co 5 Jan., 1926 

Business Real Estate Trust . 4 June, 1921 

Congress Hotel Co 6 Feb., 1933 

Consumers Power Co 5 Jan., 1936 

Detroit Edison Co 5 Jan., 1933 

Detroit Edison Co 5 July, 1940 

Ellicott Square Co 6 Mar., 1 935 

Michigan State Tel. Co 5 Feb., 1924 

Norton Co 5 Feb., 1927 

Seattle Electric Co 5 Aug., 1929 

So. Cal. Edison Co 5 Nov., 1939 

Southern Power Co 5 Mar., 1930 

Terre Haute Trac. Lt. & 

Power Co 5 May, 1944 

Western Electric Co 5 Dec, 1922 



24 American Tel. & Tel. Co 

11 Atchinson, Topeka & Sante Fe R. R.(Pref.) 

3 Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Co. (Prcf.) 

6 Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Co. (Com.) 

6 Fitchburg Bank & Trust Co 

50 Fitchburg R. R. Co 

35 Mass. Gas Light Cos. (Pref.) 

68 N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. Co 

30 Northern R. R. (N. II.) 

11 Old South Building Trust (Pref.) 

30 Union Pacific R. R. (Com.) 

16 Webster & Atlas National Bank 












4,9 13 . 00 













©101 ItR KO 































Qtfi.9 RP»7 on 






























1 919.] Report of the Treasurer. 205 

25 West End St. Ry. Co. (Pref .) 1,250 1,250 . 00 

' 14 Worcester Gas Light Co 1,400 2,000 . 00 

• 31 Worcester Bank & Trust Co 3,100 2,945.00 

Mortgage Loans 

J. Burwick $2,100.00 

L. L. Mellen 1,500.00 

B. F. Sawyer 3,500 . 00 

J. P. Sexton, Trustee 8,000.00 


Bank Deposits 
Deposit in Worcester Bank & Trust Co., Interest 

Department $2,000 . 00 

Real Estate 
Library Building with land $189,905.71 

The undersigned, Auditors of the American Antiquarian 
Society, beg leave to state that the books and accounts of the 
Treasurer, for the year ending September 30, 1919, have been 
examined by Elmer A. MacGowan, Accountant, and his certificate 
that they are correct is herewith submitted. 

The Auditors further report that they have personally e^ unined 
the securities held by the Treasurer and find the same to be as 
stated by him and the balance of cash on hand duly accounted for. 

HOMER GAGE, Auditors. 

October 1, 1919. 

Worcester, Mass., October 1, 1919. 
I hereby certify that I have examined the books and accounts 
of the Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society, made up 
for the year ending September 30, 1919, and find same to be 




American Antiquarian Society. 
















Contributors of $100 and more to titb Society's 
Invested Funds 

Isaiah Thomas, Worcester (legacy) $23,152 

Nathaniel Maccarty, Worcester (legacy) 500 

Edward D. Bangs, Worcester (legacy) 200 

William McFarland, Worcester (legacy) 500 

Christopher G. Champlin, Newport, It. I. (legacy) 100 

Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 5,000 

Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 5,000 

Nathan Appleton, Boston 100 

Isaac Davis, Worcester 200 

Edward Everett, Boston ■ 100 

George Folsom, Worcester 100 

John Green, Worcester 100 

James Lenox, New York, N. Y 250 

Levi Lincoln, Worcester 200 

Charles C. Little, Cambridge 100 

Pliny Merrick, Worcester 100 

Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 3,545 

P. Dexter Tiffany, Worcester 200 

Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 8,000 

William Thomas, Boston 500 

Benjamin F. Thomas, Boston 100 

Isaac Davis, Worcester 500 

Levi Lincoln, Worcester (legacy) 940 

Isaac Davis, Worcester 100 

Usher D. Parsons, Providence 100 

Nathaniel Thayer, Boston 500 

Isaac Davis, Worcester 100 

Ebenezer Torrey, Fitchburg 100 

Edward L. Davis, Worcester 100 

Miss Nancy Lincoln, Shrewsbury 300 

John P. Bigelow, Boston (legacy) 1,000 

Miss Nancy Lincoln, Shrewsbury (legacy) 200 

Ebenezer Alden, Randolph 100 

Isaac Davis, Worcester 400 

Isaac Davis, Worcester 400 

Benjamin F. Thomas, Beverly (legacy) 1,000 

Edward L. Davis, Worcester 500 

Joseph A. Tenney, Worcester (legacy) 5,000 

Ebenezer Alden, Randolph (legacy) 1,000 

Samuel F. Haven, Worcester (legacy) '. . 1,000 

Robert C. Waterston, Boston 100 

George Chandler, Worcester 500 

Stephen Salisbury, Worcester (legacy) 10,000 

Stephen Salisbury, Worcester (legacy) ' 10,000 

Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester 5,000 

1919.] Report of the Treasurer. 207 

Robert C. Waterston, Boston 100 

Francis II. Dewey, Worcester (legacy) 2,000 

Edward L. Davis, Worcester 5,000 

George E. Ellis, Charlestown (legacy) 10,000 

Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester 5,000 

John C. B. Davis, Washington, D. C 1,000 

Horace Davis, San Francisco, Calif 1,000 

Andrew McF. Davis, Cambridge 1,000 

Andrew H. Green, New York, N. Y. (legacy) 4,840 

Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester (legacy) 00,000 

Charles E. French, Boston (legacy) 1,000 

Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester (legacy) 175,000 

Mrs. Frances W. Haven, Worcester (legacy) 2,000 

Charles G. Washburn, Worcester 5,000 

Mrs. Eliza D. Dodge, Worcester (legacy) 3,000 

James F. Hunnewell, Boston 5,000 

Andrew McF. Davis, Cambridge 1,000 

Edward L. Davis, Worcester 6,000 

Charles II. Davis, Worcester 2,000 

Austin P. Cristy, Worcester 100 

Henry W. Cunningham, Boston 1,000 

Henry A. Marsh, Worcester 100 

Simeon E. Baldwin, New Haven, Conn 100 

Eugene F. Bliss, Cincinnati, 1,000 

A. George Bullock, Worcester 2,000 

William B. Weeden, Providence 500 

Charles L. Nichols, Worcester 2,500 

Samuel B. Woodward, Worcester 1,000 

Samuel Utley, Worcester 100 

Waldo Lincoln, Worcester 1,000 

Samuel S. Green, Worcester 1,000 

James L. Whitney, Cambridge (legacy) 49.0 

Austin S. Garver, Worcester 100 

Francis H. Dewey, Worcester 2,500 

Thomas Willing Balch, Philadelphia, Pa.. 100 

William Lawrence, Boston 100 

Charles P. Bowditch, Boston 100 

Samuel A. Green, Boston 150 

James P. Baxter, Portland, Me 100 

Franklin B. Dexter, New Haven, Conn 100 

Justin II. Smith, Boston 100 

Lincoln N. Kinnicutt, Worcester, 200 

Samuel V. Hoffman, New York, N. Y.. 5,000 

Clarence M. Burton, Detroit, Mich 100 

Henry H. Edes, Boston 250 

Mrs. Deloraine P. Corey, Maiden 500 

Albert H. Whitin, Whitinsville 1,000 

208 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1913 Daniel Merriman, Boston (legacy) r 1,000 

Mrs. Deloraine P. Corey, Maiden 500 

Miss Jane A. Taft, Worcester (legacy) 1,000 

Miss Katharine Allen, Worcester (legacy) 4,000 

1916 Grenville H. Norcross, Boston 200 

1917 Horace Davis, San Francisco, Cal. (legacy) 5,000 

1919 Samuel A. Green, Boston (legacy) 5,000 

1919.] Report of the Librarian. 209 


The number and value of the acquisitions of this 
Library each year depend chiefly upon the amount of 
income which the finance committee feels can be 
devoted to book purchase. There are certain funds 
the income of which can be used only for books and 
these funds in the past few years have yielded about 
$1250 a year. In 1913-14, however, the general 
income for books, outside of the special funds, was 
$1650, while in 1918-19, it had dwindled to $420. 
The high cost of living, which to this library means 
cost of fuel, supplies, equipment, printing, and to a 
very slight degree, of salaries, has to be taken out of 
the book fund, the only one capable of standing the 
strain. We must continue to print the Proceedings, 
we must do the necessary binding, and we must keep 
our collections available for use, but we can curtail 
the purchase of books. We are continually " robbing 
Peter to pay Paul," and there are many Pauls, but 
unfortunately only one Peter. 

As a result of this diminished book income, we have 
had recourse during the past three or four years to 
other methods in order to acquire the books needed 
to round out our collections and to fulfil our duty to 
researchers who come here from far and near in the 
quest of material which they do not find in other 
libraries. As books have been offered to us which 
we cannot afford to buy, we have turned to certain 
generous members who have made these purchases 
possible. During the past year our chief source of 
book income has been the money derived from the 
sale of the duplicate newspapers last fall, and this 
more than any other reason explains how the acces- 

210 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

sions have measured in number and value with the 
totals of the past few years. Expressed in statistical 
form, the summary is as follows: 

Bound volumes .... 3815 

Pamphlets 5837 

Maps, broadsides, prints, etc. . . 959 

Unbound newspapers . . . . 5275 

The pamphlet and periodical literature of the day 
forms an important part of the accessions. Certain 
members, such as Charles II . Taylor, Jr., Andrew 
McF. Davis, and Charles G. Washburn, send to the 
library regularly practically all of the current pamph- 
let reports, speeches, and other ephemeral material 
which they accumulate, and many other members 
send us items of historical value which are worthy of 
preservation. The early printed titles, however, do 
not come to the average person. These can be 
picked up only at auction, or from the bookseller's 
catalogue, or from an occasional individual who has 
inherited them from some ancestor, and the recent 
enhancement in the values of rare books has made 
scarce titles increasingly difficult to procure. 

Some valuable items of Americana have been 
acquired during the year, but none so important as the 
file of the " Royal American Magazine," presented to 
the Society by Charles H. Taylor, Jr. This magazine 
was published at Boston from January, 1774, to March 
1775, in fifteen monthly numbers, each number con- 
taining one or more engraved plates and an installment 
of Governor Hutchinson's " History of Massachusetts 
Bay." Since most of the plates were engraved by 
Paul Revere, the issues have been prized by collectors, 
who have frequently extracted the plates, with the 
result that no complete set has ever appeared for sale. 
The Brinley copy, which went to Yale, lacked two 
plates and fourteen pages. The Deane copy, which 
sold in 1898 for $160, lacked one number and six plates. 
The Manson copy, which was the Deane copy im- 
proved, sold in 1904 for $355 lacking five plates. The 


Report of the Librarian. 


Taylor copy is complete both in text and plates, and 
in addition is untrimmed and has most of the original 
blue covers. Since no complete set has ever been 
described and since there has been doubt regarding 
the existence of some of the plates, a list of the 
engravings in each number is here appended: 

January, 1774. "A View of the Town of Boston" (Revere). 

"The Thunder Storm" (Revere). 
February, 1774. "Sir Wilbraham Wentworth" (Revere). 

"The Night Scene" (Callender). 
March, 1774. "The Hon ble . John Hancock, Esq r ." (Revere). 

"The Fortune Hunter" (CaMeiuier). 
April, 1774. "M r . Samuel Adams" (Revere). 

"The Hill Tops, a New Hunting Song" (Callender). 
May, 1774. "An Indian Gazette" (unsigned). 

June, 1774. "The Able Doctor, or America Swallowing the 

Bitter Draught" (Revere). 

"The Hooded Serpent" (unsigned). 
July, 1774. "Spanish Treatment at Carthagena" (Revere). 

August, 1774. "The Method of Refining Salt-Petre" (unsigned). 

September, 1774. [Engraving of a water-spout] (unsigned). 

October, 1774. 
November, 1774. 

December, 1774. 

January, 1775. 
February, 1775. 
March, 1775. 

"The Mitred Minuet" (Revere). 

"The Gcrbua or Yerboa" (Revere). 

"Mademoiselle Clarion" (Revers). 

"A Conference held between some Indian Chiefs and 

Colonel Bouquet, in the Year 1764" (Revere). 
[Engraving of bees and honey-combs] (unsigned). 
"A Certain Cabinet Junto" (Revere). 
"'History of Lauretta" (Revere). 
"America in Distress" (Revere). 

The charges for most of these plates are entered in 
Paul Revere's Manuscript Day-Books, showing the 
cost to be about £3 each. The entries also show 
that he engraved the lead cut which was used on the 
titlepages in 1774 and after that on the front covers 
of the 1775 issues, and that he made the unsigned 
engravings in the issues of June, August, and Decem- 
ber, 1774. We are much indebted to Mr. Taylor for 
providing us with so complete a set of this valuable 
magazine, especially since it was established by 
Isaiah Thomas, the founder of the Society. 

212 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

A rare pamphlet purchased by the Society is en- 
titled: "The Art of Making Common Salt, particularly 
adapted to the Use of the American Colonies," 
Boston, 1776, containing an engraved plate showing the 
method of extracting salt from sea-water. The subject 
matter of the pamphlet was first printed in "The 
Pennsylvania Magazine" for March, 1776, pp. 128- 
133, with a plate engraved by S. Aitken. It was then 
printed as a pamphlet of seven pages at Philadelphia, 
with the imprint of R. Aitken, 1776, and with the 
same plate by S. Aitken. The Continental Congress 
caused copies of this pamphlet to be sent to the 
different colonies, and the Massachusetts General 
Assembly voted to reprint 150 copies, which should 
be sent to the several seaport towns of the colony. 

The Boston reprint closely follows the Philadelphia 
edition, but contains a plate by another engraver. 
In the effort to establish the name of the engraver, I 
caused a search to be made in the Massachusetts 
manuscript archives, but found no record of payment 
to either the printer or engraver. Although the 
engraving somewhat resembles Revere's work, it is 
probable that he did not engrave it, as he had only 
recently entered military service, and there is no 
record of his engaging in business during the early 
part of the year 1776. The search in the archives, 
however, did reveal the name of the author of the 
pamphlet. In the Massachusetts Archives, vol. 209, 
p. 47, is the following communication from Robert 
Treat Paine: 

To the honorable the Council and House of Representatives of the 
Colony of Massachusetts Bay 

The Congress at their last session Considering the importance to 
American Liberty that all necessarys of life & defence should be produced 
by the inhabitants of the united Colonies, among other things directed an 
enquiry to be made of the most practicable method of making salt: as 1 
have the honour to be of that Committee I applied some attention to it, 
and having mett with a learned treatise of Dr. Brownrigg on the subject, 
I extracted the practical part of it, & adding a few observations I caused 
it to be inserted in the Pennsylvania Magazine &. a number of Copies to 

1919.] Report of the Librarian. 213 

be detached, & have sent them to all the Colonies as far as Georgia; and 
I now do myself the honour to inclose some of them to your Consideration 
to be disposed of as in your wisdom may seem best. 

I can but think there are many parts of our Colony where these works 
may be profitably erected, in the southern parts more especially. 

It must afford great happiness to every Lover of the American united 
Colonies to defeat the cruel designs of their Enemies in any respect, & 
it will gratify me to have attempted it, tho unfortunately it should not 

Hoping success to this & every undertaking to promote the welfare 
of our Colony 

I Subscribe my self 

your Honours 

most Obedient Servant 
Philadi. April 15 th 1776. Rob Treat Paine 

Robert Treat Paine, who a few weeks later was to 
sign the Declaration of Independence, was much 
interested in science and inventions, and was on 
several committees of the Continental Congress to 
establish home manufactures. Although a college 
graduate and a man of distinguished ability, he 
apparently made no other venture in authorship 
except to bring out this one pamphlet hitherto not 
recorded under his name. The Society previously 
owned the first two editions of the treatise, and now 
fortunately possesses the third. 

The section devoted to Spanish- Americana has been 
enriched by ninety-five volumes relating to Cuba, 
received through exchange with the Harvard College 
Library. From a London dealer was purchased 
Marban's " Arta de la Lengua Moxa," printed at 
Lima in 1701, and presenting the language of the 
Moxos of Bolivia, an excellent addition to our large 
collection of the source-books of South American 
linguistics. Mr. Richard Ward Greene, of Worcester, 
has presented several volumes of Spanish American 
interest including a file of -the "Mercurio Peruano," 
1790—1795. From Mrs. F. Spencer Wigley, of St. 
Christopher's, British West Indies, has come as a 
gift the "Laws of the Island of St. Christopher, " 
printed on the island itself in 1791. No copy of this 

214 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

rare example of West Indian printing is located, 
according to Sabin's Dictionary, and it does not seem 
to be in any of the catalogues of the leading collections 
of American laws. At the same time was obtained 
by purchase the "Acts of Assembly, passed in the 
Island of St. Christopher," printed in London in 1739, 
with the two appendices printed in 1710. This 
volume, although not so rare, is interesting, partly 
because it contains a beautiful emblematic copper- 
plate engraving of George II made by G. Van der 
Gucht. It was Gerard Van der Gucht who engraved 
the large portrait of Rev. Samuel Willard, which is 
generally found pasted in copies of Willard V Compleat 
Body of Divinity," printed 'at Boston in 1726 and 
famous as the first folio book, outside of laws, printed 
in the colonies. The original copper plate of the 
Willard portrait still exists in the custody of the 
Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
the reverse having been used in the Revolution for 
the purpose of printing the State paper currency. 
There has always been a question as to- whether the 
engraving was originally published in the book and 
many bibliographers have deemed the volume in- 
complete without the portrait. The point seems to be 
settled, however, by the recent discovery by Mr. John 
H. Edmonds, State Archivist, of an advertisement in 
the Boston News-Letter of January 12, 1727, as 
follows : 

Just Arrived from London, the Effigies of the Rev. & Learned, Mr. 
Samuel Willard, late Pastor of the Soutli Church in Boston, and Vice- 
President of Harvard College in Cambridge, in New-England, curiously 
Engraven: To be Sold by Benja. Eliot, at his shop in King street, and 
Daniel Henchman at his Shop in Cornhill, Boston. 

It is evident, therefore, that the portraits arrived 
from England shortly after the publication of the 
book, which accounts for the fact that they are 
generally pasted or laid in the copies, whenever found. 

About three hundred genealogies of American 
families have been acquired during the year, partly 

1919.] Report of the Librarian. 215. 

from book-dealers' catalogues and partly as gifts from 
the authors. The want of an adequate genealogical 
checklist, however, prevents a library from knowing 
what titles it lacks and from having a proper descrip- 
tion of the books it desires to buy. Genealogies, 
outside of their value for family research, are useful 
in the study of American biography and history, and 
the effort should be made by this library to make its 
collection more nearly complete. Although we have a 
large and valuable collection, we are exceeded by the 
New England Historic Genealogical Society, the New 
York Historical Society, the Long Island Historical 
Society, the Library of Congress, the Newberry Library, 
the New York Genealogical and Biographical So- 
ciety, the Wisconsin Historical Society, the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania and possibly one or two 
others. For a library which has gathered one of the 
largest existing collections of historical literature 
relating to America, we should be somewhat better 
represented in this field. The lack of a Genealogical 
Fund has often been alluded to in former Reports. 

In the acquisition of newspaper files we have made 
great strides in the past year. The availability of a 
fairly sizable fund derived from the sale of duplicate 
newspapers last year has made it possible for us to 
purchase many files of considerable importance. 
Money expended in this way is well spent, for the 
library is much used for early newspapers. Strange 
to say, it is the only place in New England, or in fact 
anywhere in the East, excepting Washington, where a 
fair representation of the newspapers of the country 
may be found. They are studied for all conceivable 
varieties of questions. Not only specific facts and 
dates are sought for, but long, intricate researches into 
the social or economic or political or literary history 
of the country are frequently made. One writer has 
spent most of the summer here tracing the influence 
of the "Spectator" upon American thought. Another 
has gleaned the facts regarding General Washington's 

216 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

southern tour in 1791 in a manner which could be as 
fully covered in no other way. Another has recon- 
structed much of the history of the American theatre 
by a careful examination of early files. Even the 
modern newspaper, often abused by historians, has 
been used in many fields of thought. The attitude 
of certain important journals toward prohibition, 
editorial opinion relating to the late President Roose- 
velt, the development of resentment toward Germany 
during the recent World War are but a few of the 
queries which brought into service newspapers from 
every section of the United States. 

The preservation of newspapers is one of our most 
important tasks, for in this way we can be of the 
greatest use to students all over the country. We 
could well serve as the central depository in New 
England for all newspapers which each library does 
not feel are required by their own patrons. Few 
libraries are able or willing to undertake the task of 
collecting, binding, and housing such bulky volumes. 
Historical students ought to have one place in New 
England where they would be able to find a fair 
proportion of New England newspapers, as well as 
the representative journals of other sections of the 
country. A querist from Hartford or Providence or 
Boston or Portland studying newspaper literature 
can much better be served by having such material 
under one roof, than by visiting a dozen or more 
different towns. As long as we are willing to under- 
take this task, libraries can co-operate by sending us 
their duplicates and the papers which are not of local 
use. If such newspapers command a ready money 
value, we at least should be given the opportunity of 
purchase. Several libraries in New England have 
already recognized the value of this central collection 
and have given us the first opportunity to complete 
our files. Yale University, the Connecticut Histori- 
cal Society, the Rhode Island Historical Society, 
Brown University, the Providence Public Library, 

1919.] Report of the Librarian. 217 

the Newport Historical Society, Harvard University, 
the Boston Athenaeum, the Essex Institute, the New 
Hampshire Historical Society, the Vermont Historical 
Society and many smaller local libraries have all 
co-operated in making our newspaper files more 
complete, and to them much of the value of this 
collection is due. 

A list of the longer newspaper files acquired will 
show the scope of the year's accessions. Perhaps the 
most important files are the "New London Summary" 
1762-1763, the "Norwich Packet" 1775-1783, the 
Chillicothe "Supporter" 1809-1817, the Lexington 
"Western Monitor," 1814-1817, the Albany "Argus," 
1821-1841, and a number of Mexican newspapers 
published during the Mexican War, including the 
rare "American Star" of 1847-1848, issued by the 
American army of occupation. In this list is not 
included the Society's collection of camp and service 
newspapers of the recent war, numbering several 
thousand issues and containing almost complete files 
of the various editions of "Trench and Camp," 
published in over forty training camps in this country. 

Amherst, Village Messenger, 1800-1801. 

Amherst, Farmer's Cabinet, 1809. 

Concord Observer, 1819-1821. 

Portsmouth, New Hampshire Gazette, 1795-1820. 

Portsmouth, Oracle, 1799-1801, 1808-1810. 

Boston, American Traveller, 1829-1830. 

Boston, Commonwealth, 1851. 

Boston, Democrat, 1804-1805. 

Boston Gazette, 1746. 

Taunton Sun, 1830-1832. 

New London Summary, 1762-1763. 

Norwich Packet, 1775-1783, 1794-1796. 

Windham Phoenix, 1795-1796. 

Albany Argus, 1821-1824, 1828-1829, 1839-1841. 

New York, Citizen, 1854. 

New York, Daily Advertiser, 1823-1825. 

New York, Emancipator, 1842-1843. 

New York, Evening Post, 1821-1824. 

New York, Gazette Times, 1S46-1847. 

New York, Globe, 1825. 

218 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

New York, Ledger, 1865-1869. 

New York, Union, 1846-1851. 

New York, Weekly Museum, 1794-1797. 

Rochester American, 1842-1857. 

Utica, Y'Drech, 1893-1917. 

Westchester Herald, 1852-1856. 

Morristown, National Defender, 1864-1869. 

Philadelphia, Claypoole's Advertiser, 1792-1793. 

Philadelphia, Dunlap's Advertiser, 1791-1795. 

Philadelphia, General Advertiser, 1795-1804. 

Philadelphia, Jackson's Political Register, 1815-1817. 

Philadelphia, North American, 1861-1869. 

Philadelphia, Poulson's Advertiser, 1803-1809, 1816. 

Philadelphia, Public Ledger, 1838. 

Philadelphia, Relf's Gazetpe, 1815-1817. 

Philadelphia, Saturday Courier, 1833-1838. 

Philadelphia, Universal Gazette, 1798-1800. 

Baltimore, Maryland Journal, 1789. 

Richmond Enquirer, 1804-1806. 

Richmond Compiler, 1817-1818. 

Norfolk, Commercial Register, 1802-1803. 

Chillicothe, Supporter, 1809-1818. 

Lexington, Western Monitor, 1814-1817. 

Nashville Gazette, 1819-1821. 

Natchez, New Sooth, 1872-1873. 

Mexico, American Star, 1847-1848. 

Mexico, Eco del Comercio, 1848. 

Mexico, Monitor Repuijlicano, 1847-1848. 

The Society's collection of the reports and cata- 
logues of American colleges has long been made an 
important feature, and within the past few years 
effort has been made to obtain nearly complete files 
for certain New England colleges. The burden of 
this effort so far as the collecting of the Yale Class 
Records is concerned has been lifted through the 
notable gift, from Professor Franklin B. Dexter, of 
his own collection. There is probably no college 
which has issued so large a body of biographical 
material relating to its graduates as Yale, and the 
Dexter collection numbers 219 volumes, many of 
them finely printed works of several hundred pages. 
There are twelve classes with biographical records 
previous to 1829, and with but four exceptions every 

1919.] Report of the Librarian. 219 

class from 1830 to 1919 is represented by one or more 
class books. It was through the kindness of Mr. 
Andrew Keogh, librarian of Yale, that the records of 
recent years were added to the Dexter collection and 
our indebtedness to him, as well as to the former 
member of our Council, is herewith recorded. 

The desire, a few years ago, to strengthen our 
American engraving led to the formation of a book- 
plate collection. Gradually it increased until it be- 
came one of the three best collections in the country, 
and now, within the past year, one of these three 
collections, that formed by Frank Evans Marshall of 
Philadelphia, has been purchased en bloc and added 
to our own. Few collectors in the country were so 
successful as Mr. Marshall in obtaining early American 
plates, and the bookplates of the Presidents, signers 
of the Declaration of Independence, colonial Gover- 
nors, and eighteenth century bibliophiles are here 
represented in great number. Most of the known 
plates engraved by Revere, Hurd, Dawkins, Doolittle 
and other early engravers are here and bear mute 
testimony of the artistic ability — or the lack of it — 
in the colonies. The great mass of labels and type 
plates, valuable chiefly in showing who were the book 
collectors of a century ago, swell the total into the 
thousands. Mr. Marshall was a keen student who 
gave a large part of his life to the formation of this 
great collection, and his notes and catalogues make a 
valuable addition, not only to our knowledge of book- 
plates, but also to the study of American biography. 

The Marshall collection is now undergoing a process 
of arrangement and comparison with our own plates. 
It will be many weeks before we shall be able to know 
how many plates we shall obtain or to estimate the 
final size of our collection. It is certain, however, 
that the duplicate collection, made. up from the sifting 
of at least four great collections, will rank in itself 
among the best in the country. 

1919.] Report of the Librarian. 219 

class from 1830 to 1919 is represented by oneor more 
class books. It was through the kindness of Mr. 
Andrew Keogh, librarian of Yale, that the records of 
recent years were added to the Dexter collection and 
our indebtedness to him, as well as to the former 
member of our Council, is herewith recorded. 

The desire, a few years ago, to strengthen our 
American engraving led to the formation of a book- 
plate collection. Gradually it increased until it be- 
came one of the three best collections in the country, 
and now, within the past year, one of these three 
collections, that formed by Frank Evans Marshall of 
Philadelphia, has been purchased en bloc and added 
to our own. Few collectors in the country were so 
successful as Mr. Marshall in obtaining early American 
plates, and the bookplates of the Presidents, signers 
of the Declaration of Independence, colonial Gover- 
nors, and eighteenth century bibliophiles are here 
represented in great number. Most of the known 
plates engraved by Revere, Hurd, Dawkins, Doolittle 
and other early engravers are here and bear mute 
testimony of the artistic ability — or the lack of it — 
in the colonies. The great mass of labels and type 
plates, valuable chiefly in showing who were the book 
collectors of a century ago, swell the total into the 
thousands. Mr. Marshall was a keen student who 
gave a large part of his life to the formation of this 
great collection, and his notes and catalogues make a 
valuable addition, not only to our knowledge of book- 
plates, but also to the study of American biography. 

The Marshall collection is now undergoing a process 
of arrangement and comparison with our own plates. 
It will be many weeks before we shall be able to know 
how many plates we shall obtain or to estimate the 
final size of our collection. It is certain, however, 
that the duplicate collection, made. up from the sifting 
of at least four great collections, will rank in itself 
among the best in the country. 

220 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Through the kindness of Mr. Grenville H. Norcross 
the Society has obtained a fine bookplate engraved by 
Sidney L. Smith. The design of this plate attempts 
to show that the Society's scope covers the two Americas. 
The leading feature is a reproduction of the map of the 
Western Continent from the silver Nancy Globe discov- 
ered in the library at Nancy and drawn about 1525. It 
follows the engraving in the "Compte-Rendu" of the 
Congres des Americanistes for 1877, vol. 1, p. 359. Be- 
low are the early flags of the three colonizing nations, 
England, France and Spain. In lower left corner is the 
DeBry portrait of Columbus, taken from our own copy 
of Debry's Great Voyages, 1595, and in the right corner 
a portrait of Cortes from the woodcut in Paulus Jovius 
"Elogia" of 1575. The plate has a handsome border 
and is engraved in Sidney Smith's best style. The 
Society is much indebted to Mr. Norcross for the gift 
of so fine a plate. 

With the exception of the rearrangement of the 
schoolbooks, due to the acquisition of about 2000 new 
titles, there has been no new project undertaken in 
the library during the year. There are many de- 
partments which need reclassification and. cataloguing 
because of recent large accessions, but with our 
present income all we can do is to mark time, keep 
accessible the material which we have, and take care of 
what comes in as best we can. At present there is no 
special custodian of the newspapers and the work of 
inserting the numerous files acquired has fallen chiefly 
upon the librarian. 

The President, in the Council Report, has spoken 
of the great need of a larger income for the Society. 
Everything in the library — books, binding, catalogu- 
ing, salaries, newspapers — all are not properly sup- 
ported for want of funds. The need of a larger 
bookstack is imperative, and yet there seems to be no 
immediate prospect of meeting the situation. There 
are few organizations in the country, which are as 
worthy of financial assistance as this Society. We 

1919.] Report of the Librarian 221 

are performing a national historical task, and pre- 
serving material that is acquired by no other library. 
Every cent of income goes into the purchase of 
works relating to the history of America, to the 
publication of history and to making our collections 
of service. A legacy or a gift to this Society means the 
establishment of a fund of lasting and durable value 
for the study of the nation's history. 

Respectfully submitted, 



222 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 



Greater New England may be defined as the region 
in which people of New England birth and ancestry 
lived in such numbers as to make them the most 
considerable single stock therein. 

The purpose of this paper is to outline the results 
of some of my own researches and to correlate some 
special studies of others which cast light upon the 
significance of the historical movements which accom- 
panied the extension of the New England element in 
the first half of the nineteenth century especially into 
New York and parts of the North Central states. 

This involves consideration: (1) of the revolu- 
tionary changes which, in the parent section, accom- 
panied the spread of its people, and. (2) of the social, 
economic, and political aspects of the regions thus 
colonized in the West. Only the first part of the 
subject will be discussed in the present paper. 

It is hardly an exaggeration to say that in the 
generation between 1830 and 18G0 New England's 
life was revolutionized, partly by the play of the 
forces which accompanied the age of steam produc- 
tion, the factory system, and the railroads, and partly 
by the outflow of her population to other regions, and 
the inflow of new peoples. These factors of migration 
are closely related, partly as cause and partly as 
effects of the new economic conditions. 

1919.] New England Middle Nineteenth Century. 223 

Let us first attempt an estimate of the volume of 
the New England emigrants. By the census of 1850 
it appears that there were in New York 200,630 
persons of New England birth. In the states of the 
North Central Division of that date (Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, and 
the Territory of Minnesota) there were 180,476 
natives of New England. But it is capable of demon- 
stration historically that central, western, and part of 
northern New York were settled by New Englanders 
chiefly between 1790 and 1820, and that from the 
counties most distinctively Yankee in their composi- 
tion came New York's contribution to the North 
Central States. To be conservative, however, let us 
assume that only one-half of the New York element 
in the North Central States was of New England 
origin. In that case, we add 195,741 New Englanders, 
concealed as " natives of New York, " to the figures 
for the New England people in the North Central 
States, and thus arrive at a total of over half a 
million New Englanders in New York and the North 
Central States combined. Except as stated, this 
ignores all persons of New England ancestry born in 
New York between 1790 and 1850. It also omits the 
considerable number of New England natives who had 
left the above states in the later forties and were 
reckoned in California, Oregon, and Utah. In 1850 
there were in all over 13,000 such Far Western New 
England natives. 

There were also over 30,000 natives of New Eng- 
land in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and about 
21,000 in the South Atlantic and South Central States 
combined, or a total of 64,000 New England natives 
outside of New England and of the New York and 
North Central areas. Pennsylvania particularly had 
been subject to New England colonization from before 
the Revolution, and had in turn sent many colonists 
of this stock into New York and the North Central 
States. It will add to the margin of safety, however, 

224 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

to leave to one side the Far Western, Middle State, 
and Southern Yankee element. 

Thus far, with the exception noted in the case of 
New York, dealing with the New England people 
outside the parent division in 1850, we have found 
over a half million, counting one-half the New 
Yorkers in the North Central States as New Eng- 
enders by ancestry and omitting those in New York 
of New England ancestry. We may adopt a more 
indirect mode of arriving at a conclusion, and one 
more fairly indicative of the amount of persons of 
New England origin, rather than nativity. 

Between 1790 and 1820 the migration from Southern 
New England, embracing Massachusetts, Connecti- 
cut, and Rhode Island, has been estimated by Mr. 
Percy Bidwell at 800,000 souls. 1 Where did this 
migrated element go? No doubt very much of it 
settled in Northern New England. But historical 
evidence makes it certain that there was a large 
migration to New York and the older North Central 
States, particularly in the Connecticut Reserve, and 
southern Michigan and Wisconsin and northern 
Illinois. In 1851 Horace Bushnell reached the con- 
clusion that nearly one-fourth of the New York 
constitutional convention of 1821 were natives of 
Connecticut and that if those of Connecticut parentage 
were added, probably a majority of the convention 
was of Connecticut stock. 2 His study of Congress 
about 1843 convinced him that over one-fifth were of 
Connecticut birth and descent. Two-fifths of New 
York's delegation were of that stock. Of the ninety- 
six members of the Ohio legislature of 1822, whose 

l " Rural Economy in New England," in Trans. Conn. Academy of Arts and Science, 
XX, 241-399, especially 386. Ilia method consists in applying the principles of W. 
Burdick, Mass. Manual, Boston, 1814, and Blodgett, Ecunomica, 79. lie adopts for 
Southern New England the rate of increase for the United States as a whole, and assumes 
that, but for migration, they should have had a like increase. This total increase for the 
period 1790-1820 was 145. G%. The Census of 1820 on this basis should have shown 
1,681,673, instead of the 881,594 actually reported— a deficit of about 800,000. 

*Bushnell, Work and Play, 219. 

1919.] New England Middle Nineteenth Century. 225 

nativity is known, twenty-five were of New England 
birth. In the absence of census data prior to 1850 
these figures may serve as straws to indicate the 
earlier tendency. 3 In 1790 the population of Northern 
New England, (Maine, New Hampshire, and Ver- 
mont,) was 323,850. In 1820 it was 778,477, an 
increase of only 454,027. If it had followed the rate 
of increase of the nation as a whole on the above basis, 
it should have shown an increase of over 471,500, and 
should thus have amounted to 795,385 instead of 

Whether this failure to reach the larger figure was 
due to migration from Northern New England, or 
(what is practically absurd in view of the well known 
fecundity of a pioneer population,) an abnormally 
low birth rate in Northern New England as compared 
with the United States as a whole, it is clear on the 
original assumption that 800,000 New Englanders 
had migrated to areas outside of the section between 
1790 and 1820. For if the entire deficit of Southern 
New England, the 800,000 migrants, had gone to 
Northern New England, and if Northern New 
England had been unoccupied in 1790, they would 
have furnished somewhat more than the actual 
number found in Northern New England in 1820, 
leaving to be accounted for the natural increase of 
original Northern New England between 1790 and 
1820, which by itself should have brought the total 
for Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine to nearly 

If these figures are correct, therefore, and the 
800,000 lost New Englanders had doubled in the next 
thirty years, by 1850 there should have been 1,600,000 
New Englanders and their descendants living outside 
the parent section. As we have found an actual 
number of 387,000 natives of New England living in 
1850 in New York and the North Central States 

■Of course, the Yankee may have been exceptionally successful in politics; but there 
are reasons for doubting that this is a serious limitation to the eatiihate. 

226 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

alone, and as the Yankees had been migrating in 
large numbers for over half a century, it seems not 
improbable that there were in New York and the 
North Central States combined by 1850 over a million 
and one-half people of the New England stock. The 
outflow continued to be important for the next 
decade. By 1860 there were about 276,000 natives 
of New England in the North Central States, and 
about 178,000 in New York, a total of 454,000 or 
nearly half a million native New Englanders, not 
reckoning the progeny of. the immigrants for some 
two generations born in the states west of New 
England. If we should take account merely of one- 
half of the New York element, in the North Central 
States, as in the estimate for 1850, the 273,000 thus 
obtained would raise the element to over three- 
quarters of a million in 1860, regardless of the other 
progeny of New Englanders in the North Central 

It is, therefore, I conclude, conservative to estimate 
the part of Greater New England which had left the 
old section to dwell in New York and the North 
Central States at not less than a million and a half 
by the middle years of the nineteenth century. 

In 1850 the native population of New England was 
somewhat less than 2,500,000. Adding the 1,500,000 
wanderers, we get as the total population of Greater 
New England not less than 4,000,000. About 37.5 
per cent, or well over one-third of the total stock were 
living outside the parent section. The 300,000 
foreign born, chiefly Irish in New England, did not 
equal in numbers the 387,000 natives of New England 
in New York and the North Central States in 1850; 
but they furnished a partial replacement of the 
original stock, and this in itself is a fact of no little 
significance. In 1850 the population of Boston 
showed 68,687 natives of Massachusetts and 35,287 
natives of Ireland; 88,948 natives of the United 
States and 46,677 foreign born. As the Irish had 

226 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

alone, and as the Yankees had been migrating in 
large numbers for over half a century, it seems not 
improbable that there were in New York and the 
North Central States combined by 1850 over a million 
and one-half people of the New England stock. The 
outflow continued to be important for the next 
decade. By 18G0 there were about 270,000 natives 
of New England in the North Central States, and 
about 178,000 in New York, a total of 454,000 or 
nearly half a million native New Englanders, not 
reckoning the progeny of. the immigrants for some 
two generations born in the states west of New 
England. If we should take account merely of one- 
half of the New York element, in the North Central 
States, as in the estimate for 1850, the 273,000 thus 
obtained would raise the element to over three- 
quarters of a million in 1860, regardless of the other 
progeny of New Englanders in the North Central 

It is, therefore, I conclude, conservative to estimate 
the part of Greater New England which had left the 
old section to dwell in New York and the North 
Central States at not less than a million and a half 
by the middle years of the nineteenth century. 

In 1850 the native population of New England was 
somewhat less than 2,500,000. Adding the 1,500,000 
wanderers, we get as the total population of Greater 
New England not less than 4,000,000. About 37.5 
per cent, or well over one-third of the total stock were 
living outside the parent section. The 300,000 
foreign born, chiefly Irish in New England, did not 
equal in numbers the 387,000 natives of New England 
in New York and the North Central States in 1850; 
but they furnished a partial replacement of the 
original stock, and this in itself is a fact of no little 
significance. In 1850 the population of Boston 
showed 68,687 natives of Massachusetts and 35,287 
natives of Ireland; 88,948 natives of the United 
States and 46,677 foreign born. As the Irish had 

1919.] New England Middle Nineteenth Century. 227 

been coming for over a dozen years in large numbers 
and their children were in part reckoned in the 
census as natives of Massachusetts, it is clear that a 
process had begun of no little significance in the 
history of the transformation of the center of Puritan- 
ism. 4 In 1900 less than twenty per cent of Boston's 
population was native born of native parents, and in 
this category were most of the descendants of the 
Irish born in those earlier years in Massachusetts. 
Over a third of the total were native whites of foreign 
parents, and about the same proportion for foreign 
born. Three-fourths and more of Boston's popula- 
tion was of foreign parentage. The record of Provi- 
dence, Worcester, and Fall River, to name only the 
cities of over 100,000 inhabitatnts was about as 
striking. Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Conn- 
ecticut each had more people of foreign birth and 
parentage than native whites. In 1916 the Mayor of 
Boston informed one of the present Harvard Corpora- 
tion that the "Irish had letters and learning, culture 
and civilization, when the forebears of New England 
were the savage denizens of Hyperborean forests," 
that "the pestilent Irish" had "made Massachusetts 
a lit place to live in," that the "New England of the 
Puritan . . . was as dead as Julius Caesar" and 
that "this is the year 1916, and not 1620, 1720, or 

If we retrace now the footsteps of the wanderers 
from New England by states, we find that in 1860 
there were in New York and the North Central States 
about 41,000 natives of New Hampshire, 90,000 of 
Maine, 105,000 of Connecticut, 123,000 of Massa- 
chusetts, and 127,000 of Vermont. For every three 
natives of Vermont remaining in the state of their 

*A census of Bo3ton in 1845 showed that of a total population of 114.3GG, there were 
73,290 born outside of the city, of whom 4G.1SG were natives of other parts of the Union, 
and 27,104 of alien birth. The 41,070 of Boston birth included 10,185 of foreign parent- 
age. This shows that the foreign element outnumbered the natives of Boston, of native 
parentage. Shattuck, Census of Mass., 1845, p 37, cited in Priscilla H. Fowle, Boston 
Daily Papers 1S30-1850, (MS. Radcliffe thesis). 

228 A mericc n Ant lq u a f 

more than I I left;, for i i 

remain in; f Rhc r 

I [ampahire, one h 
tion in the decade L86C 
one p in Vermont, 

II pet cent ii Jn t fi r- 

i.(-/X decade M 

It in i v.v (ten and Nortbei 
furnished Ac rf the i 

stagnant or declininj r England irai 

from the sea and from P the 

rn and manufacturing eomni Hei 

tiny became art 

:.d valley;-, in ?.. bills 

of Mew England had been ovei 

wnie life and pi 
attractions of th< be West, 

— new a. 
tion — and by the pull of the 

. -. rad (few Y&\ 
ambition - thai 

the railroao 

way to the IFe . -" 

opened the road ' Eai 


with Buffalo 


• ippi 1 

may now rapidly 
:. it WOW 

In a toJ 

Commerce in 1911 edi and 

::. M*th«w.* Ca&al A&J the 8ett)eu«bt *< tfe W«t."ia 

HMfcricalg^ . ... XII. 

1919.] New England Middle Nineteenth Century. 229 

entitled New England, the editor, after commenting 
on the pioneering activity of the section and its share 
in settling the West, says: 

"The result was that there came over New England an era of 
halting effort, due to loss of primal vigor to the West and the 
newer sections ... a drain of New England energy and 
initiative. . . . There has been a constant exhaustion of New 
England's vitality comparable only to the giving of her own 
life to her children by a mother. New England suffered, and 
suffered more acutely and fundamentally than ever will be 
estimated. The wholesale and continual transfusion of her 
best blood to the veins of the newer states could only mean the 
weakening of her own constitution and the limiting of her own 
development.' ' 

No doubt we should take exceptions to this view. 
It is clear that the section did gain new stimulus by 
the very process of extension, even as a robust mother 
gains by her growing sons, each contributing new 
contacts with life, new points of view. It is also 
clear that the migration from town to city within New 
England itself in the same period retained in the 
section many of the most originative and fertilizing 
of her people, who expressed the New England spirit 
in new ways, and it is clear that the loss was chiefly 
in the inland states and counties. It is also to be 
remembered that in the years between the War of 
1812 and the early thirties, when the migrations to 
the West were becoming a matter of alarm to New 
England, and contemporaneously with the rise of 
Jacksonian democracy, New Hampshire, Connecti- 
cut, and Massachusetts broke down the political 
power of the Standing Order (the union of the Congre- 
gational Church and the Federalist governments), 
entered upon a freer, political and social era, and that 
literature and religion took a new birth. 

At this point we meet a problem which has been 
solved in quite different ways by different writers. 
Henry Cabot Lodge has magnified the influence and 
importance of the New England element as a factor 
in the distribution of American ability by classifying 

230 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

the names of those recorded in Apple ton's Dictionary 
of American Biography according to the sections of 
their birth. He failed to give due attention to the 
emphasis placed by the editor of that work upon 
certain kinds of ability in which New England ex- 
celled; to the greater length of time in which New Eng- 
land was producing celebrities entitled to admission 
to its pantheon 6 ; and to the fact that the babes and 
young children of New England parents who moved 
West with their parents and who grew up in a Western 
environment, were all included in his New England 
list. The rapidity with which the migrated New 
Englander took on a Western quality is phenomenal 
but well attested. The result, however, showed a 
remarkable monopoly of talent by the New England 
natives. On the other hand, Mr. Gustav Michaud, 
writing in The Century on the " Brain of the Nation" 
and using Who's Who, and correcting some of the 
faults of Mr. Lodge's method, though he also found a 
remarkable preponderance of such brains in the 
New England group, explained the disproportion by 
alleging that New England was the mecca of idealists 
in colonial days, and that it was the materialists, the 
men of action rather than of thought, the less imagina- 
tive, who migrated from New England to the West, 
thereby creating a Western society less able to produce 
men of talent, and leaving in New England a larger 
proportion of the neurotic, a class from which he 
derives the pre-eminent men of genius. I may 
remark in passing that both Lodge and Michaud have 
neglected the new environmental factor, that there 
are defects in their methods, and that the children of 
the pioneers brought up under Western conditions 
and ideals have a strikingly increasing ratio in recent 
issues of Who's Who, proportioned to population, and 
to periods within which ability could manifest itself. 
This seems to indicate either that, so far as heredity 

8 For example as late as 1850 less than 18 per cent of the population of Wisconsin wore 
natives of that state, while in Massachusetts the percentage was nearly G\). 

1919.] New England Middle Nineteenth Century. 231 

goes, there was no striking lack of imaginative and 
creative quality on the side of science and the human- 
ities, as well as in the field of action, on the part of the 
migrated Yankee stock, or that the conditions of a new 
social environment were favorable to creative intel- 
lectual activity. But that is too considerable a topic 
to be more than referred to in this paper. 7 

There was, moreover, a counterbalancing element 
upon New England's morale, though it worked des- 
truction to many of her old ideals and traits. New 
England gained a new life, and a new outlook by 
losing her former isolation and a certain narrowness 
of view. Thereafter New England was obliged to 
take account of the western wing of her people in 
shaping her policies; was obliged at critical times 
even to follow their leadership; and could never 
safely proceed on older lines of New England provin- 
cialism in party connection. Platforms, congres- 
sional measures, nominations, all reflected adjustments 
between the different wings of Greater New England 
and between them and the New York and Pennsyl- 
vania elements. 

* Thereafter the New England banker, railroad 
promoter, merchant, and manufacturer, also lifted 
his eyes to a farther horizon and followed with his 
vision the extending frontier of New England's 
western sons; he was tempted to build more largely, 
to see farther. Not seldom it was those New Eng- 
landers who had removed as young men to New York 

7 The contribution of the children of these pioneers has been notable. A return move- 
ment to the Eastern cities and to the faculties of leading Eastern universities by the men 
and women of talent born in the West prior to 1S70 is one of the striking features of the 
history of leadership in the East. This element has achieved distinction not only in the 
field of action but also in science and the humanities. 

Dr. Edwin L. Clarke, in American Men of Letters, Their Nature and Nurture, (Columbia 
University Studies LXX11), concludes, on the basis of his statistics, that in the decade of 
1841-1850, when were born the writers of forty to sixty years later, the men of New 
England nativity who achieved distinction in literature still had BUpremacy, "but its 
lead had been appreciably reduced. The East North Central States showed the least 
relative decline in literary fecundity, a fact which may indicate that tin; future literary 
leadership of the country is to be theirs. " It must be remembered also that among the 
natives of New England he reckons not a few who came as babes and young children to 
the West and grew up under the influence of ita social environment. 

232 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

and to the West, and had thereby broken the bonds of 
custom, who most effectively entered into these 
expanding opportunities. The very process of sifting 
by which other sections called away the youthful, the 
less satisfied, the more optimistic and adventurous, 
tended, it is true, to leave in a stronger position the 
more conservative in those regions of New England 
which were the most affected. But by the middle of 
the century, the history of New England's domestic 
commerce and manufacture and her political life in 
the nation shows an enlarged outlook and a more 
national attitude as the result of her new relationships 
with other sections. 

In estimating New England's economic losses, we 
may apply some of the tests used in discussion of 
foreign emigration, and by the South in its appraisal 
of its own losses by migration to the West in this 
period. Professor Dew, of William and Mary Col- 
lege,, writing in the thirties, pointed out that the 
emigration of the slaves from Virginia was com- 
pensated by their purchase price; and the encourage- 
ment to raise more of such property; but that the 
emigration of the whites was a r dead loss to the 
South, for the cost of rearing the emigrant to about 
the age when he was self supporting,— the age when 
he usually left, — fell upon the parent state, and his 
productive capacity was lost to the state thereafter. 
Moreover the emigration from the state carried off 
free capital, injured agriculture, prevented improve- 
ments and reduced the value of land within the state 
by reducing the competitors for it. Madison con- 
temporaneously made this the fundamental explana- 
tion of Virginia's decline. He assumed an average 
value of $200 for Virginia's slaves, but they greatly 
increased in value by 1850. 

If we take the foreign immigration test and estimate 
the value of an adult at SI, 000 and the number of 
adults at onc-hfth of the New England migrated 
element, (which is too low because of the proportion 

1919.] New England Middle Nineteenth Century. 233 

of young men who went,) we have 300,000 adults, or a 
loss of $300,000,000. On the slave basis of $200 
average in family lots, the total would be the same. 
Supposing that each migrating family carried as 
little as $200 cash and movables, this item would 
amount to about $15,500,000 for the 387,000 natives 
of New England living in the West in 1850. It is 
likely that this reached at least double the sum. 

It has been estimated that in Massachusetts alone 
between 1850 and 1870 farms were abandoned to the 
amount of 300,000 acres. 8 If it had cost $150 per 
acre to clear the ordinary woodland in the abandoned 
farm region, 9 the net loss, after allowing for the value 
of the wood, would be $43,000,000 for this state 
alone; but Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont 
showed similar abandonments, not to speak of the 
less thrifty and less enterprising cultivation on the 
part of the "members of the family who remained to 
carry on farming where the fields were not abandoned. 
This is a complicated subject on which farther study 
is needed. Whatever ' the money value of labor 
withdrawn, cleared lands and houses abandoned, 
and cash and personal property removed, the social 
and spiritual losses to rural New England were even 
greater, for a very important part of New England's 
historic ideals, and of that ability which migrated 
both to the city, when the agriculture declined, and 
to the lesser manufacturing towns, as well as to the 
West, were developed in the rural communities. 

On the other side of the ledger, immigration to 
Southern New England (particular^ that of the 
Irish after the famine) helped to prevent a decline in 
population, but involved a replacement of stock. 
In 1850, as we have seen, about as many Irish natives 
lived in Massachusetts as there were natives of 
Massachusetts outside of New England. 

8 H. B. Hall, Agriculture in New England: MS. thesis in Harvard University. 
'Johnson, Notes on American Agriculture, II, 452, ao estimates it. 

234 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Even if we should accept the favorable estimates 
of the ultimate advantage to New England of this 
inflow of the Irish people, it implied the beginnings of 
a revolution in her historic society, and at the time it 
meant a great increase in pauperism and crime, due, 
no doubt, in a large part, to the poverty of the 
immigrant people. Penological and charitable insti- 
tutions and societies took on a new development. 
With immigration also came later the replacement of 
the native labor class by the foreign workers in the 
mills. Hours of work became a burning question. 
Even before this replacement in the Lowell mills, about 
1850, the hours were from 5 a. m. to 7 p. m. with a half 
hour out at noon, or thirteen hours work. 10 Unf using 
groups of capital and labor formed, in which nativity 
and religion served to emphasize antagonisms at the 
very time when capital employing labor was under- 
going the transformation incident to the industrial 
revolution. Social homogeneity diminished. The 
mother section of Greater New England did not 
exhibit the free intercourse and mutual adjustment 
of different classes and nationalities observable con- 
temporaneously in the states of the North Central 
group. An Irish traveller of this period, Grattan, 

"All seem to agree that New England, taken on the whole, is 
the hardest soil for an Irishman to take root and flourish in. 
The settled habits of the people, the restrained English descent 
of the great majority, discrepancies of religious faith and 
forms, and a jealousy of foreign intermixture of any kind, all 
operate against those who would seek to engraft themselves 
on the Yankee stem, in the hope of a joint stock of interest or 

As early as 1837 Boston newspapers told of the 
riot at a military review, when five companies left 
the field with the American flag flying, to the tune of 
Yankee Doodle, because an Irish company took part 
in the parade. A mob beat up this Irish company as 

10 See Commons, Documentary History of American Industrial Society, VIII, 141. 

1919.] New England Middle Nineteenth Century. 235 

it left the Common. A few months earlier a riot had 
taken place between Irishmen and the fire department 
which attracted some 10,000 people; and several 
companies of light infantry and cavalry were required 
to break up the mob. 11 The Pilot was established in 
183G as the organ of the Irish-Catholic minority. It 
is significant of some lack of discernment in New 
England, however, that in the thirties and forties 
Protestant ministers like Lyman Beecher fixed their 
attention upon the West as the region into which 
Puritan money, missionaries and teachers should be 
poured to stem the apprehended tide of Catholicism. 

It appears, therefore, that in compensating New 
England for part of her losses by westward migration, 
foreign immigration brought also fundamental changes 
in the later development of New England's social and 
moral life. In like fashion the industrial gains which 
offset the section's loss of agricultural prosperity were 
accompanied by revolutionary changes. In 1810 two- 
thirds of the people of Southern New England lived 
in townships of less than 3,000 inhabitants, and for 
the most part on farms. In 18G0 only one-third lived 
in such towns. 12 The factoiy took the place of the 
household as the manufacturing unit. The little 
household industries in Southern New England had 
for over a generation been training artisans in the 
production of Yankee notions, sold by peddlers and 
others to remote regions. The development of the 

"Boston Commercial Gazette, Sept. 13, and June 12, 1837. Writing in 1842, Emerson 
says in his Journal, "Edmund Hosnier was willing to sell his farm five years ago for 
$3800 and go to the West. He found and still finds that the Irish of which there are two 
hundred in this town [Concord] are under-selling him in labor, and he does not see how he 
and his boys can do those things which only he is willing to do; for go to market he will 
not, nor shall his boys with his consent do any of those things for which high wages are 
paid, as for example, take any shop, or the office of foreman or agent in. any corp oration 
wherein there seems to be a premium paid for faculty as if it were paid for the faculty of 
cheating. He does not see how he and his children are to prosper here, and the only way 
for them is to run, the Caucasian [sic] before the Irishman." 

"Percy W. Bidwell, in Quarterly Publications of the American Statistical Association, 
December, 1017, p. 810; Grace P. Fuller, Introduction to the History of Connecticut as a 
Manufacturing State, Smith Colleue Studies, I, 53, 54. 

236 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

factory system was based in part- upon this pre- 
existing skilled labor, and, as the markets widened, 
the peddler was replaced by the merchant who 
applied his capital to the purchase of manufactured 
goods and marketed them where he could. A wider 
outlook for the business man appeared to West and 
South, at the same time that a self-conscious laboring 
class was evolved, when the old time intimate local 
relations of small manufacturer and his men were 
superseded. 13 Problems of long hours, child and 
woman labor, and wages, emerged and engaged the 
attention of legislators contemporaneously with the 
clearly-marked development of the business leaders 
who seized the opportunity of interstate commerce 
to West and South. 

New England had long been dependent upon other 
regions, especially the states of the North Central 
division, to which Greater New England had spread, 
for food and raw materials. In 1850 New England 
produced but thirteen quarts of wheat per capita in 
place of the five or six bushels needed. She raised 
only three and seven-tenths bushels of corn per capita. 
By 1860 Southern New England was almost wholly 
dependent on the other states for her bread stuffs. 14 
Between 1840 and 1870 the sheep industry of New 
England declined sharply, while that of the North 
Central States rose to the leadership. 15 Thus one 
recompense to the farmer was withdrawn. He could 
not turn his arable land into sheep pasture. The con- 
struction of the Western railway which opened the 
Western markets to Boston only accelerated the 

"Emerson records in Lia Journal in the spring of 1837 that he was as "gay as a canary 
bird with this new knowledge. It has been a sensible relief to learn that the destiny of 
New England is to be the manufacturing country of America.. I no longer suffer in the 
cold out of morbid sympathy with the farmer. The love of the farmer shall spoil no 
more days for me. " 

"U. S. Census, 18G0, Agriculture. 

"See Chart IV in C. W. Wright, Wool Growing and the Tariff, and Chapter V; maps in 
H. C. Taylor, University of Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, No. 10, 

1919.] New England Middle Nineteenth Century. 237 

downfall of rural New England. Boston's Oriental 
commerce by way of the Pacific declined after the 
thirties, and in the forties an important part of the 
eastward trade to China passed into New York hands. 

The capital which had formerly been invested in 
ocean commerce began to find new investments not 
only in the factories, the greatest of which were 
developed in this period by some of the very men who 
had been merchants in the commerce with the Orient, 16 
but also in railroads. 17 Greater New England in New 
York and in the Middle West had an important share 
in these undertakings. Visions not only of connecting 
the Atlantic with the Great Lakes and the Mississippi 
but also of transcontinental lines that should open the 
Pacific and the shores of China passed before the eyes 
of the Greater New England promoters. The section 
itself tended to follow the trail of her pioneers to new 
industrial empires. 18 But her shift in trade modified 
her interest both in foreign diplomatic questions and 
national domestic politics. 

Of Greater New England in the Far West I shall 
not have time to speak. It may suffice to recall that 
in the thirties Nat Wyeth, the Cambridge ice man, 
with New England missionaries, opened an overland 
road for New England influence in Oregon; that 

18 For example, Francis C. Lowell. See Victor Clark, History of Manufactures in. 
U. S., 307, 451, and authorities cited there. 

i ? A type is John Murray Forbes; see Pearson, A Railway Builder. There is abundant 
evidence of the importance and extent of this transfer. 

"Writing in 1837 Emerson says in his Journal: " I listen by night, I gaze by day at 
the endless procession of wagons loaded with the wealth of all regions of England and 
China, of Turkey and of the Indies, which from Boston creep by my gate to all the towns 
of New Hampshire and Vermont. With creaking wheels at midsummer and crunching 
the snows, on huge Bledges in January, the train goes forward at all hours, bearing this 
cargo of inexhaustible comfort and luxury to every cabin in the hills." 

But five years later he writes: (1842, 1. c. VI, 209) "The prosperity of Boston is 
an unexpected consequence of steam-communication. The frightful expenses of steam 
make the greater neighborhood of Boston to Europe a circumstance of commanding 
importance, — and the ports of Havre and Liverpool are two days nearer to Boston than 
to New York. This superiority for the steam post added to the contemporaneous 
opening of its great lines of railroad, like iron rivers, which already are making it the 
depot for flour from Western New York, Michigan, Illinois, promises a great prosperity 
to that city." 

238 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Yankee trading ships had long made both the North- 
west coast and California and Hawaii familiar to 
Boston merchants; that in the late twenties Jedediah 
Smith, of New England stock, first explored the route 
from Salt Lake basin to California; 19 that the last 
president of Texas was a Berkshire doctor; that the 
Prophet Joseph Smith and his leonine successor, 
Brigham Young, founded a theocratic commonwealth 
chiefly of Greater New Englanders in the deserts of 
Utah and thereby adapted the New England town and 
a much modified Puritan religious organization to the 
needs of an irrigation community, which spread over a 
region as large as several European states. 

As industrial life took on greater breadth and 
intensity and as it sought western connections, New 
England, true to Puritan instincts, stirred by the 
growth of the West and by the colonization of her 
people in the North Central states, attempted to hold 
them to her traditional ideals and culture by collect- 
ing funds for schools and churches to be established 
in the newly settled western lands. There was a 
migration not only of men and markets, but of ideals 
and institutions. The home missionary movements 
and the organizations for promotion of both common 
schools and higher education are types of this interest. 
In all the states of the Middle West New England 
leadership in these directions was marked. Lawyers, 
doctors, editors, politicians, teachers, and ministers, 
all felt the call to these new fields and took a share, 
disproportionate to their numbers, in the origins and 
development of the institutions of society in the West. 
A sectional rivalry for ascendancy in these hinter- 
lands of eastern civilization was under way, and even 
churches enlisted in the campaign and were modified 
at home by the new stimuli. But it must be remem- 
bered that the West itself deeply affected and even 

"Men like the Bents, of Bent's Fort, the Gerrya, descendants of Elbridge Gerry, in 
Colorado, and a long list of California adventurers illustrate the picturesque Bide of the 
wandering Yankee, influential in this general period. 

1910.] New England Middle Nineteenth Century. 239 

shaped these spiritual forces by the influence of, its 
own society and ideals, and that many a New Eng- 
land missionary of Puritan civilization became so 
changed by his removal as to find New England itself 
no longer a congenial home. There was giving as 
well as taking on the part of Greater New England in 
the West. The unfolding of these influences belongs 
to another paper. 

These western- activities all had their influences 
upon New England's literature in the generation 
between 1830 and 1860. Her old interests and her 
old ways of thinking were modified and enlarged with 
• the rise of Jacksonian democracy and the vision of a 
vaster destiny, as the American people found new and 
farther-reaching ways. Innovation gained new con- 
verts. New conceptions replaced the conception of 
the ''Institutions of God" held by Cotton Mather and 
his spiritual descendants; "the hedge" was no longer 
so jealously guarded by the Angel of the Lord; 20 
independence of thought grew* as Greater New 
England formed. 21 

It. may be, as has been claimed, that it was in part 
due to the formation of a leisure class and to the rise 
of new wealth that literature took a new life in these 
years. Certainly there were marked evidences of 
such changes, among the more amusing the appear- 
ance of a kind of Boston Blue Book, under the title 
"Our First Men" (1846), which limited this elite to 
those possessing over a hundred thousand dollars. 
But the connections between the spirit of the new 
literature and this rise of new fortunes is difficult to 
establish, and to a disproportionate degree the smaller 
cities had their part in furnishing the men of talent. 

2 °See Mather as quoted in my paper on The First Official Frontier of Massachusetts 
in Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, XVII, 269. 

21 "The yoke of opinion, " wrote William Ellery Chancing, to a western friend who had 
asked him to givo an address, "is a heavy one, often crushing individuality of judgment 
and action," and he added that "the habits, rules and criticism's under winch he had 
grown up had not left him the freedom and courage which are needed in the style of 
address best suited to the Western people. " 

240 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Nowhere, perhaps, is the spirit of the new literature 
better expressed than in Emerson and his group; and 
theirs was a literature of revolt. The so-called 
Transcendentalists reflect many of the tendencies 
which I have outlined. Western confidence in the 
common man, its optimistic faith, its dealings with 
the common things of life in an idealistic spirit, its 
realization that America was another name for 
opportunity, its break with the past, and its emphasis 
upon the individual, its realization of the possibility 
of a new order of society, its sense of the spaciousness 
of the new America that was forming in the thirties 
and forties, and its yearning for a nation and a career 
commensurate with its spaces, find expression in 
Emerson's Journal and in various of his essays and 
addresses. 22 Not only Plato and German philosophy, 
not only the Unitarian revolt within Puritanism 
itself, not only the native New England quality, but 
also the direct stimulus of Jacksonian democracy 23 
and the shock of change within the society of New 
England which accompanied the formation of Greater 
New England, must be reckoned with to explain 
Emerson and his school. 24 

A new tempo came into New England life as her 
people broke the crust of custom, moved to new lands, 
and shared more fully in the temper of the nation. 
The penny press, with a demand for greater rapidity 

"The case might be rested on his Phi Beta Kappa oration in 1837 on "The Americun 
Scholar" and on the address of 1844 on "The Young American;" but the Journals also 
give direct evidence of the influence of the westward movement upon his imagination and 
conceptions, at successive periods. 

23 In his Journal (III, 308) in 1834, Emerson writes: "Sometimes the life seems dying 
out of all literature, and this enormous paper currency of Words is accepted instead. 
I suppose the evil may be cured by this rank rabble party, the Jacksonism of the country, 
heedless of English and of all literature — a stone cut out of the ground without hands; — 
they may root out the hollow dilettantism of our cultivation in the coarsest way, and the 
new-born may begin again to frame their own world with greater advantage." 

"Dr. H. C. Goddard, in the Cambridge History of American Literature, I, 348, has 
emphasized the essentially native character of the Transcendentalists; but the western 
influences of the time need further attention. They furnished the indirect background 
of the movement. It is the new note of enthusiasm and the directions of the idealism 
which requires explanation. 

1919.] New England Middle Nineteenth Century. 241 

in the gathering and transmission of news, greater 
interest in the stock market and the police courts, 
and a new sensationalism and appeal to the masses, 
shocked the older journalism. Express companies 
were developed by leaders who later made them 
national institutions. In all directions was there 
acceleration and greater interest in the common man. 
New philanthropies, new endowments for the educa- 
tion of the people appeared. All of these and like 
changes of these revolutionary decades were in part 
symptoms of the times in general, but in part also, and 
to a degree which needs emphasis, they were part of 
the break-up of old New England which accompanied 
the formation of a Greater New England. She gained 
her life by losing it. 

242 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 



Years ago, when they had wax figures in the long 
since vanished Boston Museum, there was observed 
among them one marked "Catherine Wendell, a 
Beauty of the Last Century," or some such thing. 
Who she was nobody seemed to remember. The 
chances are that an old gown marked with her name 
had been found somewhere, put on a frame, sur- 
mounted by a wax head like those occasionally to be 
seen in shop windows, and then described as a portrait. 
Gown, head and all disappeared a good while before 
the last play was acted in the Lecture Room of the 
Museum. Even the memory of them has almost 
faded now. So nobody can tell whether she was the 
same Catherine Wendell who wrote some letters for- 
gotten for more than a hundred years and lately 
found. One likes to fancy that she may have been. 
The letters are not remarkable to be sure, and after 
the fashion of the Eighteenth Century they are 
spelt and punctuated pretty much anyhow. Reduce 
them to formal shape though, without altering a 
syllable, and you begin to feel that the woman who 
wrote them, beauty or not, not only knew how to use 
the English language, but so used it through many 
years of declining fortune as to leave behind her 
traces of the quality which our ancestors used to call 
that of a gentlewoman. 

When she wrote the earliest of the letters she was 
already an old maid, as things went in the Eighteenth 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 243 

Century; for, still unmarried, she had reached the age 
of twenty-seven. And the rather hasty lines show 
that she was confronted with difficulties which she 
did not mean to yield to* She was the tenth of the 
fifteen children of John and Elizabeth (Quincy) 
Wendell, of Boston, and she was first cousin through 
both father and mother of the still traditionally remem- 
bered Dorothy Quincy, who married the celebrated 
John Hancock. When she was born, in 1742, her people 
held their heads rather high. A few years before, her 
paternal grandfather, a New York Dutchman, who 
had there come to grief in a money way, had moved 
to Boston, where his convivial qualities had made so 
agreeable an impression as to lure the Governor and 
His Majesty's Council to attend his funeral in state. 
A little later her maternal grandfather, the third 
Edmund Quincy, had died in London, where he had 
gone as official representative of the Province of 
Massachusetts; and the General Court had honored 
his memory by voting to put over him, at public 
expense, a fine monument in Bunhill Fields — for some 
reason or other never erected, so his unmarked grave 
has- long been lost. Her father, educated in Boston, 
and a substantial merchant there at a time when 
Boston merchants, like those of old Italy, wore their 
swords, had worn his to such advantage that in 1740 
he was elected, on Boston Common, to the command of 
The Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. 
On one occasion, too, he is recorded by his friend 
Captain Goelet to have drawn it. He had given, in 
Goelet's honour, a dinner party, at the close of which 
the gentlemen had thought well to go out and clear 
their heads by a walk in the night air. Attracted by 
the sound of fiddles, they had presently entered a 
tavern, somewhere near the Common, to find a 
number of pretty girls dancing with youths of humbler 
condition than theirs. So out came the swords of the 
Captains and their friends, and away scampered the 
frightened youths,' leaving the pretty girls to dance 

244 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

with their betters as long as their betters chose. It 
is fair to add that the two Captains went to church 
together next Sunday morning, and gravely discussed 
the sermon afterwards. George the Second's Boston 
maintained the traditions of the Puritan fathers, 
among which few were more tenacious than that 
which demanded recognition for persons of quality. 

When Catherine was about eight years old, her 
mother died, having meanwhile borne five more 
children, of whom two survived. Some three years 
later, her father married, Mercy, widow of Captain 
John Skinner, of Marblehead; this lady, who had 
Skinner children, though faultless in character and of 
high respectability, appears to have been less dis- 
tinguished in origin than his first wife, Elizabeth 
Quincy, and to have brought no addition to his rather 
unstable fortunes. So the inheritance of his children, 
—consisting mostly of unimproved lands in Gran- 
ville which had earlier been called Bedford, a little to 
the west of Springfield, given their mother by her 
father, Judge Quincy, — appeared to them important. 
Meanwhile, the family lived well; their house, on the 
corner of Tremont and Court Streets, was subse- 
quently lifted up, to make room under it for the store 
occupied by the well-known grocer S. S. Pierce, and 
so remained there till Catherine had been safe in the 
Granary Burying Ground for more than seventy-five 
years. And of her nine elders seven survived till 
after she was twenty years old. These were Abraham, 
who went into business with his father, and died 
unmarried at the age of twenty-five; Elizabeth, who 
married a well-to-do Boston merchant named Solomon 
Davis; John, who took his degree at Harvard in 1750, 
and presently betook himself to Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire, where he lived on till 1808; Dorothy, on 
whom we shall touch by and by; Edmund, who early 
became a ship-master; Henry, who after a rather 
riotous youth died young at sea; and Josiah, who was 
lost at sea when little more than of age. There were 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 245 

two younger children as well: Thomas, two years 
Catherine's junior, and Sarah, a year younger than 

Though no personal trace of her exists until her 
first remaining letter to her brother John, written in 
1769, two or three papers touch on her surroundings. 
In June, 1752, Solomon Davis, already married to her 
eldest sister, adds to a business letter, addressed to 
her brother John in Portsmouth, this brief potscript: 
"Brother Richard Skinner [a son of her step-mother] 
and sister Dolly [her own unmarried sister] are 
with us, and join in love to you, as does your sister 
Davis. They say Richard courts Dolly." He did, 
and to Dolly's grief successfully. We shall meet her 
often again. Six years later, in 1758, her brother 
John, already five years married to Sarah Wentworth, 
of Portsmouth, grand-daughter of John Wentworth, 
Lieutenant-Governor of New Hampshire, and cousin 
of Governor Benning Wentworth, made a journey to 
Springfield in the interest of the whole family. The 
lands in Granville given their mother by Judge 
Quincy remained undivided. He secured an order 
from the Court at Springfield that a formal division 
be made — two-elevenths to the estate of his elder 
brother Abraham, who had been heir-at-law, and 
one-eleventh to each of the others. The division was 
made; Catherine thereby became a landed proprietor, 
though not yet of age, and Brother John collected from 
his brothers and sisters the sum of £61.18.0, probably 
in provincial currency, in return for which he rendered 
an itemized account of his expenses. 

Brother John was enterprising. He at once bought, 
for £133.6.8, the two-elevenths assigned to the estate 
of Abraham, and a few months later he secured 
Henry's eleventh for £60.0.0. So he owned in 1759 
four-elevenths of the Granville lands, originally be- 
longing to his grandfather Quincy. Thus the matter 
seems to have stood on December 15, 1762, when 
Solomon Davis wrote him as follows: "About seven 

246 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

o'clock this morning it pleased Almighty God in his 
Providence to summon your worthy father out of this 
world. The loss I sincerely condole. Under the 
circumstances you will no doubt think it necessary 
you should be here in person as the direction of his 
interests devolves on you. All your friends join in 
condoling your and their bereavement. As nothing 
will be done but what is absolutely necessary, it will 
be best for you to be here as soon as possible." So 
Brother John made post-haste from Portsmouth to 
Boston; and there was a grand funeral which cost 
£67.6.8, including £8.0.6 for Catherine's mourning, 
and about as much for that of three slaves, Caesar, 
Thomas and Phyllis; and the worthy father was laid 
beside his own in the Granary Burying Ground; and 
before the month was out Brother John was made 
administrator of his estate, which by and by proved 
insolvent. So all Catherine had seems to have been 
her eleventh of grandfather^Quincy's land in Granville. 
The insolvent estate proved troublesome, and inci- 
dentally involved some interesting letters from that 
most excellent and popularly misunderstood magis- 
trate, Thomas Hutchinson, concerning conflicts of 
provincial law; for, Brother John, the administrator, 
lived not in Massachusetts where the estate belonged, 
but in the then quite distinct province of New Hamp- 
shire. Brother Edmund, when his father died, was 
in London, commanding a ship bound for Boston; 
Brother Josiah was soon lost at sea, if indeed he had 
not been already; Brother Henry was soon to follow 
him. And there were disputes about advanced 
money. In May, 1763, Solomon Davis wrote the 
perplexed administrator: "As for the money you 
let Mr. Skinner and mother have, I have nothing to 
do with it, neither will I. We expect Brother Ned 
in about three weeks." By December this matter 
had come to law, and a detailed account of what the 
dead old gentleman had paid out for his step-daughter, 
Tabitha Skinner— which amounted to £625.13.6 "Old 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 247 

Tenor" — was duly filed, and stays faintly interesting 
as evidence of what a Boston girl, of good condition, 
wore at the beginning of the reign of George the 
Third. Incidentally, however, this implies imperfect 
cordiality in the relations between Brother John and 
his step-mother together with the Skinner family, 
which by that time included his sister Dorothy. A 
letter from Richard Skinner, her husband, in April, 
1764, shows that they were in a bad way as concerns 
both money and health; in point of fact, his habits 
are said to have been intemperate. All of which did 
not prevent Brother John from buying next August, 
for £64.0.0, the one-eleventh of the Granville lands 
which had been assigned to his sister Davis; thus he 
became possessed of five-elevenths of that Quincy 
property. The Granville matter seems confused, 
though. In July, 1768, some two hundred acres 
there were sold at auction, as part of the estate of 
John Wendell deceased, to one Timothy Robinson, 
for £87.5.6; and less than a week later this Robinson 
conveyed them for the same sum to Brother John. 
In October, 1768, Brother John, already administrator 
of his father's estate, was appointed by Thomas 
Hutchinson, then Judge of Probate in Massachusetts, 
administrator of the estates of Brothers Abraham, 
Henry and Josiah. Clearly, this eldest surviving 
brother was getting things, so far as he could, into his 
own hands. This last matter, though, appears chiefly 
to concern not the Granville lands but some other 
property, in Milton, inherited from Judge Quincy, 
which Hutchinson himself wished to buy. 

Meanwhile, Brother Tom, the youngest of the three 
surviving brothers, by that time living at Marblehead, 
where the Skinners belonged, had been in Boston, and 
in some sort of money difficulties. It is all indistinct, 
but very plainly the family affairs were by no means 
prosperous. A letter from Uncle Edmund Quincy, 
however,— he was Mrs. Hancock's father,— implies that 
in 1769 fortune was smiling on Brother Edmund, who, 

248 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

still a sea-faring man, had agreeable social qualities 
and a contract to supply masts to His Majesty's Navy, 
and on his Brother John, at Portsmouth. Between 
them they managed, before Edmund started on 
another voyage, to give Thomas Hutchinson some 
sort of title to the Milton lands. Edmund's voyage 
was not long; before the end of the year he was in 
Boston again and had made an excursion to Ports- 
mouth. These two brothers, on the whole, were 
fairly well sustaining the family traditions; and so, to 
all appearances, was sister Davis, and the youngest 
sister, Sarah, who presently married a brother of the 
later distinguished Elbridge Gerry, and lived, like the 
luckless Skinners and the not too prosperous Brother 
Tom, at Marblehead. 

Catherine, meanwhile, the only one of the family 
not yet married, seems to have, taken up her abode 
with the Davises, in Boston; and, as sister Davis was 
apt to be in a family way, and otherwise hot vigorous, 
to have taken considerable charge of the Davis 
housekeeping and children. She did not relish de- 
pendence, however. Her first letter to Brother John 
is short, simple and to the point. "I am in some little 
way to support myself" she writes; but to do so she 
needs money, and accordingly offers him her eleventh 
of the Granville lands for £300.0.0. In view of what 
he had paid for his other holdings there, this price 
looks hardly modest. What came of this offer does 
not appear. Brother John, though, clearly had an 
eye on Granville; for, in 1771, he bought of one Cotton 
Mather Stevens, a Portsmouth tailor, the rights in 
Granville which Stevens had inherited from his 
mother whose grandfather was a Mather; these cost 
only £19.0.0 in provincial money. 

The next glimpse of Catherine, or rather of things 
close to her, is to be found in some letters from uncle 
Edmund Quincy, in the next year, 1772. They touch 
on the negro Tom, whose mourning had duly appeared 
in the funeral accounts of the elder John Wendell, 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 249 

some ten years before. Tom, now thirty or forty 
years old, had been born in New York, as a slave, in 
the family of this John Wendell's grandmother, Mrs. 
Dekey, and had finally been sent to her grandson in 
Boston, partly as an inheritance, and partly that he 
should not be sold to strangers; he had been trained to 
the trade of a painter, and is described as skilful. 
Brother John seems to have claimed him as adminis- 
trator, which was all right, and to have taken personal 
possession of him at Portsmouth, which may or may 
not have been. On May 11, 1772, Uncle Edmund 
wrote to Brother John thus: "The same day I 
received yours about your man Tom's desertion, he, 
after a fatiguing journey via Haverhill came to your 
brother Davis's house. This morning he has been 
with me and says and by all accounts he means 
honestly to return home if you have altered, your mind 
touching his changing masters; on which errand he 
says he suddenly left you, thinking some person here 
might be likely to buy him, and here chose to be if he 
parted from you. I don't see any possibility of his 
leaving the town, as he knows nothing from me of 
being confined in gaol at Boston, and I think it's a 
pity to put him there, as if you sell him it will depre- 
ciate his value, and if you keep him it may sour him 
and thus render him less useful. He's a slave, a rank 
of the human species which begins to be more and 
more disagreeable to the people of this continent, 
particularly to the Northward, where Liberty, in its 
most genuine and proper idea, runs so high. Great 
Britain very wisely, many centuries past, banished 
slavery. America, which as Dr. Franklin says is 
already too blackened by it, can't easily rid itself of 
the evil. The most Southern provinces are averse. 
Those Christians who have them are called to do all 
they can to render their black servants comfortable 
but are further evangelically obliged to contribute 
everything in their power by precept and instruction, 
and especially by example, that after a life. of tolerable 

250 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

service here, their present slavery, with themselves, 
may pass into a life of perfect freedom. The future 
similar circumstance of both master and servant 
should weigh with all, and will weigh with the Christ- 
ian master." Two weeks later he touched on the 
matter again: "I note what you say of Captain 
Miller not bringing your negro Tom at which you 
wonder, and I wonder as much that I have no answer 
to mine by post Monday last, giving [by which the 
good old gentleman probably meant asking] direc- 
tions for sending Tom home either by land or by water. 
I fear you omit inquiring after a letter. Your boy, 
notwithstanding what Miller told you, would have 
come in him, had I or anybody else thought it proper 
to return your property by water without the least 
intimation of your mind touching his so coming. 
Now that you have shown yourself uneasy that he did 
not go by water, I shall order him on board the first 
that goes. For, [I] assure you, your brother Davis 
never objected to my sending him that I know — if he 
had you would have heard it from me last week. I 
note what you say about the piece of villainy in which 
Tom is suspected of privity at least, and hope Mr. 
Clarkson may find his money by T.'s help." 

In three days more things looked less clear: "I 
sent for Tom, " wrote Uncle Edmund, " to go on board 
Fournal or Yeaton. He prays that I would write about 
his really procuring a master here; he'd rather be in 
Boston; and so forth. I begin to suspect that the 
true reason is too deep a concern in the affairs of 
Cflarkson]. Now what step is to be taken? If you 
would have him returned to you I shall upon your 
advice agree with the master to take him just as he is 
departing, and shall send him on board, upon notice, 
by a constable or some proper person." 

Now all this came pretty close to Catherine. She 
had been a girl of fifteen or so when Torn arrived from 
New York, as a slave, born in the family, to 
live at her father's. She was herself living with the 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 251 

Davises when runaway Tom took refuge there. It is 
just conceivable that she saw in Tom's training as a 
painter some prospect of help towards her " little way 
to support" herself. And Uncle Edmund's next 
extant letter, written on June 15, shows that Brother 
John suspected her to have something to do with the 
wood pile in which his troublesome negro was skulking. 
"I must say" he wrote, "in justice to Captain Davis, 
your sister Davis and sister Katy that they never 
surmised any pretentions or desire to keep him with 
them, for which reason I'm sorry a thing of that sort 
was ever carried to you, as I find by divers of your 
letters mutual uneasiness has ensued from it. I 
would have a final embargo laid upon everything of 
that kind, that so peace of family may pe preserved. 
You know in former years such peace was the very 
singular character of the Wendell family. May God 
continue it and increase it, upon this maxim if no 
other — that life is so very short and our enjoyments 
of each other so precarious that there is scarce a 
thing or subject to be mentioned which is worthy of a 
wise man or woman, and a philosopher, to disturb 
himself or herself with . . . Your man Tom is now 
in my office getting ready cheerfully to go on board 
with Dr. Little. Sub modo suo> he begs hard at the 
distance of seventy miles that you would not be 
angry with him, promising absolute subjection to the 
will of a naturally kind master, and that he will do 
everything to please him and his mistress also on all 
accounts. I have told him that I would hand his 
request to you but could promise nothing. I should 
be well pleased in being able to say as much in his 
favor as St. Paul wrote to his Brother Philemon 
concerning Onesimus, his servant. However, I know 
you'll weigh the hints already suggested, and take 
such steps as your prudence may upon the whole 

So Tom went back to Portsmouth, where Brother 
John seems not to have sold him after all. And what 

252 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Uncle Edmund described as the " peace of family" 
which had been the "very singular character" of the 
Wendells, was apparently renewed. For in August 
Brother Ned, on a visit to Portsmouth, brought with 
him a friendly note from Catherine to "Sister 
Wendell," stating that £2.19.8 was the "balance of 
the caps sent you." Catherine's taste was evidently 
trustworthy, and Sister Wendell duly paid the little 
balance. Haplessly enough, though, this was among 
the good lady's last acts. In nineteen years she had 
borne eleven children, of whom seven survived. Four 
of them, as well as the mother, were ailing in Septem- 
ber; and the poor lady with her eldest daughter, then 
eighteen years old, were not well enough to accept in 
October an invitation from Elbridge Gerry at Marble- 
head, who was of opinion that "in addition to the 
advantage of a ride by land, the salt air here would 
serve as a voyage to sea." And on the 17th of 
November, she rested in the Lord, leaving Brother 
John widowed at forty-one, with seven children under 
eighteen. He made haste to dispatch a "very just 
and good" character of her to Uncle Edmund, who 
duly arranged that it should appear, on one of, the 
last Thursdays in the month, in Mr. Green's news- 
paper, where very possibly the curious may still find 
it; and letters of condolence came flowing in. 

Uncle Edmund was perhaps prematurely solicitous 
about the orphaned children. Their "loss, " he wrote, 
"can't easily be repaired. Yours possibly may, but 
I heartily advise you to be very cautious in the 
reparation. But as speedily as may be procure the 
most prudent, wise and good woman to instruct, guide 
and govern them under your auspices. This I only 
hint. I hope you are already provided, or may be 
soon with such an one." 

Two or three weeks later, he recurred to this matter, 
with excursions into Latin and dubious French: "I 
hope this may find you and your bereaved children 
well, and wish if possible they may have their loss in 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 253 

due time compensated. In repairing the same, as I 
may have hinted in my former, Festina lente. Re- 
gardez les qualitez de la person plus que [la] famille 
(tou jours de la reputation) mais ce n'est pas neces- 
saire d'etre riche. Remember Horace's banter in his 
first Epistle to Maecenas, " and so on. Evidently, 
Brother John's connubial propensities weighed on his 
uncle's mind. 

Catherine's condolence, though formally old fash- 
ioned now, looks more impulsive: " It is the confessed 
principle of us all," she wrote, "to believe whatever 
is is right. Give me leave to send you the following, 
as they flow from a sympathetic heart: but at the 
same time [I] must beg, as they are very imperfect, 
you will view them with a partial eye: 

Great God, whose just commands but thine 
Could tempt or force me to obey? 
Shall I Thy Sovereign will repine, 

Thou who tak'st my all away? 
No! Let my wounded passion plead 
For ease, when struggling sorrows throng. 
My throbbing heart no more shall bleed, 
Nor accents murmur from my tongue. 
Thou art thy Maker's claim — not mine, 
When He the awful summons sends 

1 must thy tender soul resign; 

To some He gives, to others lends. 
Then may we meet — in one unite — 
Like kindred souls before the throne. 
Auspicious Heaven, resplendent, bright, 
Receive our souls; join them in one." 

Now, unless I am all wrong, one of these sixteen 
lines is either a judiciously appropriated or else an 
admirably simple expression of genuine Christian 
resignation on the part of this Boston spinster. 
"To some He gives, to others lends" is good enough 
for Wordsworth or for Whittier. And to be one- 
sixteenth of a poet, in the twelfth year of King George 
the Third's dominion over his Yankee provinces, is to 
be something else than commonplace. 

254 American Antiquarian Society. Oct., 

Three months later, in February 1773, she wrote a 
long letter to Brother John, who seems seldom to have 
written her; "I believe the cold has dropped into 
your ink-horn and deprived you of the use of it. I 
should be glad to know what is the reason that Sally 
[Brother John's eldest child] can't or rather won't 
write me. It would give me much pleasure . . . " 
The Skinners, she goes on to tell him, are in a bad way. 
Measles have broken up a school which sister Skinner 
had opened. Brother Davis is kind; Catherine her- 
self does all she can; but the Skinners are reduced to 
dining on potatoes. "I sincerely believe her a good 
Christian" she writes; but, as to Richard Skinner, 
"I can't but be much incensed against him. He 
certainly must be void of all sensibility, or would 
exert himself and go to sea, as he has failed in other 
attempts. I have said so much already that I have 
made him my enemy." Brother John, she thinks, 
would do well to write sister Skinner affectionately — 
"I should be glad to know," she adds, "if [your chil- 
dren] have had the measles. 'Siah [probably a Davis 
child] is just got well of them, and I think the chance 
now in his favor of his getting rid of his other com- 
plaint" — whatever that may have been. 

At this time Brother Ned was again in England. 
As to Brother John, Catherine evidently had little 
news from him, for in September she wrote him thus: 
"It is well for us on both sides, my dear brother, that 
there are public prints, for that is the only resource I 
have. On Saturday nights, when we have the paper, 
I just look under [the] Portsmouth head, [and] finding 
no mention I conclude you are alive. As to Mr. 
Wentworth, I've scarcely seen him since he has been 
here. My brother and sister" (Davis) "being out of 
town, I suppose he would not favor me with so much 
of his company. You see what little attraction is 
left in your sister. Poor Mr. Inman has lost a fine 
daughter with a throat distemper. The Londoners 
are in; I've heard nothing material, [probably 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 255 

concerning Brother Ned still abroad.] My Jove to 
the children. I'm very sorry Sally thinks her aunt of 
so little consequence as not to write her. M 

The next remaining letter from her is sadly torn; 
but seems to have been written late in the summer of 
1774. By that time Brother Ned, whose affairs in 
England were upset by the rising political troubles, 
had betaken himself to Antigua and there married a 
widow who in October primly answered a formal letter 
of congratulation, at just about the time when her 
husband sent home a small consignment of sugar and 
rum. Catherine begins by complaints of impoliteness 
on the part of one F. who commanded a ship bound to 
Portsmouth from Boston: "Would you believe it, 
he would neither take this to you nor let his negro, 
who spends [the] chief of his evenings in our kitchen. 
Upon my word, I grow exceedingly out of humor with 
American manners. He told Mr. D[avis] he wa'n't a 
going to spend his time with letters — there was a post 
and I might give it to him. But such a dog is un- 
worthy [to be] the subject of a female pen; so I shall 
leave him; and continue to reply to yours." The 
reply implies two facts not otherwise recorded — that 
Brother John was extensively surveying womankind 
with a view to a second marriage, and that he was 
already attracted by a rather young cousin of his 
departed wife, named Dorothy Sherburne, who finally 
married him some four years later, and survived him 
nearly thirty years, dying in 1837. — " Firstly" she 
goes on, "you tax me with my silence on the worthy 
Miss H., my deserting you, and I don't know what all. 
But before I excuse myself on that head you are to 
answer my question: Who deserted first, you that 
choose a Doll for your amusement, or I that would 
not subject my brother, though a wanton widower, to 
the discernment of a lady who could see through his 
caprice, had I wrote her all I know? No, no, my dear; 
she's not to be sneezed at, I assure you. When sons 
believe their father is going to take a Doll, I begin to 

256 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

think the truth of it too; and also that it's some sign 
of that dotage my brother talks of in others. No 
matter; once a man and twice a child. I shall talk 
the matter over with you, perhaps, ere this reaches 
you. Secondly, as to the W [idow], I an't seen her 
lately, but I hope she has more wit than her enemies — 
ay, and sense too, — or I should depose her from my 
love, which is really sincere. Thirdly, as to paper 
money. It's the devil's coin and they that fabricate 
it his commissioners. I suppose you have heard some 
of the commissioners have lately been concerned in 
counterfeiting a large sum — pretty devils! Fourthly, 
you ask me a natural though tender question : Have I 
heard from Antigua? I can only answer in the 
negative. I transiently heard he [doubtless Brother 
Ned, whatever he had been doing] was well. God 
continue it till I am no more, prays his still affectionate 
sister. Had I expected the worst of him, I thought 
there might be forgiveness expected. I wish much to 
know your opinion of natural affection — whether it is 
not put out of existence [in] these times. That it 
once subsisted I firmly believe, but such proofs against 
it as I have lately seen make me doubt its non- 
existence. Fifthly, you expected a long letter. 
Sixthly, I think you want to be disappointed, though 
I am sorry to put you to the double expense of perusing 
and paying for it. But I don't know another oppor- 
tunity; and it will take only one act to pay it. I think 
on the whole you come pretty well off, [with] such a 
long letter from one who loves you in spite of your 
lies. Truth is worn out; all things become new. — 
Do bring with you Sister D[avis]'s age, also Aunt 
DennieV Sister Davis in point of fact, was then 
forty-five years old, and seemingly not young for her, 
age; Aunt Dennie, born Sarah Wendell, was fifty- 
three, and perhaps well preserved; and Catherine 
herself was thirty-two. 

The next year, 1775, as everybody knows, was 
troublous in American history, and ended with Boston, 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 257 

still held by the British troops, besieged by Washing- 
ton. The only remaining letter from Catherine, 
however, though written only three weeks before the 
Battle of Lexington, no wise implies these disorders. 
She addresses her brother as Amintor, signs herself 
Aminta, touches lightly on family matters, and is 
throughout in a bantering mood. Some aspirant for 
her hand seems to have turned up at Portsmouth. 
"If he's under forty" she writes, "a tolerable good 
fortune, an easy genteel address, just sense enough to 
discern I've none, good-tempered enough to let me have 
my own way, — tell him I'm the girl for him, and that 
I'm dying with impatience to see him." With her 
niece Sally, Brother John's eldest child, by this time 
well on to twenty-one, things looked less bright; a 
fickle young suitor of the girl is now reported about to 
marry somebody in Boston. Mrs. Bull, or some such 
name, who has lately had an accident, sends her love 
to Sally, and has given Catherine "a locket of hers 
and two nieces' hair" set in garnets. And Catherine 
is grateful to Sally for a present of embroidery. 
"The widow" she goes on, "I've seen but once since 
I wrote you. I can say no more of her than what I 
ever have: she's a worthy woman. I observe you 
mention your mills attract you another way. I 
would only say to that — when you want to add to 
your grist, saw, and bottling mills I think it probable 
you may find the wind and water mills this way at 
your service." One infers that Brother John's matri- 
monial surveys of womankind were thought not to be 
imprudently negligent of ways and means; though 
who beside Dolly Sherburne came within his range of 
observation nobody has remembered these hundred 
years. As for Catherine, despite the fact that em- 
battled farmers were so soon to fire the shot heard 
round the world, she seems troubled only by her 
immediate concerns. She wants to write to Antigua, 
but seemingly can find no ship bound there. She 
owes £200.0.0, and would like to sell her land — 

258 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

evidently a hint that her Granville property may be 
had cheaper than in 1769, when she offered what she 
held there for three hundred. And she is rather afraid 
that she may catch the smallpox, then prevalent in 

The only trace of her in 1776 is on the 25th of May. 
By that time Boston had been two months in American 
hands; in two months more the Declaration of 
Independence had been signed. To escape the siege 
or the smallpox or both she had betaken herself to 
Barnstable — perhaps the longest journey from home 
she ever made — and there for the sum of £69.0.0 
lawful money, she finally conveyed her Granville 
land to Brother John, who had meanwhile had other 
dealings in that region with Timothy Robinson, an 
illiterate person, but apparently shrewd. Her letter 
written on the same day, touches, in bantering terms, 
but serious mood, on Brother John's matrimonial 
projects. One gathers that he had almost if not quite 
propsed to the widow, and taken advantage of 
coyness on her part to withdraw; that the widow 
expected his advances to be renewed; and that 
Catherine rather thinks him in honor bound to renew 
them. " You don't think, " she proceeds, "how I long 
to see you and the children. The shock of [the] 
distance I'm at from all my brothers and sisters often 
throws me into a state of despair. Sister Davis's late 
indisposition has been a shocking stroke to me, and 
the losing of some of my very valuable friends being 
an addition I have no pleasing time of it, I assure you. 
But, thank Heaven, her complaints have a little 
abated, and I trust I may find some new friends." 
And this is the last glimpse of Catherine Wendell under 
the Crown, getting on toward thirty-five. 

By May, 1777, Brother John, who was meanwhile 
trying to sell some of his Granville holdings, and 
wanted to drive a hardish bargain with one Pratt 
there, seems to have been pretty nearly engaged to 
be married to Dorothy Sherburne, then about twenty- 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston, 259 

five; she married him a year later. Catherine was 
again in Boston. She touches lightly on liis matri- 
monial decision, is glad to be at home once more, and 
has had her things sent back from Barnstable. And 
that is about all. It was probably in this year, 
however, or perhaps toward the end of 177G, that 
sister Davis died, after some twenty-five years of 
happy marriage, leaving a son Edward a daughter 
Betsy, and other children. Under these circum- 
stances, Solomon Davis clearly needed a new wife 
almost as much as brother John did. The British law 
against marriage with a deceased wife's sister had 
never prevailed in New England, where such mar- 
riages have always been usual and completely sanc- 
tioned by public opinion. Catherine had long lived 
in the Davis household, and seems to have been 
cordially liked there; she was already on the verge of 
middle-age — and in fact never bore children. So the 
next time we hear of her she had been married, in 
November, 1777, to Brother Davis, and everybody 
but Brother Ned, at Antigua, seems to have been 

Towards the end of February, 1778, she wrote 
Brother John her first extant letter signed by her 
married name. Part of it runs thus: "You expect a 
reply to what you ask — I mean what do I think of 
independence? I answer in a word : I firmly believe 
it will be the perdition of every one of us, even those 
whose very existence depends on keeping up the 
dispute. Instead of future generations rising up to 
bless them, I believe they will be cursed by the last 
who breathe on earth. — Now you have it. We are 
all already undone, threatened on every side with 
want, particularly that of bread, which is felt by all 
the poor and is breaking [out] in the families of the 
rich, if any such there is among us. America's down- 
fall is rapid in its progress, and what was her boast 
now is her shame. She is divested of all her shining 
beauties: viz. — religion, public virtue, humanity, 

260 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

compassion, brotherly love and charity. The widow, 
the orphan and the poor feel it; for them my heart 
aches. Boston was once remarkable and united by 
her hospitality, even [to] the inhabitants of distant 
climes; but now [is] such a prostitute to oppression, 
extortion, envy, malice, tyranny, hatred, and in 
short every sort of bitterness that it's now the object 
of contempt and ridicule. The source of all this I 
leave you to determine for yourself. I shall keep my 
own sentiments on the same. You see the danger of 
giving me a latitude in what you have endeavored to 
surmise. I could not speak my mind a great while 
before, nor would I [now] to any but you. Though, 
to be very serious, there is too much truth in what 
I've said, and it's a real truth. Several times we have 
been obliged to contend for a joint of meat." 

In the spring of 1778, Solomon Davis thought well 
to be inoculated for smallpox, and Catherine suggested 
that Brother John should come to Boston to share 
his discomforts and immunities. So this, even with- 
out the reference to the French alliance, would 
pretty clearly be the year of a letter dated only May 
10th: "I saw Mr. and Mrs. Quincy were come to 
town to receive some money; but that article being 
scarce here they could not get it, so I was obliged to 
put up with a promise of having it soon. I wish you 
had had the smallpox. Mr. Davis longs to see you, 
as does myself. It was very unfortunate I could not 
have got that letter [from] you. It would have 
gratified me exceedingly to have you under our roof 
and my care ... I want to know what you think 
of our new alliance. That empire you saw rising in 
America comes with all the new fashions out of 
France. The fear of an establishment of the Popish 
religion among us was very alarming in the com- 
mencement of our disputes; but, thank Heaven, there 
can be no danger now. The taxes of Great Britian 
were insupportable, but owing to the wise interposi- 
tion of our own legislators we are now taxed only once 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 261 

in three months. You'll think I've got over my 
anxiety [about Mr. Davis's inoculation] since I 
begin to touch again on politics, but this [is] only an 
interval, I assure you. — But company just come in 
obliges me to throw aside my pen." 

A fortnight later Brother John's nephew, Edward 
Davis, about to sail for the West Indies, wrote him as 
follows concerning Brother Ned's state of mind: 
"I sent you a letter which I received from my Uncle 
Edmund since I returned. [I] am afraid to show it to 
my parents, as he is very angry with those who con- 
sented to their marriage, but gives me a strict charge 
of showing it upon pain of never seeing him again . . . 
I should rather choose you would write about it before 
I show mine, as it is very severe — indeed so much so 
[that] I am afraid it will be attended with bad conse- 
quences. It's very unfortunate coming just at this 
time, when my father [is] under inoculation; and his 
family is unhappy for fear of its being unfavorable, 
but — thank God — he is in a fair way of recovery . . . 
In my letter he bids her adieu forever, and never looks 
upon her as a sister again. [I] must entreat your 
writing as soon as may be, as I wish for your advice in 
this disagreeable affair." It looks as if Brother Ned, 
whose personal morals were not austere, found him- 
self — temporarily prosperous at Antigua — in unex- 
pectedly stern accord with the marital principles of 
the Church of England, always the dominant religious 
body in the British West Indies. 

What came of all this does not appear. The 
relation between Brother John and the Davises 
stayed very cordial. About the time of his announced 
engagement to Dorothy Sherburne his daughter 
Betsy, then eighteen years old, went to visit them in 
Boston; her aunt found her to need both clothes and 
education. Apparently the visit lasted until after 
Brother John's wedding, in August; for in a rather 
bantering letter shortly before that ceremony Aunt 
Catherine writes: "Betsy says her Aunt Davis is 

2G2 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

cross. She does me justice." Poor Betsy, by the 
way, appears never to have enjoyed such clothes or 
such education as might have been wished. She 
ultimately married a Mr. Berry, of Rye, in New 
Hampshire, and there slowly fades from record. 

She was still, or again, in Boston, though, as late as 
July, 1779, about a year after her father's marriage, 
when Solomon Davis writes that she is "heartily 
welcome while at my house." Meanwhile there are 
traces of many business relations between the brothers- 
in-law. These indicate both more commercial activity 
than might have been expected during the Revolu- 
tionary war and the persistence of correspondence 
with old commercial friends in England through 
France and Holland. At one time Brother John 
meant to despatch his son Daniel to Nantes, where 
the youth might serve as a means of communication 
with England; but whether the boy, who is reported 
as of engaging address, ever went abroad does not 
appear. He died, anyhow, early in 1780, not yet 
quite twenty years old. In the previous August, 
Solomon Davis had written brother John that a 
prize had just brought in some Jamaica sugar, which 
would thereupon cheapen; and that, as for himself, 
he would take no commission on any supplies bought 
for Brother John's family. Of Catherine herself 
there is no direct .trace in 1779. 

Her only remaining letter of 1780, written in March, 
concerns her nephew Daniel's death. "He had won 
my affections greatly," she writes. "The whole 
family were pleased with him on his late visit to us. 
I held him up as a pattern to ours — of sweetness and 
affability." She thereupon falls into verse, which 
contains no line such as redeemed her effusion con- 
cerning his mother's death eight years before. "May 
his virtues," she goes on, "still live in the soul of my 
young cousins." Ned Davis, away on a voyage, has 
been reported ill. As for Brother Ned, in Antigua, 
the clouds seem to have cleared, for she has just 
received intelligence from him, "who is very well and 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 263 

lives very grand. . . . Pray present my love to 
sister Wendell, to whom I am at a loss to dictate a 
letter since my omission on a proper subject. " (Sister 
Wendell had been brought to bed of the first of her 
eight children some two or three weeks before Daniel 
died) "I wish her happy in all her vicissitudes, and 
am sorry her joys are so soon turned into mourning. 
My love to Sally, Johnny, Betsy and the younger 
ones. May they live and be happy." Before this 
was despatched she had more news from Portsmouth, 
where Sister Wendell was ill; so she adds a postscript, 
four days later: "May we soon hear of her speedy 
recovery. [We] have not yet heard from Neddy 
[Davis]. I dread to hear. He is our greatest concern 
at present. May the frown of Heaven withdraw from 
you and yours with the returning spring.' 7 

There are two more glimpses of her, and her sur- 
roundings, though, in this same year 1780. The first 
is in a letter from Uncle Edmund Quincy, written 
toward the end of July; the good old gentleman had 
then reached the age of seventy-seven. Brother John, 
had seemingly been on a visit to Boston. "I hope,' 7 
writes Uncle Edmund from Cambridge, "this will 
meet your safe return home, and that you found your 
spouse in good health, with your children. The 
elder of whom, my agreeable grand-niece Sally, I had 
the pleasure of conducting hither Saturday last. [I] 
take this opportunity of felicitating you upon the kind 
and valuable gift bestowed on you and yours in such 
a daughter and sister; and it is my devout wish that 
the blessing may be continued, whether in a single or 
more connected state. You're sensible this is not a 
compliment: such things are out of my line. Your 
daughter tells me she goes tomorrow or next day to 
Marblehead with her aunt, and thence for Portsmouth. 
I wish her a safe and good journey, having charged 
her with my best respects to you and her Mamma, as 
she is styled." This Sally, I may add, then twenty- 
six years old, stayed unmarried four years more. 

264 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

She then married Edward Sargent, a Portsmouth 
shipmaster; and some time later Elbridge Gerry wrote 
pleasantly of them both, who had visited him at 
Elmwood. But they seem by and by to have come 
to financial grief; and if they had children no trace 
of the family remains. 

So Catherine must have seen Brother John and his 
agreeable daughter in July. Early in the autumn 
comes a real glimpse of her. Dorothy Sherburne, 
Brother John's second wife, had a brother Jonathan, 
six years her junior. Both their father and their 
grandfather had been members of His Majesty's 
Council, in New Hampshire. He took his degree at 
Dartmouth College, studied medicine, served as a 
Naval surgeon during the Revolution, and at his best 
had unusual literary faculty. His later life, however, 
was regrettable. He was financially irresponsible, lie 
was increasingly given to drink, he made an imprudent 
marriage at the age of thirty or so, and when he died 
at eighty-nine, he had for years been literally a pauper. 
At twenty-six, however, in September, 1780, he was 
probably both presentable and entertaining; and he 
wrote from Boston as follows: "I have only time to 
inform you that after an agreeable journey I am safely 
housed in Boston. My reception by Mr. Davis and 
family was truly agreeable, and I assure you I am 
extremely happy under so hospitable a roof, where I 
experience every civility necessary to my happiness 
during my stay here. Mrs. Davis I was most agree- 
ably disappointed in, having formed no particular 
idea of her before my arrival. I find her the most 
agreeable lady I ever knew, for her open and sincere 
disposition, her mind adorned with the most refined 
sentiments, and a heart replete with the noblest 
impressions of friendship, benevolence, sympathy and 
compassion. Perhaps you may admire my partiality, 
and the giving [of] my opinion so soon. I never knew 
my discernment to fail me, and my opinion once 
formed [is] ever after the same. — Ever since I have 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 265 

been here I have been exercised with a very severe 
cold, and am this moment exceedingly indisposed, 
which may continually keep me under particular 
obligations to Mrs. Davis's and [her] family's benev- 
olence. Mrs. Davis's love is not that of an indifferent 
friend but of an indulgent parent. — I spend my time 
very agreeably. Miss Betsy has a troublesome 
thumb, otherwise is well." 

In 1781, there is no direct trace of Catherine beyond 
the beginning of an account with Brother John, which 
ran on for eight years, ending with a balance of 
£65.0.0 in his favor, for which he magnificently 
claimed no interest. One or two letters, however, 
touch on her surroundings. Among her near kinsfolk 
the most eminent were than the John Hancocks, with 
whom she was evidently on intimate terms. And on 
the 23rd of October, her husband wrote Brother 
John, in Portsmouth, as follows: "Governor Han- 
cock mentioned to me that he had met with some 
difficulty about taxes of his lands in your government. 
He wished to get some gentleman to have the care of 
them. I mentioned that you had the care of Mr. 
Inman's lands, and that I knew no man more capable 
than yourself. I suppose he will write you by this 
opportunity. I wish you to do all in your power to 
serve him. " Sure enough, Hancock duly wrote at the 
same time; and a considerable correspondence seems 
to have ensued. The relics of it among Brother 
John's papers, however, were long ago reduced to a 
rather large folder marked " Governor Hancock's 
Letters," and two stray letters, both of which excuse 
brevity on the ground' of indisposition — apparently 

This episode suggests one or two comments. For 
years by that time, Brother John had been much 
concerned with the settlement of lands in New 
Hampshire and Vermont just as he had been with his 
own lands at Granville in Massachusetts, concerning 

266 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

which he had recurrent dealings with shrewd Timothy 
Robinson, now and then a member of the General 
Court. Brother John sometimes acted for himself in 
these matters, but oftener as agent for other non- 
resident proprietors. The settlers in such remote 
regions presently organized town governments, taxed 
all lands within their town limits, and whenever they 
could manage to do so sold to themselves for the 
taxes lands belongings to non-residents. Whence 
arose manifold complications of title. This general 
state of affairs mixed up the claims of Hancock among 
others. But, to proceed, -Hancock himself though 
politically and socially eminent, was thought slippery 
when it came to business. Among other details, he 
was made Treasurer of Harvard College in 1773 and 
held the office for four years. When his successor, 
Ebenezer Storer, tried to get the College account 
books from Hancock, he is said to have been met only 
with polite statements that such details could not 
properly be called for from a gentleman; and, in point 
of fact, the books were not found until they turned 
up in Hancock's private stable, after his death, in 
1793. Such, at least, is the current story, sometimes 
supplemented by the never proved statement that at 
least on this occasion the eminent Boston patriot was 
little better than a defaulter. So the chances are that 
Brother John's dealings with him concerning New 
Hampshire lands repeatedly sold for taxes were not 
cloudlessly happy. 

Hancock's letter of May 22nd, 1782, is here to the 
point. "I have only strength," it runs, "to acknowl- 
edge receipt of your several letters, and to thank you 
for your very great readiness to serve me; and in 
return command any services in my power. By 
nattering myself that I had far more recovered my 
health than I found by experience was the case,, I 
exerted myself to too great a degree, and have taken 
such cold as to give me such a nervous pain in my head 
as has confined me to my chamber unfit for business 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 267 

for several days past. But it seems now abating, and 
I am in hopes, if this prove an agreeable night of rest, 
I shall be current tomorrow; in which case I will 
perfect a power of attorney and reply to the particulars 
in your several letters, and immediately transmit them 
to you. In the meantime please to act for me as for 
yourself. You will soon hear from me. My best 
compliments, with Mrs. Hancock's, to you and family 
conclude me, Dear Sir, your obliged humble servant." 

It is fair to add that later in the same year Hancock 
paid fifteen pounds to Sister Davis, in recognition of 
Brother John's order on their account. In November 
she wrote concerning this matter; "You do the 
Governor injustice, my dear Brother. lie has not 
been able to hold a pen since I've been from Ports- 
mouth. He desired me to inform you he approved 
your conduct, and whatever you were in advance he 
is willing to refund. He could write you no more if 
he had his hands. He had paid me the £15.0.0. 
which I've credited on the back of the note. — Do ask 
Betsy how the cap goes on. I have bragged much of 
her performance [and] wish to exhibit it ... . I 
wished to have shown the Colonel [whoever he may 
have been] every civility, but his frequent engage- 
ments have denied me the pleasure. I am sorry 
Boston so ill agrees with his health. " 

So the Patriot Governor fades out of the letters. 
At last peace was in sight, which turned Brother 
John's attention to his father's insolvent estate, still 
unsettled after one and twenty years, the intervening 
Revolution, and the Lord knows what fluctuation in 
the value of money and lands. The personal effects 
of the convivial parent seem to have been divided long 
ago, and duly charged to one or another of his numer- 
ous family. These accounts appear to have somewhat 
annoyed Catherine, who thus wrote of them in May, 
1783: "In the first place, the silver porringer my 
sister had was my sister's by right. We all had one, 
with our names on them. She left hers till father's 

268 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

death, as she had some of Mr., Davis's to use. I 
cannot think, my dear, in any justice he ought to pay 
for his own. The salts I admit were not, and therefore 
due; but Mr. Davis will dispose of them, I believe, and 
pay for them without you choose to take them. And 
as to my mother's picture and Grandfather Quincy's, 
I never knew they were to be paid for, nor could I ever 
[have] thought such a thing could be approved; but 
if it is to be paid for they must be sold to pay the 
money. I believe, my dear brother, it is the first 
instance [when] family pictures were ever sold. — " 
Incidentally, her mother's picture — the mate of the 
picture of Judge Quincy's other daughter Mrs. 
Edward Jackson, celebrated by Dr. Holmes as 
" Dorothy Q. " — ultimately went to descendants of 
Brother Tom or sister Skinner; but what became of 
this particular replica of Smybert's portrait of Judge 
Quincy has been forgotten. In justice to Brother 
John, it is fair to add that, some twenty years before, 
certain portraits of his Wendell grandparents and of 
his Flynt ancestors — all trace of which has long been 
lost — had been duly appraised in the inventory of his 
father's estate. The details about the estate on which 
Catherine has touched, she adds, trouble Mr. Davis, 
who grows old. "His spirits are so much broke with 
his own and his children's misfortunes [that] I forbear 
giving him the least inquietude, lest nature should 
pay the price for it." So, without the old man's 
knowledge, she has privately borrowed money. "It 
behooves me to use all my weak endeavors to preserve 
that life which seems devoted to me and my happiness. 
I may with truth say [that] few women are blest with 
such a husband ... I have heard from Brother 
Ned; he is like to recover by the use of the baths at 
Bristol." Some stray letters from England, at about 
this time, show that Brother Ned, whose grand living 
at Antigua had resulted in crippling gout, had betaken 
himself to the mother country and resorted for treat- 
ment, and probably for social distractions, to Bath, 
still a fashionable watering-place. 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 269 

In October, things with Mr. Davis were no better. 
"He is so harried," she writes,, "and his spirits so 
depressed, that I daily observe it affects his memory, 
though I choose not to let him know I notice it. I beg 
you would take no notice of it in any letters to him or 
me, as it may give him pain. My sole study is to 
make his few remains of life as happy and comfortable 
as I can, though that is but little. The weight of 
troubles overbalances all my efforts. ... As to the 
porringer, you are certainly mistaken about [it] as 
we have but three in the house — one marked 'E. W. 
from Father', [the first Mrs. Davis was named 
Elizabeth Wendell,] one Mr. Davis's mother gave 
Solomon, and one we had from England with some 
other plate. If Sister Davis had taken any other 
than her own, it must have been here, for we have 
never parted with any plate — excepting a can— since 
she died, and I am certain none before." She goes 
on to resent the charges against her and her sister 
Sally, now Mrs. Gerry, for mourning at their father's 
funeral, in 1762, when they were minors. She is 
worried about money matters, and thinks of attempt- 
ing business herself, to help Mr. Davis. 

A fortnight later, she inquires about Granville 
lands, said to have been sold by Brother John without 
due authority from Brother Ned, whose affairs are in 
charge of harried old Solomon Davis. "I hear," she 
adds, "you have been to Salem. Sister Skinner, 
[Sister] Gerry and myself think it unkind you called 
to see none of us when so near." 

In 1784, the only trace of her is a letter written 
early in March. "Are you so absorbed in farming," 
she begins, "as to forget your connections, or are you 
writing the history of our rising empire; or [are] all 
your faculties frozen up with the inclemency of the 
season?" After all, she adds, it is the same with all 
her brothers and sisters; she is "the only one left in 
our native spot." Cousin Sewall has written his 
father that Brother Ned "has met with great success 

270 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

in a restorative medicine for the gout/' and is about 
to embark again for Antigua. As for Brother Ned, 
himself, though he writes Mr. Davis on business, he 
won't answer her letters. " Sister Skinner," she goes 
on, "is in trouble by Tom Gerry's persecution and 
provocation." (Tom Gerry, a brother of Elbridge 
Gerry, had married Richard Skinner's sister Tabitha.) 
"She is obliged to quit her house; the family is like to 
be broke up. I hear Uncle Josiah Quincy was buried 
last night [at Braintree.] What is become of Mr. 
Davis's Co-horse or Co-something lands?" 

In April, 1785, more than a year later, things looked 
rather less dismal. Brother John's second wife had 
just presented him with the fourth of her eight children; 
and his first wife, we may remember, had left sur- 
viving her, in 1772, seven out of her eleven. Childless 
at forty-three, and thus safe from at least one source 
of anxiety, Catherine wrote her brother as follows: 
"I congratulate you and my sister on her being safe 
abed. But pray let me ask you if you intend keeping 
up this fun? Why, you must build a large castle to 
contain your children. If you go on at this rate, 
you'll have as long a train of children and grand- 
children at 3'our funeral as an old gentleman men- 
tioned in some of our late papers. Sally, I find, 
[his eldest daughter, by that time thirty-one years 
old] is setting out to follow your example. My love 
to her. — I have had an affectionate letter from Brother 
Ned. He had intended to come in the vessel; [he] has 
recovered so far as to be able to ride on horse-back; 
his business prevented, but [he] intends coming as 
soon as possible. . . . Mr. Davis is got into his 
spring dejection; [he] has been nicely young and in 
good spirits all winter, but is low now as possible. 
Betsy, [his daughter] is to be married soon." 
Betsy Davis married Dr. David Townsend, of Boston, 
who had graduated at Harvard in 1770. 

In 1786, there is no direct trace of Catherine. Two 
letters in the autumn from her step-son, Edward 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 271 

Davis, to Brother John imply, however, a little 
trouble. In October the nephew wrote his uncle, 
rather abruptly, requesting that he procure and 
forward to Boston a copy of some deed, recorded at 
Portsmouth, in which young Davis had a personal 
interest. Brother John, whose business habits were 
leisurely, had not attended to this matter by the 12th 
of November, when his nephew wrote him again, in 
such terms that the uncle endorsed the missive as 
"Ned Davis's impudent letter. " Which does not 
look precisely serene. 

There is little direct trace of her, either, during the 
next year, 1787. In November, however, Nathaniel 
Appleton wrote Brother John from Boston that he had 
so arranged a transaction concerning lands as to be 
able to pay Mr. Davis nine pounds, and to forward 
Brother John £11.7.4. This agreeable incident seems 
to have been unusual; or else the letters concerning 
favorable turns of business are all lost. Earlier in the 
year, too, Elbridge Gerry had written from Phila- 
delphia a letter which details matters as interesting to 
Catherine as they were to Brother John. Their 
youngest sister, Sarah, had married Gerry's brother, 
John, who had died in 1786; and, with what Brother 
John had thought unseemly haste, she had proceeded 
to marry Captain Fiske, of Salem. Elbridge Gerry's 
defense of his sister-in-law runs thus: "I am very 
sorry to hear you are at variance with Mrs. Fiske. 
My candid opinion is that she acted wisely and 
judiciously, and I assure you she consulted me as her 
confidential friend. The fact is Mrs. Fiske did not 
want to form an early connection, knowing that all 
the friends of her late husband would be very much 
hurt, and that her own reputation would be affected 
by the measure. But as soon as it was known that 
Captain Fiske gave her the preference, the friends of a 
lady whom it was supposed he would have courted, 
urged him to push his suit to Mrs. Fiske, and in this 
way used every means in their power to break off the 

272 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

match. She kept him at such a- distance as to give 
him offense, and then they triumphingly said that he 
had left her and that her pride would be humbled. 
This was the language of a certain person who de- 
clared that he had intended to marry Mrs. Fiske, had 
she not treated him with such coolness when he hinted 
it to her before Captain Fiske made his advances. 
Thus, you see, your sister was reduced to this dilemma: 
either to accept Captain Fiske earlier by far than she 
or her friends thought decent, or by refusing him to 
see him form a connection with another lady, and all 
her friends triumphing in the success of their man- 
oeuvres. She asked my advice, and knowing all the 
circumstances I did not hesitate to give it in favor of 
her accepting the offer. Indeed, after this I was under 
the necessity of writing a letter to Captain Fiske, to 
counteract the plans adopted against Mrs. Fiske. 
Thus I think you will see she was not culpable . . . 
This information you will consider as confidential, 
and intended to restore your affection for a deserving 
sister. " What Catherine Davis thought about all 
this does not appear. Clearly, though, she must have 
thought about it a good deal. 

In November she wrote Brother John, with a very 
bad pen. Brother Ned had sent from Antigua a 
present of tamarinds and oranges, some for Brother 
John, which had mostly spoilt on the way. And 
Betsy (Mrs. Townsend) had lost a fine child. 

The next year, 1788, reveals her more clearly 
again. On the 28th of January, after recurring to 
Brother Ned's oranges, she goes on: "This day is 
the anniversary of my birth, 46 years ago. My 
worthy parents gave birth to an insignificant creature. 
It being a day of reflection, I could not but contem- 
plate the divine goodness in thus making me a 
monument of His sparing mercy, when I have so 
often provoked Him to cut me off as an encumb[rance] 
or as an unprofitable servant. I am easily mortified, 
my dear, when I reflect I have lived forty-six years in 

1919.] A Gentlcwo??ian of Boston. 273 

the world and done no more good in it. May Heaven 
grant me wisdom and ability to devote 'my short 
remains to His more immediate service, is my fervent 
prayer. — Here I am sitting in my corner feeling as 
old as Sarah, and my Abraham is flying about making 
punch, and as full of spirit as the bottle he is now 
pouring out of. — You will laugh as this medley of a 
letter, but it accords with my feelings, so you must 
take it as it rises, and throw a veil of brotherly 
kindness over all its imperfections. As to its inco- 
herence, you must impute [that] to old age. Sisters 
Skinner and Fiske have both been sick; all three of us 
confined together. As to news now, the Federal 
Constitution" — But what she though of this we shall 
never know, for just here the bottom of her page is 
torn off and lost. 

About a month later she writes again. Brother 
John seems to have been doubtful whether he had 
duly received all that Brother Ned had sent him. 
"In respect to the rum, " she says, "Neddy only sent 
a few quart bottles to Mr. Davis." There is word, 
however, of a whole barrel, now presumably at sea, 
intended for Brother John. "The oranges had 
[al]most all got defective. I believe they were 
touched with the frost, but they have served to do 
much good among the sick. Mr. Davis, as he hates 
writing worse than ever, and as it gives him a dizziness 
in the head, wishes me to answer your letter for him. 
In respect to your proposal he says he can't afford to 
touch upon law. He thinks this a dubious case and 
would not choose to engage in it." (Apparently it 
concerned title to lands originally belonging to Judge 
Quincy, who had now lain for fifty years in his un- 
marked London grave.) "If you incline to try for it, 
and recover it, he will accept your terms . . . Sister 
Skinner [has] been sick all winter, but I dare say she 
will agree with us . . . You can write her upon it." 

Her next extant letter was written in August. 
Uncle Edmund Quincy had lately died at the age of 

274 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

eighty-five. For nearly forty years he had frequently 
written to his nephew at Portsmouth. His letters 
imply him to have been a man of considerable accom- 
plishment, high principle both public and private as 
well as religious, and active though not very powerful 
mind. In person he was thin and rather agile, long 
toothless, and prominent both of nose and of chin; 
and during his later years he was irreverently described 
in Boston as "old Daddy Quincy." Catherine's 
letter touches on his end. — "Uncle Quincy mentioned 
to me your not answering his letters three days before 
he died. I was much with him, and marked the 
upright man, for his end was peace. Though he did 
not think he should die, he was ready and willing. 
We grow so plaguy poor that we must begin to look 
out for what right we have in this world. Perhaps 
you will retort upon us to look our for our right in 
another. True, King; I think that's most essential; 
but Solomon says there is a time for all things, and 
both are necessary. Your quotation is there is a time 
to get. I believe [you] for you keep getting and I 
believe will as long as Abram. I read the Major your 
letter wherein you say Uncle Quincy is gone to Father 
Abram's bosom. He desires I would tell you he 
believes that his bosom has been full long ago, and 
you nor he must not expect a chance on it . . . My 
love to Sister Wendell. Tell her [if] I were she I 
would run away from such an old creature without he 
would discard some of his love of the flesh. The flies 
plague me so I can write no more; so you must take 
this as your wife took you — for better or worse." 

In November she was more troubled. "Our worthy 
Sister Skinner," she writes, "is very ill and in miserable 
circumstances. Her two sons are at sea, John is 
married, and Dolly has a young family and [is] not 
able to do for her as she needs. Judge Wendell has 
obliged her to quit her house, She has taken a small 
chamber in the house where Dolly lives. Her spirits 
are broke, and I am afraid [she] will soon fall a martyr 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 275 

to affliction. She has ever been a child of affliction 
since she connected herself with Mr. Skinner;- but as 
he is no more I desire to be silent. I shall write to 
Neddy [at Antigua] this week; he has a vessel 
here; he means to come in the spring himself. I have 
wrote to Sally. [Mrs. Fiske, at Salem.] We must 
try, my dear, to do something for our dear sister . . . 
This winter we are not able to do all ourselves, or I 
should not ask anyone. I am much disturbed about 
her. I hope I shall go down [to Marblehead, where 
poor Sister Skinner lay ill] tomorrow; I mean to. 
My whole soul seems harrowed up with perplexities. — 
I find age rapidly increases on my dearer self. He 
tries to his utmost to provide for his family, which is a 
hard task at his late period; but he has his health, 
thanks to the all merciful God, and so have I. This I 
prize as an inestimable blessing [which] demands my 
highest' gratitude; but when age bows the head, we 
have no right to look for death at our elbows. I pray 
Heaven this may meet you all as your last favor left 
you — a customer to the butcher instead of the doctor. " 

In 1789, there are only two letters from her. The 
first, in March, touches on business matters, tells 
that she has found a paper in the handwriting of her 
father, dead twenty-seven years before, relinquishing 
to all his children, "from Sister Davis to Tommy, 
[that is, from oldest to youngest by name] all rights in 
Granville granted by Grandfather Quincy to mother;" 
and so on. "You'll see, " she adds, "by the papers that 
Colonel Fiske has met with a theft. We are all well, 
also Betsy's family. I really wish, my dear brother, 
you would show us your face once more and bring 
your wife. I see no fun in forever staying at home 
begetting, bringing and training up. Novelty is the 
life of pleasure." On the same day she wrote a letter 
on business for her husband, and scribbled at the 
bottom: "You see I am secretary, C. D." 

Her other letter, written at night, early in June, is 
less buoyant. Brother Ned, then fifty-four years old, 

276 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

has arrived from Antigua; ''He is a poor, shattered, 
unhappy man. He requires all my attention and art 
to keep him tolerably happy. His intellectual parts 
are much weakened as well as his body. He wants to, 
see you all, but is unable to undertake the fatigues of 
another journey yet. He only rode today as far as 
Cambridge, and is so overcome with it [that] I was 
obliged to send for a doctor, more to compose his mind 
than to relieve his body. I sometimes fear he is come 
to mingle his clay with his parents'. I am obliged to 
be all cheerfulness with him, when my heart aches for 
him. The reason, I find by his servant, he lias not 
wrote you lately is [that] he was unequal to it. Should 
you indulge us with a visit to him, you must be 
cautious, and not see him suddenly. I should have 
wrote you, my dear, before, but my eyes and cares 
conspire to deny me that pleasure. I have not wrote 
Sisters Skinner and Fiske, nor has he seen them yet. 
I dread the scene, for he was so afflicted seeing me I 
thought he would [have] had a fit. I will save [my] 
eyes, and retire to my old gentleman, who is well, 
thank God. I am keeping the servants up. " 

There is little trace of her in 1790 — only a hasty 
half page, dashed off one September Sunday at two- in 
the afternoon, reporting Sister Skinner "with us and 
well," and enclosing for "perusal" a letter from 
Brother Ned, who had evidently managed to get- 
back to Antigua, whence, to all appearances, he never 
emerged again. 

The next year, 1791, reveals her more clearly. In 
February she writes that she has been thrown out of a 
sleigh; "I've been but a useless piece of furniture for 
some time. Sister Skinner has been very bad — not 
like to live. I went to see her, unable as I was, as 
she wished to see me. It hurt me to be obliged to 
leave her, but I could not stay. We endeavored 
among us to supply her with comforts. Her friends 
were all extremely kind, and — thank God — I hear she 
is getting better fast. She had a lung l'ever, and is in 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 277 

a very uncomfortable room, poor creature. She is 
the daughter of misfortune, but bears it with Christian 
fortitude. " It is perhaps fair to add that Sister 
Skinner survived them all, dying in 1822, at the age of 

After that, we hear no more of Catherine until the 
11th of June, when both she and Mr. Davis were 
perplexed about the accounts and charges of the still 
unsettled estate of her father, by that time twenty- 
nine years dead. This is almost the last we hear of 
poor old Mr. Davis in this world. His end came 
without warning. One evening that same June, he 
went alone to sup with Governor Hancock. His wife 
was detained at home by a letter from "my dear 
William, [apparently a sea-faring son of Air. Davis, 
who wrote from Antigua,] with particulars of his 
melancholy disaster, and the death of two of Neddy's 
family, one a natural son of his." Freed from 
conjugal observation, Mr. Davis appears to have 
supped imprudently; what he drank is not mentioned, 
but he ate more plum-cake and fruit than was good 
for him. On his way home, he was seized with a fit 
in the street. Carried to his house, and there helped 
by the doctor, he so far recovered himself as to go 
cheerfully up stairs; but once in his chamber he was 
again overcome by sickness, and instantly expired. 
"I can only say/' she writes, "[that] in him I have 
lost a friend, a lover, and a husband. May I be 
prepared to meet him in a blessed eternity, where I 
hope he is." His estate proved hopelessly insolvent. 
"I am now thrown upon the world to rest my head. 
I trust God will enable me to do it, by giving me 
strength according to my day . . . If I could get a 
house and be settled this fall, it would be a relief to 
me not to be enforced to be turned out in winter. 
But may I be resigned to God's will in all things." 

Two months later, she writes: "I more and more 
miss my cheerful and agreeable companion. I can 
truly say I now see the days when there is no pleasure 

278 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

in them. Sister Skinner left me two days past to 
attend the last remains of Mrs. Gerry — Tabby Skinner 
that was. They have put her into mourning, and she 
thinks in gratitude she must stay with them till next 
week, when she will return to stay with me for the 
present. She intends writing you respecting your 
proposals/but she is too much broke to engage in any 
undertaking." So, apparently, Brother John was 
still in trouble concerning his father's estate. He was 
on such terms with his brother-in-law, "the Hon. 
John Fiske, Esq. of Salem," however, that at about 
this time he settled some claims of this gentleman by 
transferring to him certain drafts on correspondents 
in England. Whether these were paid does not 
definitely appear; one or two faint indications inspire 
fear that they may not have been. 

In November Catherine was settled for the winter. 
Her stepsons Edward and William Davis had both 
got home from sea. She is anxious that Brother John 
shall send her precise statements of any land claims 
she may have. "Sister Skinner," she goes on, 
" spends the winter with me. Her health is very much 
impaired by her sufferings and I trust God will enable 
me to make her more comfortable than she was the 
two last winters. Her children have all wives now, 
and a man is commanded to leave father and mother 
for a wife, and most children are very willing to comply 
with such a pleasing command, especially where there 
is no expectation, and she — poor soul — has not a 
shilling but the bounty of her friends. My sons are 
very good to her, and do more for her than ever they 
did for me; but inasmuch as they do it for her, they 
show that respect to me and to their own mother that 
I love them for it. I don't mean to complain of them. 
They show me every respect, and we have all lived 
six weeks past in the strictest harmony together. 
While I am able to get'my bread, I am willing to spare 
no pains. It is my allotment, and I hope ever to be 

1919.] A Gentleivoman of Boston. 279 

content with it. My daughter Betsy" (Mrs. Town- 
send) "has been very dangerously ill, and I fear will 
never be really well again; but, thanks to God, she is 

The next year, 1792, was troublous. Through a 
good part of it she was still living in Mr. Davis's 
house in Tremont Street, but too poor to keep it. 
Her first extant letter was written in February, and 
there dated. It repeats old questions about shadowy 
titles to lands. "Isaac," it goes on, "has had a fit of 
the gout — his grandfather's legacy, he calls it." [The 
Wendells had a gouty strain through another century.] 
"I was most alarmed last week by a fire in the neigh- 
borhood. I packed up my goods and chattels, but 
was mercifully spared the removal of them." 

In April, she writes, still from Tremont Street, that 
she is glad to hear of Brother John's decision not to 
move into the country, "as I think [town] must be 
more agreeable to Sister Wendell and the children — 
minds formed for social life. I think the country is 
dismal." She goes on to tell of her cousin, Aunt 
DenmVs son, who, "goes to sea, ... is a worthy 
young man, has been unfortunate in having a sick 
family, and unsuccessful in business, but [is] very 
industrious and drives the nail that will go. This is 
character." She proceeds to touch on details, evi- 
dently connected with the never settled accounts of 
her father's estate, now thirty years dead. One 
Mrs. Kennedy says that "the glass was destroyed 
with her furniture in the time of the war. She is an 
old woman, and supports herself only by day labor, 
from a few charitable families that employ her from 
no other motive. I don't think it in her power to pay 
you. " Then follows something about gloves — appar- 
ently those bought for her father's funeral, thirty 
years before. "I am sorry, my dear," she continues, 
"if by any stroke of my pen or conduct, I should give 
you or any one of my connections or friends the least 
pain. I feel too much myself to wound others. . . . 

280 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

My dear deceased knew he ought to pay all his debts, 

and was honestly disposed to do it, were it in his power. 
That was the only affliction he had on earth, and I 
shall ever think was accessory to his death. But I 
must waive the subject; it's too much for me to dwell 
on . . . Sister Skinner has gone hence on a visit . . 
What shall I do with father's books and papers? 
Shall I send them by Huntress?" 

A month later, she writes: "Our dear brother 
Edmund departed this life [at Antigua] the 2nd of 
March, very suddenly. In him I have lost a moot 
affectionate and attentive brother, who has shown me 
every attention that absence admitted of ever since 
the death of my dearer self." His last letters had 
asked her to come and live with him, it seems. "My 
house is sold," she goes on, "Captain Edward Davis 
has bought it. I remove as soon as I can get one. I 
can say no more. My full heart obstructs my sight. " 

Two letters in December, seven months later, give 
glimpses of her again. She has engaged in some 
business by that time: "I find -I must work while the 
day lasts. I have no one to help me, and am growing 
older every day; and should I neglect making some 
provision for old age — should it please God to bring 
me to it — I have no other prospect than the Al [ins- 
house.] Sister Skinner is in need; every trifle helps 
clothe her. I expect to move in the spring ... I 
wish to know if I may not send father's books and 
papers. I don't know what to do with them." 

Only two days afterwards, she writes another 
request for clear statement of any land claims she may 
have. "The breaking up of my house and family," 
she goes on, "and the difficulty of getting a house is 
constantly upon my mind. But I won't burden you 
or any of my friends with my inquietude. I only 
wish that you would answer this as soon as possible, 
relative to the land, and accept and present Sister 
Skinner's and my love to every member of your family." 

The only trace of her in 1793 is a letter written in 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 281 

January, little more than a month after that on which 
we have just touched. "Surely," she writes, "the 
fates have conspired to tease me in the settlement of 
the estate, which I am heartily tired of and wish my- 
self clear of. It has occasioned me so much knowledge 
of mankind that I am fully convinced that the most 
predominant principle of the human heart is self- 
interest. The books and papers have at last been 
sent by Mr. Sherburne." (Incidentally a few relics 
of them are still in the hands of Brother John's 
descendants) "My spirits," she concludes, "are 
rather depressed, and have been for some time. I 
will not burden my friends when I cannot entertain 

In 1794, there are two glimpses of her. The first 
is a hasty letter, written in March. Members of 
Brother John's family passing through Boston have 
not found leisure to call on her. Sister Skinner is 
going to visit a daughter in Newburyport. Has 
Brother John ever heard from Brother Ned's widow? 
As for herself — Catherine — her eyes grow weak. The 
second is a letter from Sister Skinner, whose command 
of the pen, for all that she once tried to teach school, 
by no means approached Catherine's. In August, 
she wrote from Newburyport that Sister Davis had 
been very unwell, and like to die. As for the Skinners, 
Dick is about to sail on a long voyage, and Dolly is 
much as she was. The letter closes with an expression 
of regret, probably not shared by Brother John, that 
Sister Skinner cannot manage to pay him a visit. 

By March, 1795, Catherine was living in Cambridge 
Street, and Sister Skinner still, or again, visiting at 
Newburyport. Poor Catherine, surprised by an un- 
expected debt, is "almost broken in spirit," and longs 
for the company of even forlorn Sister Skinner. But, 
"I a'nt so selfish as to wish her not to enjoy herself, 
and therefore shall endeavor to be patient till she 
inclines to come." A month or so later, "Sister 
Skinner wrote me she received the money. I shall 

282 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

endorse it on your note. I hope if she comes to see 
you it will be soon, as I long to see her ... I often 
compare her to the sow you tell of that must be 
pulled by the ears to the trough and by the tail back 
again; for she will not exert herself, though — poor 
creature — she has had enough to fix her as a statue . . 
Brother Ned's estate, I am informed, won't pay 
four-pence on a pound. She [doubtless Brother 
Ned's widow at Antigua] is very dejected." 

In 1796, we do not hear from her until September. 
Then she writes Brother John, from Cambridge Street, 
a letter of condolence on the death of the youngest ,and 
last, of his nineteen children. A fine child of Isaac 
Davis, her step-son, she says, has just been buried 
from her house: "But I consider all children," she 
continues, "which are taken away, as only going from 
their earthly parents to be blessed in their heavenly 
parents' arms; and while their earthly parents are 
grovelling [in] the throes of the flesh and sin, their 
little purified spirits are hovering around, and look 
down with pity on those that gave them birth, that 
they still have to combat with the vicissitudes of this 
mortal state . . . Sally and Mr. Sargent [Brother 
John's eldest daughter and her husband] have passed 
the day with us. She appears to be very happy and 
has afforded us much pleasure. I sent for your son 
George but could not find him." A long postscript 
follows, much of which has been deliberately blotted 
out by Brother John. It seems to have concerned 
senile anger, on the part of the Honorable John 
Fiske, now styled General, with Brother John, by 
reason of disputes concerning land-claims owned by 
the shadowy and insolvent estate of the elder John 
Wendell, thirty-four years dead. The General's state 
of mind had involved more or less trouble for Sister 

So here or hereabouts seems to belong the undated 
draft of a long, letter from Brother John to Dr. David 
Townsend, now for some years married to Betsy 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 283 

Davis. " After my affectionate regards to yourself, 
Mrs. Townsend and [your] children give me leave to 
address a line to you as a gentleman of unbiassed 
principles; and as it comes from one who upon the 
verge of the grave [Brother John had reached the 
age of sixty-five] and expects to be accountable to 
God and his conscience, I hope it may have a weight 
at least in your mind, to convince you of the sincerity 
of my assertions. I have heard several times that it 
has been said by some of the children of my sisters 
that I have received and spent what was their parents' ; 
. . . and many other things as false as God is true. 
If any one sister or their children will inform me of one 
single brass farthing that ever I received or disposed 
of which belonged to them any ways, By Heavens,! 
will give them a guinea for a copper." He goes on to 
detail certain legal proceedings, which have proved 
fruitless. "I lost," he adds, " £100.0.0 by taking 
administration on my father's estate, instead of getting 
anything. If these complainants will point out one 
single act of injustice which I have done to them, I 
will pay ten-fold their demands, so help me God! 
After such a solemn assertion, I hope they will make 
inquiries to satisfy themselves, without impeaching 
the rectitude of their kinsman." A long passage fol- 
lows concerning the impudence of Edward Davis, 
which he so resents as to assert that none of his family 
" will eat his bread while they have any of their own. — 
I beg your pardon," he proceeds, "for giving you the 
trouble to read this letter, and you may wonder at my 
intrusion, as being . . known to you only by some of 
these gross falsehoods. I have a sincere and respectful 
regard to my niece, your lady, whose deportment to 
me and my family has ever been genteel and polite, 
affectionate and dutiful; and it would give me pleasure 
to see you and her here, with some of your little folks, 
if your avocations would permit. . . [I] desire to let 
a gentleman of your discernment know that I challenge 
every connection in life to prove a single injustice that 

284 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

ever I did to any of them. . . while I have the pleasure 
to recollect many acts of love and respect on my side. 
My love attends you and Betsy, and any brandies of 
my family who remember that they once had an uncle 
by my name ... I wish this letter may be read and 
known to any branches of my family who have felt 
themselves injured by me in thought, word or deed." 

When this was written does not appear. In Novem- 
ber, Catherine wrote Brother John a detailed account 
of how Sister Skinner, visiting her, had been seized 
with a fever. Charitable friends have helped. Sister 
Fiske has promised a little. Can't Brother John do 
something, too? The letter is brave and self-respect- 
ing; but one feels an undertone of something like 

What Brother John answered will never be known; 
but they got along somehow, for two letters from her 
in 1797 show no change in their relations. The 
first, hastily written in September, says that Judge 
Wendell — her father's cousin Oliver Wendell, grand- 
father of Dr. Holmes — thinks she has never sold her 
lands in Lenox, and asks Brother John what has become 
of them. These were probably a part of the thousand 
acres in Lenox bestowed by the Ceneral Court on the 
descendants of Judge Edmund Quincy when that 
worthy, representing the Province of Massachusetts 
Bay, succumbed to inoculation in London, fifty-nine 
year before. What became of them nobody now 
remembers. Her second letter, written in December, 
reveals her old self again. Brother John's son George, 
then twenty-six years old, has called on her. "I am 
much pleased," she writes, "with his frank, open and 
manly behavior. I should have known him only by 
the countenance of his Mamma which I think he has 
taken a large share of. " She goes on to inquire again 
about the Lenox lands and to tell something of the 
confusion of the Davis estate. "I have walked out 
today," she continues, "for the first time in six weeks, 
though [I] still have a bad cough. Sister Skinner is 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 285 

unwell with a cold. She is so young that she is very 
daring." (She was nine years older than Catherine, 
who was then about fifty-six.) "Poor I am a little 
wizened up old woman, as George I fancy will describe 
me. He acknowledges his disappointment in the 
ideas he had formed." 

In 1798 there is no trace of her. Two letter of 
August in that year, however, touch on relations 
between Brother John and Sister Fiske of which she 
must have known. In 1780 we may remember, a 
promising son of Brother John, named Daniel, had 
died at the age of twenty. The next son born to him 
came into the world in 1783, and was given the same 
name. Though less carefully educated than the first 
Daniel, he seems to have been a youth of diligence and 
ability, who might have made good if exposure to cold 
in the course of attending to business had not prema- 
turely ended his life, too, in 1807. At the age of 
fifteen he rather laboriously wrote to his Aunt Fiske, 
at Salem, as follows: "This day week my honored 
father, your brother, fell from his horse about a mile 
from here, and [it] was thought would not have sur- 
vived the fall. But being attended by three doctors 
they found no bones broken, only his thigh to be 
bruised, and all its tendons and muscles so hurt that 
he will not be able to walk for a long time. He has 
laid in his bed upon his back ever since, and cannot 
raise himself up. The doctors pronounce him out of 
danger. The great number of gentlemen who have 
come to see him has been rather injurious, but as 
friends they were all agreeable except one, who was a 
deputy sheriff with a writ from you this day, which 
grieved him to the heart, and really hurt him as well 
as mortified him to be so exposed as that his credit 
runs so low with you as to put it out of your hands, 
which he could have secured to your entire satisfac- 
tion.' ' He proceeds to detail the transaction involved 
which concerned a friend of Aunt Fiske, Colonel 
Pickman, of Salem, who seems to have transferred to 

28G American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

her, claims against Brother John. "My father, " he 
goes on, "wishes for no favor but what honor and 
justice may indulge him with, but grieves that he has 
lost the confidence of his sister. He wishes you to 
believe his affection for you forgives the injury, as not 
intended by you, but the wound will go with him to 
his grave as a lasting monument of the force of money. 
He joins my mother and the family in our cordial 
regards, and if he could have sat up would have wrote 
you himself." 

To this letter Aunt Fiske replied ten days later on 
her return from a "tour into the country" — "The 
relation of the catastrophe which befel my brother," 
she writes, "claims my pity and excites in me painful 
sensations. But your reflections, as unjust as un- 
merited, I shall pass over unnoticed, only observing 
that, whatever effect you may suppose money may 
have on some, its fascinating charms are not sufficient 
to induce me to do an unjust or an ungenerous action. 
I wish not to recriminate, and will only state facts, 
and leave your better judgment to rectify your too 
hasty conclusions, and not again impute to the cruelty 
of your aunt [what] proceeded from the avarice of a 
lawyer." She goes on to state the case from Colonel 
Pickman's point of view, who acted as guardian for 
the son of her late husband, and whom she conceives 
to have been actuated by the "nicest rules of honour" 
— "I wish," she concludes, "not to add expenses to or 
in any degree wound the sensibility of your respected 
parent, notwithstanding your insinuation, but heartily 
sympathize with him in his misfortune and sincerely 
wish him the consolation I cannot give. You will 
present my kind remembrance to your parents and to 
the several branches of the family." 

Evidently the "peace of family" which up to 1772 
Uncle Edmund Quincy had found "the very singular 
character" of the Wendells was no longer more than 
formally prevalent. 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 287 

In 1799, Brother John was sixty-eight years old. 
Of his nineteen children, eleven survived — the youngest 
a boy who had reached the age of eleven. The eldest 
son was forty- two. Named for his father, he appears to 
have been of more active intellect, and rather better 
educated than his younger brothers. His letters 
resemble those of a college- trained man. In point of 
fact, however, he never went to college, perhaps 
because the Revolution occurred at just about the 
time when he would regularly have done so; he was 
for a while in the employ of his uncle Joshua Went- 
worth, who thought him a bit flighty; he appears to 
have been the son of Brother John who, failing to get 
a commission on the Ranger, under John Paul Jones, — 
an intimate friend of the father, — went before the 
mast rather than not go at all; and after the Revolu- 
tion, he showed considerable enterprise in business, 
meanwhile corresponding with friends in Congress on 
political matters as well as social. Why he never 
married does not appear; his reason may very likely 
have been that he was never in a position to support a 
wife and family in the station to which he felt himself 
entitled. Particularly after the first Daniel's death, 
however, he was his father's chief reliance. In the 
spring of 1799, he made a journey to New York, 
where he did something towards establishing a futile 
claim to property in what was already Broadway. 
This claim was characteristic of Brother John, who 
held more or less valid title, to a great deal of landed 
property, but had very little ready money. So the 
old man could hardly have had a more crushing blow 
than the sudden death of this eldest son in August, 

Among the letters which ensued on this bereave- 
ment, two are worth recording. One is the bill of 
Dr. Lyman Spaulding, the chief physician in Ports- 
mouth, who charged two dollars for "5 visits and 
advice during his last sickness." The other is what 
Elbridge Gerry wrote from Cambridge: "I sincerely 

288 American Antiquarian Society.. [Oct., 

condole with you and your family on the melancholy 
occasion which you allude to.' There are events 
beyond our control, the dispensations of a supreme 
incomprehensible Being, but nevertheless distressing 
in a high degree, in consequence of those attachments 
and affections He has implanted in our minds. You 
have, however, the heartfelt satisfaction of having, on 
reflection, discharged the duty of a parent." 

Catherine wrote characteristically : " I once viewed 
death with a great deal of horror; but whether it is 
from the many trials I have had to conflict with, that 
have weaned me from the world, or whether it is from 
a foolhardiness I cannot say, but I feel perfectly 
resigned to leaving it, and can contemplate death 
with great composure." She goes oh to say that she 
has not seen Brother John for eighteen years. She 
touches on troubles he has had with his daughters, 
one of whom appears to have been disordered in 
mind, and another to have fallen in love with an 
undesirable suitor. Sister Skinner is away on a visit 
to Newbury, Salem, and Marblehead. And then 
references to land claims turn up. "I assure you, my 
dear, with my weak frame I find it tough work to rub 
along/' she continues, "but I don't wish to complain." 
Living, it seems, costs £300.0.0 a year, and she already 
owes a thousand pounds. But Captain Sargent's 
bitters have done her good, and she would be glad to 
have another bottle. 

In October, 1800, writing from Cambridge Street, 
she is something like her old self again. Brother 
John has had a fever; so has Sister Skinner, and so 
has she. "You must now remember," she writes, 
"[that] you are an old man. You must put off the 
deeds of the body; go thy way, and sin no more . . . 
You of ten say you are coming to see me. Y r ou put me 
in mind of the brace of pigeons the Irishman carried 
as a present, and let them fly from the basket; and 
when he delivered his letter, [and] the person told him 
he found in his letter the pigeons were sent, [he said] 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 289 

he was glad they were found in the letter, as he had 
lost them by the way." It is twenty years, she 
continues, since she has seen Brother John. This 
letter goes by "my two best friends, Mr. and Mrs. 
Scott." (This Mrs. Scott was her double cousin, 
Dorothy Quincy, widow of John Hancock, who had 
found in a second marriage less brilliant but calmer 
joys than had attended her first.) "She is like a 
sister," Catherine goes on, "[and] he my father, friend 
and protector. I wish all my friends would love him 
for my sake. They will inform you [of] my situation 
better than I can write it." . . . Sister Skinner, she 
adds, is at Newbury. The fever has cost $40.00 for 
the doctor and $12.00 for the nurse, besides medicines. 
And she owes Captain Scott £500.0.0 which she hopes 
to pay. 

There is only one more letter from her, a much torn 
sheet written in February, 1803. Evidently she had 
asked Brother John for money; and it is fair to say 
that although rich in lands he could seldom lay hand 
on cash even for his own household , bills. As for 
Catherine, her long dauntless spirit is almost broken. 
"What, my dear brother, have I done," she writes, 
"to merit your alienation? Could our venerable 
parents make but one visit to their offspring, and see 
the change, methinks their very souls would melt at 
the prospect. I am sure mine soars up to the regions 
where I think they dwell, and longs to unite with 
them in their humble adoration to the God of mercy. 
When I take a retrospection of our juvenile years, 
and view the harmony and love that pervaded our 
peaceful mansion, and [then] take a present view, I 
am lost in astonishment, and almost fancy, myself in a 
delirium ... May poverty never assail your man- 
sion, may the poignant sting of an indigent, dependent 
widow, never be the lot of the partner of your wealth, 
is the prayer of a sister that forcibly feels them both, 
and only begs that she may be endued with patience 
till the heavenly mandate shall summon her to her 

290 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

eternal rest. I must own, my dear, that I have not 
philosophy sufficient to combat with the trials of 
poverty and the indifference of my nearest connec- 
tions." She has a heavy cough, getting worse. 
" Our poor sister is at Newbury. God knows how it is 
with her. I hear she has lost her son Richard. I 
hope she will be supported through her many trials, 
and have a happy issue out of them. I congratulate 
you [on] the preservation in the late calamity by fire; 
also on the marriage of your daughter, [which, alas, 
proved luckless,] and the enjoyment of health which 
Mr. Sheaf e informs me you possess. God grant you 
and yours every blessing. Accept and offer my love 
among them, from that sister who once flattered 
herself she was beloved by you." 

It was probably in answer to this letter that Brother 
John drafted one to her, which may or may not have 
been copied and sent. "I am as ready to answer, my 
dear sister, your letters as I am to receive them, or 
you [are to] write me, and I challenge all the world to 
produce an instance of my ingratitude or want of 
affection where the cause originated with me ... I 
have a very valuable estate in outlands, yet I am like 
Tantalus up to the chin in water, yet cannot drink. 
I have some thousands of dollars due me which I can- 
not collect without distressing my fellow men, and I 
am wading through an almost finished race without 
the pleasure of enjoyment. Happy should I have been 
if a kind providence had permitted me to have been 
the sole support of helpless sisters, but a very large 
and dependent family has called for thousands more 
than I have had to help them. But, thank God, 
through the knowledge that I have an independent 
real estate, no person is distressing me." He goes on, 
at great length, to detail the circumstances concerning 
family lands which he has been accused of appro- 
priating, to point out that not a penny has come to 
him from these, but that they have involved losses; 
and incidentally to resent the fact that "Mrs. Han- 

i 1 ! 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 291 

cock, now Mrs. Scott" (doubly his first cousin) had 
offered to send him "Mr. Davis's wig, after his death. " 
The draft of this letter, on the whole senile and peevish, 
breaks off in the middle. 

Two or three more letters concern Catherine, how- 
ever. In April, 1804, her step-daughter, Mrs. Town- 
send, wrote a touching appeal to Brother John, whom 
she supposed affluent. "I have ventured, without 
her knowledge, to inform you of her real, unhappy 
situation. A woman at her time of life, beyond the 
years of sixty, accustomed in the early part of it to 
live handsome and genteel, and by her industry in the 
latter to be above dependence, is distressing to a 
degree. She was obliged to give up everything to her 
creditors and renounce business two years ago. Ever 
since, she has been with Aunt Fiske and myself, 
excepting some visits to Mrs. Scott. The death of 
her sister and the repeated troubles she has met with 
have so racked and debilitated her constitution that 
she is totally unable to undertake any business that 
can maintain her without the assistance of her friends 
. . . Aunt Fiske has left her one hundred dollars, 
.which without a home, and no other means to begin 
with, is small. . . . Were it in my power to place her 
in affluence I would with pleasure do it; but our house 
is very small, our family large and our business on the 
decline. She has seriously talked of offering herself 
as housekeeper to any genteel family, which from her 
ill health she is unable to undertake. Were she to do 
that ... I know you would be mortified, not only 
as her brother but as a man of fortune and benevo- 

Now, so far as records can tell us, Brother John was 
really a man of benevolence; and believed himself 
potentially a man of fortune. But he was land-poor. 
He had never had money enough properly to educate 
his children. He was lavish in signing notes, which 
kept him in constant hot water. He believed his 
lands to be worth a hundred thousand pounds sterling; 

292 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

and today they are, and more. But when he died, in 
1808, and his insolvent estate was somehow wound up 
by his young colleague at the Portsmouth bar, Daniel 
Webster, the whole property realized only about 
fifteen thousand dollars. So the long letter which he 
instantly wrote back to Mrs. Townsend, detailing his 
business perplexities, is unquestionably true. He had 
been unable, for years, to meet his own current 
expenses; and, in uncomfortable circumstances, he 
had been accused of heartlessness in not helping poor 
relatives. This he had resented — particularly when 
not informed of his sister Fiske's death, nor invited to 
her funeral. "Your Aunt Wendell/' he goes on, 
"who is one of the best women in the world, heartily 
grieves at every misfortune in our family, and would 
heartily join you in anything which would relieve my 
sister; but, poor woman, although she knows my great 
sufferings by paying money as bondsman, she knows 
not half my afflictions." 

In brief, he is actually unable to do anything; but 
before long two of his sons-in-law, Captain Sargent 
and Captain Randall, are expected in the port of 
Boston. When they arrive, Mrs. Townsend may 
consult with them. "In the multitude of counsel 
there is safety, and something may be devised for my 
distressed sister. " 

Whether anything came of this proposed family 
council does not appear. A letter from Dr. David 
Townsend, written On Sunday afternoon, April 7th, 
1805, — almost a year later — finishes the story: "This 
day, after a few days' more severe illness than she 
usually experienced for many years of distressful 
infirmity, your sister Mrs. Catherine Davis expired 
about one o'clock. It becomes my painful duty to 
give you this information, because Mrs. Townsend's 
distress on the occasion prevents her from giving you a 
more circumstantial account of the event. " 

She was buried, the only one of her family left in 
their native spot, in the tomb, in the Granary Bill 

1919.] A Gentlewoman of Boston. 293 

Ground, where her parents lay and her grandparents. 
This place of burial was piously cared for by. Dr. 
Townsend, and now bears his name as well as that of 
Major John Wendell. 

As for Brother John, who died three years later, he 
lies in a large tumulus at Portsmouth, bearing his 
name and the epitaph "Sic Transit Gloria Mundi. " 

294 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 



In many respects the problem which at this moment 
engages the United States Senate resembles the prob- 
lem which confronted the conventions in the several 
States, after the draft of the Federal Constitution had 
been submitted to them for approval. 

Then, as now, the question was whether they should 
ratify a plan for a more perfect union. Then, as now, 
this plan had been formulated in an assembly whose 
delegates for many months had worked behind closed 
doors, in even greater secrecy than that which veiled 
the Paris Conference. Then, as now, the assembly 
had disregarded limitations which explicitly or tra- 
ditionally curbed the competence of such bodies, and 
submittedaproject which was genuinely revolutionary. 
Then, as now, there were the most violent attacks 
upon the methods, the motives, the characters of 
the delegates who had formulated the project. Then, 
as now, there was much talk of the rights of "sovereign 
States," and the most jealous anxiety lest that 
sovereignty be in the slightest degree impaired. 
Then, as now, the outcome of the assembly's labors 
was an instrument of compromises. As such, it was 
satisfactory to not one of the delegates who signed it, 
and its provisions were no sooner published than they 
called forth the bitterest denunciation. Then, as 
now, some delegates had refused to sign a compact 
which they deemed prejudicial to the States which 
they represented. 

1919J Conciliatory Proposition of 178S. 295 

An historical analogy should not be "made to go on 
all fours." Certain fundamental differences between 
these two historic situations at once suggest them- 
selves. Thus, Massachusetts, New York, Virginia, 
and their sister States had never been " sovereign 
States" in any proper sense of that term; they had 
all been British dependencies, had united in asserting 
and maintaining not their individual but their common 
independence, and for half a dozen years had been 
managing their governmental affairs under what 
professed to be " Articles of Confederation and 
Perpetual Union." Obviously the foundations for 
"a more perfect Union" were more firmly laid among 
those American States along the Atlantic seaboard 
than among the motley of widely scattered nations 
represented at the peace table in Paris. 

Nevertheless, then, as now, the great question before 
the people and the conventions in the several States 
was: Shall we give our assent to this secretly- 
framed, revolutionary instrument of compromises, 
which may provide a more perfect Union, but which 
in so doing will inevitably impair the "sovereignty" 
of- our own State? And then, as now, the greatest 
inducement to ratification of the new plan of union 
—which many feared might prove an entangling 
alliance — lay in the belief that disorders at home and 
the menace of war with foreign nations threatened 
evils which could be avoided only by entrance into 
some firmer bond. 

It is not the present purpose to summarize the 
grounds of approval or of disapproval of the proposed 
Constitution in those anxious months which preceded 
its final ratification, but rather to call to mind the 
attitude as to ratification taken by several leaders, 
the impasse which seemed to have been reached by 
the beginning of the year 1788, and the "conciliatory 
proposition," the acceptance of which by the Massa- 
chusetts Convention pointed the way of escape. 

In the several States there were not a few men whose 

296 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

individualism or whose prime concern for the interests 
of their own States led them into fierce denunciation 
of the proposed frame of government. Thus in the 
Virginia Convention, says McMaster, Patrick Henry's 
speeches "were, in truth, a singular mingling of 
appeals to God and the American spirit, with such 
reasons for hating the Constitution as were every 
night hiccoughed out in the taverns or printed every 
week in the Chronicle. . . . Would Virginia give to 
Congress a right to collect taxes, duties, imposts 
and excises? Were Virginians about to abandon 
their country to the depredations of excisemen? Did 
they intend that any Assembly but the General 
Assembly should tax them, or any tribunal but the 
courts of Virginia adjust their disputes? . . . The 
new plan was a pernicious, an impolitic, a dangerous 
system. It was a great consolidated government . . 
. A standing army would do the will of tyrants. . . . 
These and a hundred other arguments, just as shallow 
and absurd, he continued for ten days to set forth, 
with all the eloquence and ingenuity of which he was 

But there were other Virginians of deeper insight 
and greater sense of responsibility. So thorough- 
going an individualist as Jefferson could not fail to 
find much that was repugnant in the proposed plan. 
Nevertheless, he felt it imperative that the Constitu- 
tion be ratified. He declared: "It will be more 
difficult, if we lose this instrument, to recover what is 
good in it than to correct what is bad after we shall 
have adopted it." At first it was his hope that nine 
States would promptly ratify it, "in order to conserve 
what was good in it, and that the others might, by 
holding off, produce the necessary amendments. 1 In 
similar fashion, there are those today who would 
consider it a world catastrophe if the League of 
Nations should not come into effect, but prefer that 

♦History of the People of the United States, I, 491. 
'Letter, Paris, May 27, 1788. 

1919.] Conciliatory Proposition of 1788. 297 

other nations shall put the League into operation, 
while the United States, "by holding off, "may 
"produce the necessary amendments." 

Washington, who had presided over the secret 
sessions of the Constitutional Convention during 
those five anxious months in Philadelphia recognized 
clearly the danger of attempting to force amendments 
as a condition of ratification. Again and again his 
letters make this plain. Thus 2 a week before the 
Massachusetts Convention assembled, he was writing 
to Edmund Randolph: 

To my judgment it is more clear than ever, that an attempt 
to amend the constitution, which is submitted, would be 
productive of more heat and greater confusion than can well 
be conceived. There are some things in the new form, I will 
readily acknowledge, which never did, and I am persuaded 
never will, obtain my cordial approbation; but I did then con- 
ceive, and do now more firmly believe, that in the aggregate 
it is the best constitution, that can be obtained at this epoch, 
and that this, or a dissolution of the Union, awaits our choice, 
and is the only alternative before us. Thus believing, I had 
not, nor have I now, any hesitation deciding on which to lean. 

A month later 3 he wrote to Lafayette: 

Some respectable characters have wished that the States, 
after having pointed out whatever alterations and amend- 
ments may be judged necessary, would appoint another federal 
convention to modify it (the Constitution) upon those sug- 
gestions. For myself, I have wondered that sensible men 
should not see the impracticability of this scheme. The' 
members would go fortified with such instructions, that 
nothing but discordant ideas could prevail. Had I but 
slightly suspected, at the time when the late Convention was 
in session, that another Convention would not be likely to 
agree upon a better form of government, I should now be 
confirmed in the fixed belief that they would not be likely to 
agree upon any system what ever; so many, I may add, such 
contradictory and unfounded objections have been urged 
against the system in contemplation, many of which would 
operate equally against every effective government that might 
be proposed. I will only say, as a further opinion founded on 

^January 1, 1788. The Writings of Washington, (Sparks, 1835) IX, p. 297. 
•February 7, 1788. Ibid. p. 318. 

298 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

the rnaturest deliberation, that there is no alternative, no hope 
of alteration, no intermediate resting-place, between the 
adoption of this and a recurrence to an unqualified state of 
anarchy, with all its deplorable consequences. 

To John Armstrong 4 he wrote: 

That the proposed Constitution will admit of amendments 
is acknowledged by its warmest advocates: but to make such 
amendments as may be proposed by the several States the 
condition of its adoption would, in my opiniori, amount to a 
complete rejection of it; for upon examination of the objections 
which are made by the opponents in the different States, it 
will be found that what would be a favorite object with one 
State, is the very thing which is strenuously opposed by 
another. The truth is, we are too apt to be swayed by local 
prejudices, and those w r ho are so fond of amendments, which 
have the particular interests of their own State in view, 
cannot extend their ideas to the general welfare of the Union. 
They do not consider, that, for every sacrifice which they 
make, they receive an ample compensation by the sacrifices, 
which are made by other States for their benefit; and that those 
very things which they give up, operate to their advantage 
through the medium of the great interest. 

In addition to these considerations, it should be remembered 
that a constitutional door is opened for such amendments as 
shall be thought necessary by nine States. When I reflect 
upon these circumstances, I am surprised to find, that any 
person who is acquainted with the critical state of our public 
affairs, and knows the variety of views, interests, feelings and 
prejudices, which must be consulted in framing a general 
government for these States, and how little propositions in 
themselves so opposite to each other will tend to promote that 
desirable end, can wish to make amendments the ultimatum 
for adopting the offered system. 

That improvement in the Constitution must come 
after, not before, its ratification he repeatedly urged. 
To Lafayette he wrote: 

We are not to expect perfection in this world; but mankind, 
in modern times, has apparently made some progress in the 
science of government. Should that, which is now offered 
to the people of America, be found on experiment less perfect 
than it can be made, a constitutional door is left open for its 

'April 25, 1788. Ibid. p. 351. 

1919.] Conciliatory Proposition of 1788. 299 

To this same thought he recurs in a letter to Bushrod 
Washington : 5 

The warmest friends and the best supporters the Constitu- 
tion has, do not contend that it is free from imperfections; but 
they found these unavoidable, and are sensible, if evil is 
likely to arise therefrom, the remedy must come thereafter. 
In the present moment it is not to be obtained; and, as there 
is a constitutional door open for it, I think the people (for it is 
with them to judge) as they will have the advantage of exper- 
ience on their side, can decide with as much propriety as 
ourselves on the alterations and amendments which are 
necessary. I do not think we are more inspired, have more 
wisdom or possess more virtue than those who will come after 

With this view Henry Knox was in entire accord. 
To Lafayette he had written, a few weeks after the 
draft Constitution had been published: 6 

In desiring that the proposed government may be adopted 
I would not have you believe that I think it all perfect. There 
are several things in it that I confess I could wish to see 
altered. But I apprehend no alterations can be effected 
peacably. All the States represented agreed to the Constitu- 
tion as it stands. There are substantial reasons to believe 
that such an agreement could not again be produced even by 
the same men. 

The outcome of the Massachusetts Conventions 
deliberations was awaited with keen expectancy, for 
it was generally recognized that her decision was 
likely to determine the Constitution's fate. Five 
States had promptly given their ratification, but there 
the movement stalled, and in Pennsylvania retraction 
of the ratification was being vigorously urged by the 
minority. The New Hampshire Convention had 
hardly met when it was adjourned, avowedly to await 
the Massachusetts verdict. Madison wrote to Wash- 
ington that the decision of Massachusetts would 
involve the result in New York, and he added that an 
adverse decision would also probably embolden the 

'February 7, 1788. Ibid. p. 318. 

•October 24, 1787. F. S. Drake, Life of Henry Knox, p. 06. 

300 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Pennsylvania minority to set at naught the ratification 
in that State and make some rash but dangerous move 
against the new system. 

With like expectancy the world today awaits the 
action of the United States Senate, which is to say 
whether the League of Nations shall have substance 
and reality. Is there a single signatory to the Treaty 
whose people will not clamor that alterations be made 
in its interest, if the United States Senate gives the 
cue in a conditional or qualified ratification? 

How did the Massachusetts Convention face its 
similarly momentous decision? Opposition to the 
Constitution was known to be strong. It was the 
current report that from twenty to thirty of Shays's 
officers were members of the Convention. Edward 
Bangs wrote to George Thatcher (January 1, 1788): 
"Of upwards of 50 members for this (Worcester) 
county not more than seven or eight delegates arc of 
my present sentiments, [i. e. favorable to the Consti- 
tution,] and yet some of them are good men. — Not all 
insurgents, I assure you. " The Federalists saw clearly 
that the opposition to the Constitution was so widely 
distributed and so deep-rooted that ratification would 
be impossible unless the grounds of that opposition 
were frankly recognized and unless there were opened 
up a hopeful prospect for their removal. An agree- 
ment was promptly reached that no votes should be 
taken till the provisions of the Constitution had 
received thorough consideration. But the Federal 
leaders soon became convinced that defeat awaited 
them, unless votes could be won by some compromise. 
They took counsel together, and formulated their 
proposals. Theophilus Parsons, so his son later 
declared, wrote these resolutions, and every word of 
them. Then the problem was how to launch them in 
the Convention. It was essential that the proposal 
should "seem to emanate from some one who, if not 
an opponent of the Constitution, had at least taken no 
steps toward securing its adoption; from some one, 

1919.] Conciliatory Proposition of 1788. 301 

too, in whom the popular party had full confidence." 7 
This combination of qualities was found in John 
Hancock, Governor of the Commonwealth and titular 
President of the Convention. "Up to January 30 his 
gout, a convenient disease which, as John Adams had 
remarked some years before, always seized him when 
there was anything unpleasant or unpopular to do, 
had prevented him from taking his seat in the Con- 
vention. Ten days before, Rufus King had ironically 
written: " Hancock is still confined, or rather he has 
not yet taken his seat: as soon as the majority is 
exhibited on either side, I think his Health will suffice 
him to be abroad." Gerry's biography also conveys 
the same impression. "The Governor" he writes, 8 
"has held his opinions in reserve; both parties chose 
to claim his vote. In this doubtful state of things, 
each was anxious to secure his influence, while they, 
who were not his friends, attributed his absence not 
so much to disease, which was the assigned cause, as 
to a desire of knowing which side should be taken for 

To the Convention's President, absent in body and 
supposedly open of mind, the Federalist leaders 
therefore resorted. Gerry's biographer gives a crab- 
bed account of what he understood took place at that 
interview. They presented "a series of amendments, 
which had been the result of much anxious delibera- 
tion. These could not, indeed, be incorporated into 
the Constitution by the vote of a State, but they 
could accompany the ratification as the wish and 
expectation of this important member of the confed- 
eration, and be by that measure finally secured. They 
tendered to his excellency the honor of proposing 
them in Convention. The reputation of having 
devised this middle course, the credit of announcing 

'So writes Prof. Samuel B. Harding whose monograph, "The Federal Constitution in 
Massachusetts, " gives an excellent account of the course of events attending the ratifica- 
tion in this Commonwealth. Harvard Historical Studies, 1896. See p. 85.) 

«J. T. Austin, Life of Elbridge Gerry, II, p. 73. 

302 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

it, the imperishable glory of its success, they had 
deemed it respectful to offer to him, that to the fame 
of having given his official sanction to the declaration 
of his country's independence, might be added that of 
securing for it a permanent constitution of govern- 
ment. " These glowing phrases are probably the 
product of Gerry's historical imagination, for he was 
an outsider. It seems evident that more definite 
allurements were presented, — for, a few days after the 
interview, Rufus King wrote to Henry Knox: " Han- 
cock will hereafter receive the universal support of 
Bowdoin's friends, and we tell him that if Virginia 
does not unite, which is problematical, that he is 
considered the only fair candidate for President." 9 

Accordingly, January 30, Governor Hancock's 
health did "suffice him to be abroad." "The charm 
was irresistible. Wrapped in his flannels, Hancock 
. . . took the chair of the Convention, and a scene 
ensued more in the character of a dramatic representa- 
tion, than of that serious and important business, 
which was the occasion of the assembly. In a speech, 
vain and plausible enough in itself, but sufficiently 
ludicrous to those behind the scenes, the Governor 
and President announced the anxiety of his mind, his 
doubts, his wishes, his concilatory plans." 10 

To quote from the report of his speech, as given in 
the Debates of the Convention: 

His situation had not permitted him to enter into the 
debates of this Convention: it however appeared to him nec- 
essary from what had been advanced in them, to adopt the form 
of government proposed; but, observing a diversity of senti- 
ment in the gentlemen of the Convention, he had frequently 
had conversation with them on the subject; and from this 
conversation, he was induced to propose to them, whether the 
introduction of some general amendments would not be 
attended with the happiest consequences. For that purpose 
he should, with the leave of the honorable Convention, submit 
to their consideration a proposition, in order to remove the 

•F. S. Drake, Life of Henry Knox, p. 98. (Feb. 3, 1788.) 
"Life of Gerry, II, p. 75. 

1919.] Conciliatory Proposition of 178S. 303 

doubts, and quiet the apprehensions of gentlemen .... 
He should, therefore, submit them; for he was, he said, 
unable to go more largely into the subject, if his abilities 
would permit him; relying on the candor of the Convention to 
bear him witness that his wishes for a good Constitution were 
sincere. [His Excellency than read his proposition. | This, 
gentlemen, concluded his Excellency, is the proposition which 
I had to make and I submit it to your consideration, with the 
sincere wish that it may have a tendency to promote a spirit 
of union/' 11 

The essential feature of the proposal — "a scheme so 
simple, and yet so important in its results" — was that 
Massachusetts should give the Constitution an un- 
qualified ratification, but should accompany that 
action by urging the prompt addition of specific 

The effect of its introduction was instantaneous. 
No sooner had Hancock ended his speech when 
Samuel Adams took the floor. Up to this moment he 
had been neutral in the Convention, though known to 
be strongly opposed to some features of the Constitu- 
tion. He began: 

■ "Mr. President: I feel myself happy in contemplating the 
idea that many benefits will result from your Excellency's 
conciliatory proposition, to this Commonwealth and to the 
United States; ... I have said, that I have had my doubts 
of this Constitution. I could not digest every part of it, as 
readily as some gentlemen; . . . Other gentlemen have had 
their doubts, but in my opinion, the proposition submitted, 
will have a tendency to remove such doubts and to conciliate 
the minds of the Convention and the people without doors. 
This subject, Sir, is of the greatest magnitude, and has em- 
ployed the attention of every rational man in the United 
States; but the minds of the people are not so well agreed on 
it as all of us could wish. A proposal of this sort, coming 
from Massachusetts, from her importance, will " have its 
weight. Four or five States have considered and ratified the 
Constitution as it stands; but we know there is a diversity of 
opinion, even in these States, and one of them is greatly 
agitated. If this Convention should particularize the amend- 
ments necessary to be proposed, it appears to me it must have 

"Massachusetts Convention, 1788 (Ed. of 185b) p. Ii25. 

304 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

weight in other States where Conventions have not yet met.'' 
He therefore moved that the proposition be at once taken into 
consideration by the Convention." 12 

Brought forward by John Hancock and immediately 
enlisting the support of Samuel Adams, the proposi- 
tion was assured of the Convention's earnest attention. 
"On motion of a doubtful character" (to use Madison's 
phrase), it was promptly referred to a large commit- 
tee, consisting of two members from each of the large 
counties, and of one from two small ones. It was 
characteristic of the spirit of the Convention that it 
was further agreed that "each county should nominate 
their own members, and that they should take one 
who had given his vote for, and one who had given 
his opinion against, the Constitution, in each county 
wherein two were chosen." 13 

Nevertheless, Madison reported to Washington: 
"We have a majority of Federalists on this committee, 
and flatter ourselves the result will be favorable. " 14 

That forecast proved justified. The committee 
made no essential changes; they did little else than 
fill certain blanks which had been left in the original 
draft. In less than a week the Convention was ready 
for the final vote. On that very morning, Samuel 
Adams introduced a series of amendments — in the 
nature of a Bill of Rights — to be added to those 
reported by the Committee. In the words of the 
record of the Debates of the Convention: "But they 
not meeting the approbation of those gentlemen whose 
minds they w T ere intended to ease, after they were 
debated a considerable time, the honorable gentlemen 
withdrew them." They were, however, promptly 
proposed by another member, whereupon Adams 
found himself constrained to vote against the measure 

12 Ibid. pp. 225-6. 

"Benjamin Lincoln to George Washington, Feb. 3, 1788. 

"Works of Madison, I, 37G. Feb. 11, 1788. 

1919.] Conciliatory Proposition of 1788. 305 

which he had himself proposed. Of this peculiar 
episode Jeremy Belknap wrote that Adams 15 - 

"had almost overset the applecart by intruding an amend- 
ment on the morning of the day of ratification ... It was 
apprehended this manoeuver lost the Constitution several 
votes. Some suspect his intention was to overset the whole; 
but 'Charity hopeth all things/ and I am seriously of the mind 
that it rather proceeded from vanity of increasing his own 
popularity, as Hancock had his, by the midwifeing the other 
amendments into the world. Had it not been for this step, 
the whole exertion had been in vain. Adams has made himself 

In a conciliatory speech, urging all to acquiesce in 
the decision expressed by the majority, President 
Hancock, February 6, submitted to the Convention 
the question of ratifying the Constitution. The vote 
stood: Yeas, 187; Nays, 168, so that it was carried 
by a majority of nineteen. 10 

Despite the narrowness of the majority, the vote 
was accepted as decisive and in the closing hours of 
the Convention many of the Constitution's former 
opponents acknowledged that many of their doubts 
had been removed, that they had been fairly out- 
voted, and declared their intention of going back to 
their constituents and trying — as one Worcester 
County member phrased it — "to infuse a spirit of 
harmony and love among the people". Throughout 
the Commonwealth the action of the Convention 
soon met with cordial acquiescence, even in the 
counties where opposition had been most pronounced. 

What were these amendments, whose proposal had 
such a conciliatory effect, and in what form were they 
associated with the resolution of ratification? The 
essential portions of the resolution are as follows: 17 

"Letter to Hazard, Feb. 10, 1788. Massachusetts Historical Society, Collection* 
Fifth Series, III, 17. 

"It ia interesting to observe that Worcester County's delegation proved impervious to 
argument. Only two or three of them had taken any part in the debates. In the final, 
vote their atand was exactly as Banga had forecast it before the Convention assembled, — 
43 against ratification to seven in favor of it. 

"Journal of the Convention of 17S8. (Ed. of lh:»C) pp. 83-S5. 

306 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

The Convention, having impartially discussed and fully 

considered the Constitution of the Unrted States of America 

. . . do, in the name and in behalf of the people of the 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, assent to and ratify the said 

Constitution for the United States of America. 

And as it is the opinion of this Convention, that certain 
amendments and alterations in the said Constitution would 
remove the fears and quiet the apprehensions of many of the 
good people of this Commonwealth, and more effectually 
guard against an undue administration of the federal govern- 
ment, the Convention do therefore recommend that the 
following alterations and provisions be introduced into the 
said Constitution. 

The nine proposed amendments may be summarized as 

First. That it be explicitly declared, that all powers not 
expressly delegated by the Constitution, are reserved to the 
several States. (Cf. Article X, Amendments.) 

Second. That there should be one representative to every 
30,000, until the whole number of representatives reached 

Third. That Congress should exercise the power to regulate 
elections only w r hen a State neglected or refused to make 
adequate provision therefor, or made regulations subversive 
of the rights of the people to a free and equal representation. 

Fourth. That Congress should lay direct taxes only when the 
revenue from imposts and excises was insufficient. 

Fifth. That Congress should erect no company with exclusive 
advantages of commerce. 

Sixth. That indictment by a grand jury must precede trial 
for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, except in the land 
or naval forces. (Cf. Amendment V.) 

Seventh. That in suits between citizens of different States the 
jurisdiction of the Federal Courts should be limited to causes 
wherein the matter in dispute was of a certain value. 

Eighth. That in all civil actions between citizens of different 
States, every issue of fact arising in actions at common law, 
should be tried by a jury, at the request of either party. 
(Cf. Amendment VII.) 

Ninth. Congress shall at no time consent that any person 
holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, 
shall accept of a title of nobility, or any other title or office, 
from any king, prince, or foreign state. (Cf. Art. I, Sec. 9, 
Par. 8.) 

1919.] Conciliatory Proposition of 1 788 307 

Then followed the paragraph which set forth the 
future course to be pursued as to these proposals: — 

"And the Convention do, in the name and in behalf of the 
people of this Commonwealth, enjoin it upon their representa- 
tives in Congress, at all times, until the alterations and 
provisions aforesaid have been considered, agreeably to the 
fifth article of the said Constitution: to exert all their influence 
and use all reasonable and legal methods to obtain a ratifica- 
tion of the said alterations and provisions, in such manner as is 
provided in the said article." And with the formal notice of 
the assent and ratification of the Constitution this recommend- 
ation and injunction should also be transmitted to the United 
States, in Congress assembled. 

The importance which at the time was attached to 
the Massachusetts Convention's action is evidenced 
by the eager comment upon it in the letters of leaders 
of the day. Hardly a week passed during its sessions 
in which Washington did not receive direct personal 
reports of its doings from his own correspondents in 
Boston, or from Madison and others conveying the 
news which had reached them. Washington's solici- 
tude as to the outcome was very great. To Benjamin 
Lincoln 18 he wrote: "There is no doubt but the 
•decision of other States will have great influence here, 
particularly one so respectable as Massachusetts." 
To Madison, a few weeks later, he wrote: 10 "A 
rejection of the new form by that State (Massachu- 
setts) would invigorate the opposition, not only in 
New York, but in all those which are to follow; at the 
same time it would afford materials for the minority 
in such as have already agreed to it, to blow the 
trumpet of discord more loudly." 

Nine days had passed after the ratification before 
Madison could relieve Washington's anxiety by this 
message:- "I have at length the pleasure to enclose 
to you the favorable result of the Convention at 
Boston. The amendments are a blemish, but are 

"Washington's Writing, IX, p. 311. Jan. 31, 1788. 
"Feb. 5, 1788. Ibid. p. 312. 

308 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

in the least offensive form." 20 To this, Washington 
replied: "The decision of Massachusetts, notwith- 
standing its concomitants, is a severe stroke to the 
opponents of the proposed constitution in this State." 21 
To Benjamin Lincoln he wrote: "The conciliatory 
behaviour of the minority will strike a damp on the 
hopes, which opponents in other States might other- 
wise have formed from the smallness of the majority, 
and must be greatly influential in obtaining a favorable 
determination in those States which have not yet 
decided upon it." 22 To Henry Knox he sent the 
comment: "Had this (ratification) been done with- 
out its concomitants, by a larger majority, the stroke 
would have been more severely felt by the anti- 
federalists in other States. As it is, it operates as a 
damper to their hopes, and is a matter of disappoint- 
ment and chagrin to them all . . . It will be very 
influential on the equivocal States." 23 In reporting 
the outcome to Lafayette, Washington wrote: 24 " Mass- 
achusetts adopted the constitution in toto, but recom- 
mended a number of specific alterations as ar early, 
serious and unremitting subject of attention." 

There were some who felt slight confidence in il*e 
course which had been here pursued. Thus Richard 
Henry Lee 25 wrote: "Massachusetts, I see, had 
adopted the plan, but proposes to insist perseveringly 
on amendments. If it were permitted an individual 
to question so enlightened an assembly, I would ask, 
why submit to a system requiring such amendments, 
and trust to creatures of our own creation, for the 
correcting of evils in it that threaten the destruction 
of those ends for which the system was formed." 

"Feb. 15, 1788. Works of Madison, I, p. 376. 

"Virginia, Writings of Wahhington, IX, p. 330. March 2, 1788. 

"Feb. 28, 1788. Ibid, p. 328. 

"March 3, 1788. Ibid. p. 333. 

"April 28, 1788. Ibid. p. 357. 

"April 28, 1788. 

1919.] Conciliatory Proposition of 1788. 309 

But, on the other hand, the hitherto doubting Thomas 
Jefferson, when the news from Boston reached him in 
Paris, at once declared the Massachusetts solution far 
preferable to that which he, himself, had advocated, 
and expressed the hope that this example — this 
"noble conduct" of Massachusetts — would be "fol- 
lowed by the [States] who are yet to decide," declaring 
that, if they did so, "it is impossible but that they 
must attain the essential amendments. " 26 

Of the actual influence which the action of the 
precedent set by the Massachusetts Convention 
exercised, Professor Harding says: /'The ratification 
of the proposed Constitution by Massachusetts was 
the turning point in the contest. Not only had that 
State influence enough to decide many who before had 
been wavering, but she had by her conciliatory 
proposition shown a way by which the Constitution 
might be saved, while at the same time the dangers 
would be obviated which many conceived would 
result from unconditional acceptance. . . . To the 
rank and file of the opposition in other States, as in 
Massachusetts, the idea proved exceedingly taking. 

. . The most striking testimony to the influence of 
Massachusetts in this particular, however, is found in 
the action of the Conventions themselves. Prior to 
the inauguration by Massachusetts of the practice of 
recommending amendments, the issue presented had 
been the bare one of acceptance or rejection. Of the 
five States which had already ratified the Constitution, 
not one had officially proposed a single amendment to 
that instrument. After Massachusetts had once 
pointed out the way, however, all this was changed: 
of the seven States which had yet to ratify, only one, 
Maryland, omitted to take such action." 

Great doors often turn upon small hinges. But for 
our Convention's adoption of that "conciliatory 
proposition," it would seem that the ratification of the 
Constitution would have been impossible. The only 

"Writings of Jefferson, (May 27, 1788) V. 20; (June 3), p. 23-5. 

310 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

alternative, so Washington declared, would have been 
"a recurrence to an unqualified state' of anarchy." 8 ' 
Yet hardly had the new government been put in 
operation than Americans' attitude toward the Consti- 
tution underwent an almost incredible transformation. 
Von Hoist follows "his account of the desperate struggle 
over the Constitution's ratification by a chapter 
entitled, "The Worship of the Constitution." Years 
later, Mr. Bryce observed: "It has long been the 
habit of Americans to talk of their Constitution with 
almost superstitious reverence." 

Out of the 103 amendments suggested by the various 
States, the First Congress approved twelve, which were 
submitted for ratification. Ten of these forthwith 
were added to the Constitution. In these ten amend- 
ments we find traces of only three of those nine 
proposals which had been put forward in the Massa- 
chusetts Convention, under such critical circum- 
stance . It may be doubted whether even these pro- 
posals, which did find their way into the fundamental 
law through what Washington called the"constitutional 
door," made any material difference in the develop- 
ment through which our government was to pass. As 
to the other six proposals, it needed but a few years' 
experience to prove some of them superfluous, some 
immaterial, and at least one preposterous. Our repre- 
sentatives in Congress speedily forgot that solemn 
injunction that they "exert all their influence, and use 
all reasonable and legal methods to obtain a ratifica- 
tion" of those precious amendments. Yet it was 
genuine statesmanship which formulated them to 
meet the anxious fears of Massachusetts opponents 
of the Constitution, and which secured their being put 
forward in such wise as not to delay or endanger the 
formation of that more perfect union the need for 
which was becoming so tragically evident. 

The clock from the stairway yonder warns me that 
I have trespassed too long upon your patience. One 

"Writings, IX, p. 319. 

1919.] Conciliatory Proposition of 1788 311 

hundred and thirty-one years ago, that very clock, 
in John Hancock's home, warned him that the time 
had come for him, wrapped in his flannels, to proceed 
to the Convention, to introduce that " conciliatory 
proposition. " At this moment, as four generations 
ago, the opportunity to formulate and to secure the 
adoption of a new " conciliatory proposition," upon 
which shall turn the fate, not of a more perfect union 
of a few little American States but of the League of all 
the Great Nations of the earth, may lie within the 
grasp of another Massachusetts statemsan, her senior 
Senator, an honored member of this Society. 

When four generations more shall have passed, will 
meetings of this already venerable Society still gather 
in this Library, built to bid defiance to Time? Will 
John Hancock's clock still chime a reminder of its 
owner's part in connection with the ratification of the 
Constitution, and all the progress which that act made 
possible? Will the objections which today delay 
America's acceptance of membership in the League of 
Nations then seem momentous enough to justify her 
refusal to join the League, or to justify the qualifying 
of her ratification of the Treaty with such reservations 
as will force the re-opening of all the major issues at 
the Paris Conference, or to justify the withdrawal of 
America from all concern with the affairs of the other 
nations of the earth, except as Congress may decide 
that America's interests are involved? Will America's 
best service to the world then be seen to have required 
such withdrawal? Or, in comparison with the earnest 
seeking to attain a League of Nations which shall 
enforce peace and justice, will these anxiously debated 
present-day amendments and reservations seem as 
superfluous, as immaterial, as most of the nine suggest- 
ed amendments which constituted that " conciliatory 
proposition" of long ago? 

Who shall say? For Antiquarians what r61e could 
be less fitting than that of the prophet! 


American Antiquarian Society. 




Balch, Thomas Willing 
Baldwin, Simeon E. 
Barton, Edmund M. 
Bassett, John S. 
Bates, Albert C. 
Beer, William 
Bell, Alexander G. 
Bixby, William K. 
Brigham, Clarence S. 
Burton, Clarence M. 
Clements, William L. 
Cunningham, Henry W 7 
Davis, Andrew McF, 
Dewey, Francis II. 
Dexter, Franklin B. 
Edes, Henry H. 
Edmonds, John II. 
Farrand, Max 
Farwell, John W. 
Gage, T. Hovey 
Carver, Austin S. 
Greene, Richard W. 
Hammond, Otis G. 
Haynes, George H. 
Hill, Benjamin T. 
Hollis, Ira N. 
Hulbert, Archer B. 
Huntington, Henry E. 

Jameson, J. Franklin 
Jenkins, Lawrence W. 
Jenney, Charles F. 
Jordan, John W. 
Kinnicutt, Lincoln W. 
Knapp, Shepherd 
Lincoln, Waldo 
Lombard, Herbert E. 
Mackall, Leonard L. 
Matthews, Albert 
Moore, Clarence B. 
Munro, Wilfred H. 
Nichols, Charles L. 
Norcross, Grenville H. 
Paltsits, Victor II. 
Potter, Alfred C. 
Rice, Franklin P. 
Rodway, James 
Rugg, Arthur P. 
Salley, Alexander S. 
Steincr, Bernard C. 
Taylor, Charles H., Jr. 
Thomas, Allen C. 
Tyler, Lyon G. 
Updike, D. Berkeley 
Washburn, Charles G. 
Winship, George P. 
Woodward, Samuel B. 


Arnold, James N. 
Baldwin, George J. 
Barnes, Harry E. 
Barton, Mrs. Edmund M. 
Bates, Newton W. 
Beyer, Hermann 
Bicknell, Thomas W. 

Bishop, William W. 
Brooks, Robert P. 
Brown, Henry C. 
Brown, Rome G. 
Brownell, Hannah C. 
Butler, William P. 
Carter, George R. 




Cage, Charles G. 
Chapin, Mrs. Flora S. 
Chase, Frederick A. 
Clark, A. Howard 
Clem en ee, Henry M. 
Coffin, Edward F. 
Cook, Asahel R. 
Dcbenedette, Salvador 
Dewey, John C. 
Easterman, Fred R. 
Eckfeldt, John W. 
Elliot, Mary E. 
Ferree, Barr 
Foster, Joseph 
Freeman, Alden 
Friedman, Lee M. 
Gale, Frank W. 
Gary, Elbert H. 
Gates, Burton W. 
Gates, Mrs. Susan Y. 
Gay, Mrs. Josephine S. 
Green, Herbert R. 
Hamilton, Frederick W. 
Harlow, Ralph V. 
Haughey, William H. 
Hearne, Margaret B. 
Heartman, Charles F. 
Heywood, Mrs. Frank E. 
Hill, Everett G. 
Holmes, Pehr G. 
Hopkins, Miss Sarah B. 
Howe, Franklin II. 
Howe, M. A. DeWolfe 
Hutchins, Charles L. 
Johnson, Bulges 
Jones, Arthur J. 
Kent, Daniel 
Kilroc, Edwin P. 
Kimball, Henry A. 
Kip, Frederic E. 
Knowles, Arthur J. 
Lane, Jennie T. 
Leavitt, Julian 
Lee, Mrs. Francis H. 
Lee, James Melvin 
Litzelmann, Carl H. 
Loring. Susan M. 

McVickar, Mrs. Edward 

Marble, Mrs. J. Russell ' 

Marble, J. Russell 

Martin, Miss Eleanor P. 

May, Miss Elizabeth 

Moore, Clarence B. 

Morrill, Edward 

Morris, Seymour 

Munson, Samuel L., Jr. 

Noyes, Mrs. Charles P. 

Noyes, Charles P. 

Page, Charles N. 

Paine, Mrs. Nathaniel 

Peck, George B. 

Pitcher, Charles N. 

Posnansky, Arthur 

Ramsay, Mrs. Jcannette A. W. 

Reynolds, Mary R. 

Rice, Edwin 

Richardson, Delos A. 

Rivet, Paul 

Rockwell, Robert C. 

Rugg, Harold G. 

Rugglcs, Henry S. 

Salisbury, Elon G. 

Sargent, George H. 

Seybolt, Robert F. 

Shepley, George L. 

Siebert, Wilbur II. 

Smith, Frank 

Smith, Harry Worcester 

Stone, Ellen A. R. 

Stone, James E. 

Tappan, Eva March 

Torrey, Lewis IT. 

Towne, Miss II. Rosa 

Tucker, Mrs. Russell E. 

Turner, William G. A. 

Vail, Samuel E. 

Walton, Perry 

Ward, George O. 

Weeks, John W. 

West, Mrs. Alice 

Whitin, Arthur F. 

Wigley, Mary 

Wilson, Louis N. 

Wylie, William B. 

314 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 


Abbot Academy. 

Academia National de Artes y Letras (Habana). 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Alhambra Council. 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

American Association for International Conciliation. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 

American Catholic Historical Society. 

American Geographical Society. 

American Historical Association. 

American Historical Society. 

American Irish Historical Society. 

American Jewish Historical Society. 

American Library Association. 

American Museum of Natural History. 

American Numismatic Society. 

American Oriental Society. 

American Philosophical Society. 

American Red Cross. 

American Seaman's Friend Society. 

American Type Founders Company. 

Amherst College Library. 

Andover Theological Seminary. 

Bangor Public Library. 

Barre Gazette. 

Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze. 

Boston Athenaeum. 

Boston, City Auditor. 

Boston, City of. 

Boston City Hospital. 

Boston Globe. 

Boston Port and Seamen's Aid Society. 

Boston Public Library. 

Boston Transcript. 

Boston Transit Commission. 

Boston University. 

Bowdoin College. 

Brockton Public Library. 

Brookline Public Library. 

Brooklyn Public Library. 

Brown University. 

Buenos Aires, La Universidad de. 

Buffalo Historical Society. 

Buffalo Public Library. 

1919.] Donors. 315 

Bureau of Railway Economics. 

Business Digest. 

California Historical Survey Commission. 

California, Society of Colonial Wars. 

California, Sons of the Revolution. 

California State Library. 

California, University of. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 

Canada, Department of Mines. 

Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

Catholic Messenger. 

Catholic University of America. 

Chicago Historical Society. 

Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy. 

Chicago, University of. 

Christian Science Monitor. 

Colgate University. 

Colorado College. 

Colorado, University of. 

Columbia Historical Society. 

Columbia University. 

Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

Connecticut Historical Society. 

Connecticut State Library. 

Cornell University. 

Council of National Defence of Washington. 

Crozer Theological Seminary. 

Dan vers Historical Society. 

Dartmouth College. 

Davis Press, Worcester. 

Detroit Public Library. 

Diocese of Western Massachusetts. 

Drew-Allis Company, Worcester. 

Encyclopedia Press. 

Essex Institute. 

Fairmount Park Art Association. 

Fitchburg, City of. 

Fitchburg Historical Society. 

Fitchburg Public Library. 

Fitchburg Sentinel. 

Forbes Library, Northampton. 

Ceorgia Historical Society. 

Georgia State Library. 

German American Historical Society of Illinois. 

Guaranty Trust Company of New York. 

Hartford Courant. 

31G American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Harvard Alumni Bulletin. 

Harvard College Library. 

Harvard Law Library. 

Harvard University. 

Haverford College Library. 

Haverhill Public Library. 

Heye Museum. 

Hingham Historical Society. 

Hispanic Society of America. 

Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania. 

Holy Cross College. 

Houghton Mifflin Company. 

Illinois Centennial Commission. 

Illinois Industrial Survey. 

Illinois, State Historical Society. 

Illinois, University of. 

Indiana Historical Commission. 

Indiana Historical Society. 

Indiana State Library. 

Iowa, Historical Department of. 

Iowa, State Historical Society. 

Japan Society. 

Jersey City Library. 

John Carter Brown Library. 

John Crerar Library. 

John Hopkins University. 

Kansas State Historical Society. 

Landlord and Tenant. 

League to Enforce Peace. 

Lewiston Evening Journal. 

Library of Congress. 

L'Opinion Publique. 

L'Union St. Jean Baptiste a'Amerique. 

Los Angeles Public Library. 

Louisiana Historical Society. 

Louisiana State Museum. 

Louisville Free Public Library. 

Maine Historical Society. 

Maine State Library. 

Maryland Historical Society. 

Massachusetts, Ancient and Honorable Artillery Co. 

Massachusetts, Ancient Eree and Accepted Masons. 

Massachusetts Bar Association. 

Massachusetts, Colonial Society of. 

Massachusetts, Commonwealth of. 

Massachusetts Historical Society. 

1919.] Donors. 317 

Massachusetts Library Club. 

Massachusetts Society of Mayflower Descendants. 

Massachusetts State Department of Health. 

Massachusetts State Library. 

Massachusetts State Normal School, Worcester. 

Merchants National Bank of Providence. 

Messenger Printing and Publishing Company. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board. 

Mexico Secretary of Agriculture. 

Michigan Historical Commission. 

Minnesota Historical Society. 

Minnesota, University of. 

Mississippi Valley Historical Association. 

Missouri, State Historical Society. 

Missouri, University of. 

Montana News Bulletin. 

Montreal Herald. 

Nation, The. 

National City Bank of New York. 

National Paper and Type Company. 

National Savings Bank of Albany. 

National Society of Sons of American Revolution. 

Naval History Society. 

Nebraska State Historical Society. 

Nebraska, University of. 

New England Historic Genealogical Society. 

New England Society in the City of New York. 

New Hampshire Historical Society. 

New Hampshire State Library. 

New Haven Colony Historical Society. 

New Jersey Historical Society. 

New York Academy of Sciences. 

New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. 

New York Historical Society. 

New York Public Library. 

New York Society Library. 

New York State Education Department. 

New York State Historical Association. 

New York State Library. 

New York, University of the State of. 

Newport Historical Society. 

North Carolina Historical Commission. 

Nova Scotian Institute of Science. 

Oberlin College. 

Ohio, Historical and Philosophical Society. 

318 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society. 

Oklahoma Historical Society. 

Old Colony Trust Company. 

Oregon Historical Society. 

Park Trust Company. 

Peabody Museum, Cambridge. 

Pennslyvania, Commonwealth of. 

Pennsylvania, Historical Society of. 

Pennsylvania Society in the City of New York. 

Pennsylvania, University of. 

Philadelphia German Society. 

Philadelphia, Library Company of. 

Philadelphia Public Ledger. 

Philippine Islands, Government of. 

Pratt Institute Free Library. 

Presbyterian Historical Society. 

Providence Daily Journal. 

Providence Public Library. 

Queen's University. 

Quill, The. 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. 

Reynolds Family Association. 

Rhode Island Historical Society. 

Rhode Island State Library. 

Rochester Historical Society. 

Rosenberg Library. 

Ross Brothers Company. 

Royal Academy of Stockholm. 

Royal Canadian Institute. 

Royal Colonial Institute. 

Royal Historical Society. 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 

Royal Society of Canada, 

St. Louis Mercantile Library Association. 

St. Louis Public Library. 

St. Paul Public Library. 

Seaman's Aid Society. 


Smith College. 

Smithsonian Institution. 

Societe de Geographic. 

Societe Nationale des Antiquaires de France. 

Societe Portugaise des Sciences Naturelles. 

Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities. 

Society of Antiquaries of London. 

Somerset County Historical Society. 

1919.] Donors. 319 

South Carolina, Historical Commission of. 

South Carolina Historical Society. 

Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 

Starry Cross. 

Toronto, University of. 

Trinity College Historical Association. 

Union Pacific System. 

United States Brewers' Association. 

United States Government. 

Villager, The. 

Vineland Historical and Antiquarian Society. 

Virginia Historical Society. 

Virginia State Library. 

Washington University. 

Washington University State Historical Society. 

Wesleyan University. 

Western Reserve Historical Society. 

Williams College. 

Wisconsin, State Historical Society. 

Worcester Academy. 

Worcester Art Museum. 

Worcester Bank and Trust Company. 

Worcester Board of Health. 

Worcester, City of. 

Worcester Club. 

Worcester County Law Library. 

Worcester County Mechanics Association. 

Worcester County Musical Association. 

Worcester District Medical Society. 

Worcester Free Public Library. 

Worcester Gazette. 

Worcester Historical Society. 

Worcester Telegram. 

Worcester Woman's Club. 

World Peace Foundation. 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. 

Yale University Library. 

Yale University Press. 





Achard, Madame, 12Gn. 

Acosta, Joseph de, 13. 

Adams, George B., on relation of 
geography and history, 30. 

Adams, Henry, on Burr, 48. 

Adams, John, 301; note to Burr, 

Adams, Samuel, in Constitutional 
Convention, 303, 305. 

Aerography, relation to history, 39. 

Agnew, Adeline, 125%. 

Aiken, Alfred L., appointed teller, 
182; life membership, 201. 

Aitken, Samuel, engraver, 212. 

Alden, Ebenezer, Fund, 202; gift, 
and legacy, 206. 

Alfaro, Anastasio, member, elected, 

Allen, Katharine, legacy, 208. 

Alston, Joseph, 103, 123; letter to 
T. Burr, 102. 

American Antiquarian Society, 
meetings, and members present, 
1, 181, elected, 4, 182, and enter- 
tained, G, 184; fellowship to Clark 
University, 5, 191; new bookplate, 
5, 220; Council reports, 7, 185, 
separate publication, 187; Span- 
ish American collections, 12, 213, 
217; special gifts, 15, 211, 213, 
218, 220; obituaries, 10, 185; 
officers, 182; bookplate exhibit, 
184, 187; S. A. Green legacy, 185; 
Proceedings delayed, 187; service 
to students, 191; stack enlarge- 
ment, 192, and plan, 195; increase 
of endowment, 192, 220; Treas- 
urer's report, 199; Librarian's 
report, 209. 

American Council of Learned So- 
cieties, A. A. S. representatives, 
184; resolution, and votes, 190. 

American Geographical and Statis- 
tical Society, purpose of, 29. 

American Historical Association, 
conference on relation of geo- 
graphy to history, 30. 

" American Star, " file acquired, 217. 
Andrade, Vincente de P., 13. 
Appleton, Nathan, gift, 200. 
Appleton, Nathaniel, 271. 
"Argus," Albany, files acquired, 

Armstrong, John, 120, 298. 
Arnold, Benedict, 52; address, 1776, 

Arnold, Joseph, 127. 
Autographs, collectors restrained, 

Ayers, Edward E., Indian literature, 



Balch, Thomas W., gift, 207. 
Baldwin, Abraham, 115. 
Baldwin, Simeon E., gift, 207. 
Bancroft, George, 29, 33. 
Bancroft, Hubert 11., Mexican 

literature, 4. 
Bandelier, Adolph F., Mexican mss., 

Bangs, Edward, favors Constitu- 
tion, 300. 
Bangs, Edward D., legacy, 206. 
Barrett, John, 8. 
Bassett, John S., 40. 
Baxter, James P., Secretary for 

Foreign Correspondence,. 183; 

gilt, 207. 
Beecher, Lyman, 235. 
Belknap, Jeremy, on S. Adams, 305. 
Benns, Frank Lee, awarded A.A.S. 

fellowship at Clark University, 

Bent's Ferry, 238n. 
Benzoni, Girolamo, 13. 
Beristain y Souza, Jos6 M., 13. 
Berry, Mrs. Betsy (Wendell), 262. 
Biddle, James, letter to Burr, 117. 
Bidwell, Percy Wells, 224. 
Bigelow, John P., legacy, 206. 
Bingham Hiram, Spanish American 

collector, 3, 11; representative of 

American Council of Learned 

Societies, 184. 


American Antiquarian Society. 

Bixby, William K., Bun's Journal, 

Blakeslee, George H., Council re- 
port, 2, 7, discussion following, 2; 
appointed teller, 182; Councillor, 

Blennerhassett, Mrs. Herman, 125. 

Bliss, Eugene F., gift, 207. 

Bloomfield, Isaiah, letter to Burr, 

Bonaparte, Lucien, Prince, library 
of, 3. . 

Bookbinding Fund, 202. 

Bookplates, Society's new plate, 5 
220; plates of Presidents, 5; E. D. 
French exhibition, 18-1; Marshall 
collection acquired, 187, 219. 

Boston, A Gentlewoman of, 1742- 
1805, 242. 

Boston Museum, 242. 

Boudinot, Elisha, letter to Burr, 96. 

Bowditch, Charles P., Maya mss., 3; 
gift, 207. 

Bowen, Clarence W., Councillor, 

Bradley, Stephen R., 115. 

Breckcnridge, John, 114. 

Brigham, Albert P., 32. 

Brigham, Clarence S., 5; obituaries 
of H. A. Parker, 21, A. D. White, 
27; Bibliography of American 
Newspapers, Pt. XI, 129; Libra- 
rian's report, 209. 

Brinton, Daniel G., Spanish Ameri- 
can collector, 2. 

Brown, John Carter, purchase of 
Le6n library, 3. 

Bryce, James, on the Constitution, 

Buckler, William II., representative 
of American Council of Learned 
Societies, 190. 

Bullock, A. George, gift, 207. 

Bureau of American Republics, 
Spanish American collection, 3. 

Bureau of Education, text book 
collection, 188. 

Bureau of Ethnology, Spanish Am- 
erican collection, 2. 

Burr, Aaron, Some papers of, 43; 
dispersed by iM. L. Davis, 43; 
journal, 45; "Memoirs," a breach 
of trust, 46; H. Adams on, 48; 
opposition of Jefferson, 50, 53; 
Federalists influence, 50; ambi- 
tion, 51; friendship, 51, 70; col- 
lege life, 55; Aid to Montgomery, 
66; marriage certificate, 92; por- 

trait, 11 2ft ; imprisoned, 123; 

trial, 125. ' ■ 

Burr, George L., on geography fac- 
tor in history, 30. 

Burr, Theodosia, 51, 102; letters to 
.1. Alston, J 03, to Mis. Blenner- 
hassett, 125. 

Burton, Clarence M.. gift, 207. 

Bushnell, Horace, on New England 
migration, 224. 


Calhoun, John C, letter to M. L. 

Davis, 128. 
Carroll, Charles, letter to D. 

Wooster, 09. 
Carticr, Jacques, 39. 
Casares, David, 13. 
Cathcart, James L., 120. 
Catholic University of America, 

Latin American collection, 12. 
Centennial Fund, 202. 
Champlin, Christopher. G., legacy, 

Chandler, George, Fund, 202; gift, 

Channing, William E., on freedom 

of thought, 239//. 
Chase, Samuel, letter to D. . 

Wooster, 69. 
Clark University, fellowship from 

A. A. S., 5, 191; theses upon Latin 

American subjects, 11. 
Clarke, Edwin L., on New England 

heredity, 231//. 
Clarke, William, 31. 
Climate, influence on early settle- 
ments, 33. 
Golden, Cadwallader, 79. 
Collection and Research Fund, 202. 
Colleges, collections acquired, 218. 
Colombo, Cristoforo, 39. 
Colton, Reuben, appointed teller, 

Columbus Memorial Library, Latin 

American literature, 11. 
Connor, Robert D. W., member, 

elected, 182. 
Constitution, frigate, 113, 
Constitution of the United States, 

The Conciliatory Proposition in 

the Massachusetts Convention of 

1788, 294. 
Continental Congress, appointment 

of Army officers, 59; bills of 

credit, .67. 
Conway, Thomas, letter to Burr, 77. 



Corey, Mrs. Dclorainc P., gifts, 207, 

Cristy, Austin P., gift, 207. 
Cunningham, Henry W., appointed 

teller, 4; nominating committee, 
182; Councillor, 182; obituary of 
H. E. Woods, 19G; gift, 207. 


Dallas, Alexander J., brief to A. 
Burr, 109. 

Dampier, William, 13. 

Davidson, George, 39. 

Davis, Andrew McF., Vice-Presi- 
dent, 182; felicitations, 184; gifts, 
207, 210. 

Davis, Betsy, (Mrs. David Town- 
send), 259, 205, 270, 271, 279, 

Davis, Charles H., gift, 207. 

Davis, Edward, 259, 278, 280, 283; 
letters, 201, 270. 

Davis, Edward L., gifts, 13, 206, 
207; Fund, 202. 

Davis, George, 119. 

Davis, Horace, gift, 207; legacy, 

Davis, Isaac, 279, 282. 

Davis, Isaac, founded A. A. S. 
Hispanic Americana collection, 
12; gifts, 206. 

Davis, Isaac and Edward L., Fund, 
"202; scope of, changed, 13. 

Davis, John and Eliza, Fund, 158. 

Davis, Mrs. John, Burr papers ac- 
quired, 43, 45, 54. 

Davis, John C. B., gift, 207. 

Davis, Matthew L., 103, 119, 128; 
Burr papers distributed, 43, 54, 
and disloyalty, 46, 53; journalist, 

Davis, Solomon, 244-246, 250, 251, 
254, 259-265, 268-277, 279. 

Davis, William, 277, 278. 

Dawkins, Henry, engraver,'219. 

Dayton, Jonathan, 53; letter to 
Burr, 121. 

Deane, Silas, letter to Baron 
Rottenbourg, 91. 

Dearborn, Henry, letter to Burr, 

Dekey, Mrs., 249. 

Dennie, Mrs. Sarah (Wendell), 256. 

DeVisme, Miss, 79. 

De Visme, Peter, 88. 

Dew, Thomas R., on Virginia's 
migration losses, 232. 

Dewey, Francis H. fl], Fund, 202; 

legacy, 207. 
Dewey, Francis H. [2], Councillor, 

182; gift, 207. 
Dexter, Franklin B., gifts, 207, 2 IS; 

Yale collection, 218. 
Dexter, James P., 33. 
Dickinson, John, letter to Burr, 109. 
Dodge, Mrs. Eliza D., Fund, 202; 

legacy, 207. 
Doolittle, Amos, engraver, 219. 
Drake, Sir Francis, 13; Nova 

Albion, 39. 
Duer, William, letter to D. Woosler, 

Dwight, Timothy, letter to Burr, 55. 


Fasten, James, 65. 

Eaton, William, 120. 

Edes, Henry 11., 182, 184; nominal - 
ing committee, 182; Councillor, 
1 S3; gift, 207. 

Edmonds, John H., 214; appointed 
teller, 4; nominating committee, 
182; Publication Committee, 
elected, 183; life membership, 

Edwards, Timothy, letter to Burr, 
^ 58. 

Ellery, Christopher, 105. 

Ellery, William, 105. 

Ellis, George E., Fund, 202; legacy, 

Emerson, Ralph W., on New Eng- 
land industries, 235?;, 236//, 237//; 
on Am. literature, 240n. 

Endicott, William C, entertains 
members of Society, 6. 

Erkclens, Gosuinus, 80. 

Essex, frigate, 117. 

Etting, Mrs. Rostiff I., 79. 

Everett, Edward, gift, 206. 

Fernald, Merritt L., refutes Norse 

traditions, 32. 
Fiske, Jonathan, 271, 278, 282. 
Fiske, Mrs. Sarah (Wendell), 

(Gerry), 271, 285, 286, 291, 292. 
Folsom, George, gift, 206. 
Forbes, William T., 183. 
Ford, Worthington C, Some Papers 

of Aaron Burr, 43; Secretary 

for Domestic Correspondence, 



American Antiquarian Society. 

Fournal, 250. 

Franklin, Benjamin, 249. 

French, Charles E., legacy, 207. 

French, Edwin D., bookplates, ex- 
hibition, 184, 187. 

French, Mrs. Edwin D., gift, 187. 

French, George, on New England 
pioneering, 229. 

Freneau, Philip. 108. 

Gage, Homer, Auditor, 183, and 
report, 205. 

Gallatin, Albert, letter to Burr, 98. 

Garnett, James M., 108. 

Garraux, Anatole L., 13. 

Garver, Austin S., gift, 207. 

Gaskill, George A., nominating 
committee, 182. 

Gates, Horatio, letter to Burr, 108. 

Gates, William E., Spanish Ameri- 
can collector, 2, 12. 

Genealogy, large additions, 214. 

Gentlewoman of Boston, A., 1742- 
1805, 242. 

Geography, relation to history, 30. 

George II, of England, engraving 

of, 214. 

Gerry, Elbridge, 238», 248, 252; let- 
ter to A. Burr, 100; letters to J. 
Wendell, 271, 287; in Constitu- 
tional Convention, 301. 

Gerry, John, 248, 271. 

Gerry, Mrs. Sarah (Wendell), 248, 
200, 271. 

Gerry, Thomas, 270. 

Gibbon, Edward, quoted, 46. 

Goddard, Harold C, 240/i. 

Goelet, Francis, 243. 

Golden llinde, 39. 

Granger, Gideon, note to Burr, 115. 

Granville, Mass., Quincy lands, 244, 
and divisions, 245, 247, 248, 258, 
260, 275. 

Grattan, Thomas C, on Irishman 
in New England, 234. 

Greeley, Horace, life of, 47. 

Green, Andrew H., legacy, 207. 

Green, John, gift, 206. 

Green, Samuel A., death announced, 
15; obituary, 16; legacy, 185, 208; 
Fund, 185, 202; gift, 207. 

Green, Samuel S., death announced, 
15; obituary, 18; gift, 207. 

Greene, Richard W., gifts, 213. 


llakluyt, Richard, 13. 

Hall, G. Stanley, Councillor, 182. 
Hamilton, Alexander, 50; letter to 
Burr, 09. 

Hancock, John, 213, 277; indisposi- 
tion, 265, 267, 301; Harvard 
treasurer, 266; President Consti- 
tutional Convention, 301-305. 

Harding, Samuel B., on adoption of 
Constitution, 300, 309. 

Harper, Robert G., letter to Burr, 

Harvard University, Spanish Amer- 
ican collection, 3, 12; Treasurer's 
accounts, 266. 

Haskins, Charles H., on American 
Council of Learned Societies, 190 

Haven, Mrs. Frances W., Fund, 
202; legacy, .207. 

Haven, Samuel F., Fund, 202; 
legacy, 207. 

Hay, Udney, letter to Burr, 83. 

Haynes, George II., Publication 
Committee, 183; The Concilia- 
tory Proposition in the Massa- 
chusetts Convention of 1788, 294. 

Hazen, Moses, 52. 

Heath, William, letter to D. 
Wooster, 74. 

Henry, Patrick, opposition to Con- 
stitution, 296. 

Herrera, Antonio de, 13. 

Hill, Benjamin T., Auditor, 183, 
and report, 205. 

Hillhouse, James, note to Burr, 119. 

Hispanic America, see Spanish 

Hispanic American Historical Re- 
view, 9, 11. 

Hispanic Society of America, col- 
lections, 4, 12. 

History, Increasing Debt to Science, 

Hobart, John S., letter to Burr, 92. 

Hoffman, Samuel V., gift, 207. 

Holmes, Oliver W., 284. 

Hoist, Hermann E., von, 310. 

Hulbert, Archer B., Increasing 
Debt of History to Science, 5, 29, 
discussed, 5. 

Hull, William, letter to Burr, 88. 

Hunnewell, James F., Fund, 202; 
gift, 207. 

Huntington, Archer M., Hispanic 
American collector, 4. 



Huntington, Ellsworth, on climatic 

conditions, 33. 
Hurd, Nathaniel, engraver, 219. 
Hutchinson, Thomas, 246, 247, 248. 
Hydrography, relation to history, 



Icazbalceta, Joaquin G., 13. 
Indians, North American, climatic 

influence, 33; affect of ''medicine 

men," 37. 

Inman, , 254, 265. 

Irish immigration, influence in New 

England, 226, 233. 

Jackson, Andrew, 229, 240. 

Jackson, Mrs. Edward, portrait, 

Jackson, James, letter to Burr, 114. 

James, James A., member, elected, 

Jefferson, Thomas, H. Adams on, 
49; letters to Burr, 98, 100; on 
ratification of Constitution, 296, 

John Carter Brown Library, Span- 
ish American collection, 3, 12. 


Kalb, Baron de, letter to W. Mal- 
com, 78. 

Keogh, Andrew, 219. 

King, Rufus, in Constitutional Con- 
vention, 301, 302. 

Kinnicutt, Lincoln N., gift, 207. 

Knox, Henry, 302, 308; on ratifica- 
tion of Constitution, 299. 

Kurtz, Alice W., Spanish American 
collector, 13, 15. 

Laet, Janus, 13. 

Lafayette, Gilbert M., marquis de, 
297, 299, 308. 

Lamb, John, 64. 

Las Casas, Bartolome de, 13. 

Latin America, see Spanish Ameri- 

Leclerc, Charles, 13. 

Ledyard, Benjamin, 120. 

Lee, Charles, letter to D. Wooster, 

Lee, Richard 11., comments of 
Massachusetts' ratification, 308. 

Lchmann, Frederick W., member, 
elected, 4. 

Leland, Waldo G., secretary Amer- 
ican Council of Learned Societies, 

Lenox, James, gift, 206. 

Lenox Library, Spanish American 
collection, 3. 

Le6n, Nicolas, 13; Library pur- 
chased, 3. 

Lewis, Meriwether, 31. 

Liberty, sloop, 79. 

Library of Congress, Latin Ameri- 
can literature, 2, 11. 

Librarian's and General Fund, 202. 

Life Membership Fund, 202. 

Lincoln, Benjamin, 307, 308; letter 
of, 74. 

Lincoln, Levi, 105; Legacy Fund, 
202; gift, and legacy, 206. 

Lincoln, Nancy, gift, and legacy, 

Lincoln, Waldo, presides, 1, 181; 
gifts, 15,207; obituaries, of S. S. 
Green, 18, W. II. Livermore, 197; 
President, 182; entertains mem- 
bers, 184; Council report, 185; 
deaths announced of W. K. Liver- 
more and H. E. Woods-, 185. 

Linschoten, Jan H. van, 13. 

Little, Charles C, gift, 206. 

Livermore, William It., death an- 
nounced, 185; obituary, 197. 

Livingston, Edward, letter to M. L. 
Davis, 103. 

Livingston, John, 80. 

Livingston, Philip V. B., letter to 
D. Wooster, 62. 

Livingston, William, letter to J. 
Livingston, 80. 

Lockwood, James, 61. 

Lodge, Henry C, 311; on New 
England pioneers, 229. 

Lombard, Herbert E., 5, 184. 

Lyon, James, 61. 


McAdie, Alexander G., 39; value of 

science to history, 5. 
Maccarty, Nathaniel, legacy, 206. 
McDougall, Alexander, letter to 

Burr, 84. 
McFarland, William, legacy, 206. 
Ma ego wan, Elmer A., 205. 


A tiquarian Society. 

J, Hector, letter from D. 
Wooster, 68. 

Mi .v '---:■ :. ' : v.*. : : = ..:-:.- 

M - :_- :. M:_. - - : '. M L 
Davis, 119; on slaver 

r-.z-::::. .:' «". .:.--.: .:. :. . 

Malaga, 117 

mm; .;_ v 

l . i ■: 

! : . 

M .:-.... . :':.■_ 1 .,-•_-..- : ".- 

L-:-.::l -. ■. _.-t: 1--" -1 
M r ..: "... 1_-.-.t: .:" : - I .:. - 

— :.-:-:„ ..- M 
Martyr, Peter I 
Maryland, ratifies Constitution, 

Mason, Stereos T.. 114. 

: M-i_:-r._fT-.> •- ::v-:i:.:: ::' M 
7:.rC:::M:::vi : -. . :. _ 4 



lieirnn, Daniel, legacv, 206. 
Merrick, Pliny, gift. 206. 
Mexico, manuscript collections, 2; 

zr-^r ; . - M :.vv - _; :- 

....... --:..v: :_ N"- J .. . _■- 

... .... : 

MM- l M ..-- ..:. • Mz.L= 747 

; 7 .. :. Jr : M:_ .z-t: .-v.r: :': - 

: : .:-.. :_ M 
Monroe, lames, letter to 

M - M 
M ■ ..-_ . _.-:. . .:- M:..- '.-" : :. 

bJz Y 
Montgomery. Richard. 52; letter 

from P. Schuyler, 63. 
Montt, Luis. 13: library |wuhiiil, 

m ..-..l : -:..,_ 

- : "" 
Munson, Samuel L_, nominating 



NY.?: £rr >:?: 7 \ ::: 
American literary center, 10 

:•'.-. ..t -:* :ir N.: -:■ :-:.-.. > 

tnry, 222; migration, 223, and 

:' ;.._.. "• ... .-.i _'_. jl i _- 
tries, 235; literary aspects, 2». 
New Hampshire, delay to ratify 

quired, _ 
New York, delay to ratify Consti- 
tution, . 
New York PnUic Library, Latin 

\mui< in collection, 11. 
Newberry Library, 4. 
N : =* i-.r re - _--. :. :-.:. .:. J.L .- 
lection, 15; BUmgraphy of. Pi. 

-._ ..'..:-- . " . 

i".=s --- -.-: -I": -_.-.- -. . 

7.7 . 7 

.- -..M . - 7 .-.„.- 
PI. 22 Recording Secretary, 
Norcross, Greawflk I 
teller, 4; gifts, 5, 208, 

.--.; i ._.._.:.-. 

:.: -:_ • r- . rr-ii" 


7 - - I . M" _:. - ~ i -:_- 

Y:-.".-j - : _- 5 - i : :-- 

7-- -_... .7. A ". .- --:-: 7." 1-7 

...... - V__ , 7 -:.. 7 : 1; 

_ . 
Pan American Union, 7, 8, 10; 

1 ... .-._. ....-z. 7:r:~: _. -. M 

suggested, 10. 

. : r. _'"•..:_- A 

Parker, Henrv A , death announced, 
15: obituary 

M.:- - — . ...H 74 . -::. 7 
- - - 

. -- : r 

. ..:= : - - - . - " 
r. :: r. .7:.:- 




Pennsylvania, opposition to Consti- 
tution, 299. 

Pepper, Capt., — , 68. 

Philadelphia, frigate, 117. 

Photography, aerial, 42. 

Pickering, John, impeachment, 122. 

Pinckney, Charles, letter to Burr, 

Piatt, Richard, letters to Burr, 87, 

Point Reyes, 39. 

Portraits, American engraved, col- 
lection offered, 188. 

Posey, Chessley J., 31. 

Potter, Alfred C, member, elected, 

Pratt, , 258. 

Pratt, Luther, printer, 115. 

Prescott, Richard, 63. 

Prevost, A[nneJ, letter to Burr, 126. 

Prevost, Augustine, 126/1. 

Prevost, Frederick, 126/i. 

Prevost, Mrs. Theodosia, 79, 82, 88, 
96; marriage certificate, 92; 
letters to Burr, 94, 95. 

Princeton College, fire, 115. 

Printing, 115; press in Mexico, 12. 

Publishing Fund, 202. 

Purchasing Fund, 202; increased, 

Purviance, Samuel D., 121. 

Putnam, Israel, letter to M. Mon- 
criei'fe, 71. 


Quincy, Dorothy (Mrs. Edward 
Jackson), portrait, 268. 

Quincy, Dorothy (Mrs. John Han- 
cock), 243, 289. 

Quincy, Edmund [3], 243, 273, 284; 
portrait, 268. 

Quincy, Edmund [4], 247, 248, 273; 
letters to J. Wendell, 249, 250, 
251, 252, 263. 

Quincy, Elizabeth (Mrs. John Wen- 
dell), 243; portrait, 268. 

Quincy, Josiah, 270. 


Randall, Capt. , 292. 

Randolph, Edmund, 297. 
Randolph, John, letter to Burr, 117. 
Ranger, 287. 
Reed, Joseph, letter to D. Wooster, 

Reeve, Sally, letter to Burr, 62. 
Reeve, Tappan, letter to Burr, 65. 

Revere, Paul, engravings in "Royal 
American Magazine, " 211; book- 
plates, 219. 

Ricci, Seymour de, member, elected, 

Rice, Franklin P., death announced 
15; obituary, 22. 

Rivington, James, letter to Burr, 

Robinson, Timothy, 247, 258, 266. 

Rodney, Caesar A., letter to Burr. 

Roosevelt, Theodore, death an- 
nounced, 15; obituary, 24. 

Rottenbourg, Baron, 91. 

''Royal American Magazine," file 
acquired, 210. 

Royal Geographical Society, origin, 

Rugg, Arthur P., Vice-President, 
elected, 182. 

Rush, Benjamin, letter to Burr, 97. 

Russell, Jonathan, letter to Burr, 

St. Christopher's Island, Laws of, 

15, 213, and Acts, aequired,.2]4. 
St. Clair, Arthur, letter to Burr, 89. 
Salisbury, Stephen [1], gifts, and 

legacy, 206. 
Salisbury, Stephen [2], gifts to 

Hispanic Americana collection, 

13; Legacy Fund, 202; gifts, 206, 

207; legacy, 207. 
Salt, Art of making, 212. 
Sargent, Edward, 264, 292. 
School books, collection, 188, 220. 
Schuyler, Philip, 52; letter to R. 

Montgomery, 63. 
Science, Increasing Debt of History 

to, 29. 
Scott, Mrs. Dorothy (Quincy), 
^ (Hancock), 289, 291. 
Scott, James, 289. 
Sears, Isaac, letter to D. Wooster, 

Sedgwick, Theodore, letter to Burr, 

Sergeant, Jonathan, letter to Burr, 

Sewall, Harold M., member, elected, 

Shaw, Robert K., member, elected, 

Shays's rebellion, leaders oppose 

Constitution, 300. 


American Antiquarian Society. 

Sherburne, Dorothy (Mrs. John 
Wendell), 255, 257, 258, 2G1, 263, 

Sherburne, Jonathan, letter on C. 
Wendell Davis, 204. 

Sherman, Roger, letter to D. 
Wooster, 59. 

Shotwell, James T., representative 
of American Council of Learned 
.Societies, 100. 

Sioussat, St. George L., 31. 

Skinner, John [1], 244. 

Skinner, John [2], 274. 

Skinner, Richard, 245, 247, 254, 
270, 275, 281, 200. 

Skinner, Tabitha (Mrs. Thomas 
Gerry), 240, 270, 278. 

Slavery, in Virginia, 232; in Massa- 
chusetts, 240, 250; in New Hamp- 
shire, 249, 251. 

Smibert, John, portrait of Judge 
Quincy, 208. 

Smith, Justin H., gift, 207. 

Smith, Samuel S., letter to Burr, 

Smith, Sidney L., A. A. S. book- 
plate, 5, 220. 

Smith, William, 79. 

South America, increasing interest 
in, 8. 

Spanish America, collections of 
literature, 2, 7; exchange profes- 
sors, 9, 10; scholarships and 
fellowships to students 9; im- 
portance of a literary center, 
10; phases studied by students, 
11; artes, confesionarios, vocabu- 
laries, 14; newspapers, 15. 

Spanish language, increase of study, 

Sparks, Jared, 43. 

Spaulding, Lyman, 287. 

Special Gifts Fund, 202. 

Spencer, Ambrose, letter to Burr, 

Spencer, Joseph, letter to D. 
Wooster, 73. 

Spring, Samuel, letter to Burr, 57. 

Station, frigate, 117. 

Stevens, Cotton M., 248. 

Stirling, Lord, letter to Burr, 78. 

Stokes, Isaac N. P., member, 
elected, 182. 

Stone, John II., 121. 

Storer, Ebenezer, 200. 

"Supporter," Chillicothe, files ac- 
quired, 217. 

Taft, Jane A., legacy, 208. 

Taft, William II., Councillor, 183. 

Tarr, Ralph S., 32. 

Taylor, Charles 1L, Jr., gifts, 210. 

Taylor, John, letter to Burr, 118. 

Tenney, Joseph A., Fund, 202; 
legacy, 200. 

Thatcher, George, 300. 

Thayer, Nathaniel, gift, 200. 

Thayer, William R., member, 
elected, 4; chairman American 
Council of Learned Societies, 190. 

Thomas, Benjamin F., Fund, 202; 
gift, and legacy, 200. 

Thomas, Isaiah, 211; legacy, 206. 

Thomas, William, gift, 206. 

Thomas, William, member, elected, 

Tiffany, P. Dexter, gift, 206. 

Tompkins, Daniel D., letter to 
Burr, 120. 

Torrey, Ebenezer, gift, 200. 

Tower, Ralph W., 32. 

Townsend, David, 270, 282, 292. 

Tracy, Uriah, letter to Burr, 110. 

Transportation, evolution, 41, 222, 
228> 236, 287, 241. 

Tree, age of Sequoia, 5. 

Trelles, Carlos M., 13. 

"Trench and" Camp," files acquired, 

Troup, Robert, letter to Burr, 90. 

Trumbull, Jonathan, letter to D. 
Wooster, 01. 

Truxton, Thomas, 117; letter to 
Burr, 113. 

Turner, Frederick J., 5, 30, 35; rep- 
presentative of American Council 
of Learned Societies, 184; Greater 
New England in the Middle of 
the Nineteenth Century, 222. 

Tuttle, Julius II., Publication Com- 
mittee. 183. 


Union Acad6mique Internationale, 

University of California, Mexican 
collection, 4. 

University of Pennsylvania, Span- 
ish American collection, 2. 

Utah, adaptation of New England 
organizations, 238. 

Utley, Samuel. Councillor, 182; 
gift, 207. 



Van Buren, Martin, note to Burr, 

Van dor Gucht, Gerard, engraver, 

Vanderlyn, John, portraits by, 112. 
Varnum, James M., letter to Burr, 

Vega, Garcilaso de la, el Inca, 13. 
Vegetation, influence on migration, 

Vinaza, Cipriano M. y M., conde de 

la, 13. 
Virginia, decline of, 232; struggle 

over ratification, 296. 


Wadsworth, Jeremiah, letter to 
Burr, 81. 

Wadsworth Athenaeum, textbook 
collection, 188. 

Wagner, Henry E., Spanish Ameri- 
can collector, 4. 

Warren, Sir John B., 126. 

Washburn, Charles F., Fund, 202. 

Washburn, Charles G., obituaries of 
S. A. Green, 16, T. Roosevelt, 24; 
Councillor, 182; gifts, 207, 210. 

Washington, Bushrod, 299. 

Washington, George, 78; book- 
plate, 6; on fertility of Ohio, 37; 
manuscript, 43; Weems' Life of, 
47; letter to Mrs. Prevost, 88; on 
ratification of Constitution, 297, 
307, 308, 310. 

Water highways, 35, 40. 

Waterston, Robert C, gifts, 206, 

Webster, Daniel, 292. 

Weeden, William B., gift, 207. 

Weems, Mason L., successful bio- 
grapher, 47. 

Wendell, Abraham, 244, 245, 247. 

Wendell, Barrett, A. Gentlewoman 
of Boston, 1742-1805, 242. 

Wendell, Betsy, 261, 262, 263, 267. 

Wendell, Catherine, A Gentle- 
woman of Boston, 1742-1805, 

Wendell, Daniel [1], 262, 285, 287. 

Wendell, Daniel 12], 285. 

Wendell, Dorothy, (Mrs. Richard 
Skinner), 244, 247, 269, 273, 274, 
276, 285. 

Wendell, Edmund, 244, 2-16, 247, 
252, 254-256, 259, 261-263, 268- 
270, 272, 273, 276, 280. 

Wendell, Mrs. Elizabeth (Quincy), 
243; portrait, 268,. 

Wendell, Elizabeth (Mrs. Solomon 
Davis), 214, 248, 251, 256, 258, 
259, 268, 269. 

Wendell, George, 282, 284. 

Wendell, Henry, 214, 246, 247. 

Wendell, John [1], 243-248, 267, 269, 

Wendell, John [2], 244-293. 

Wendell, John [3], 263, 287. 

Wendell, Josiah, 244, 246, 247. 

Wendell, Mrs. Mercy (Skinner), 

Wendell, Oliver, 284. 

Wendell, Sally, (Mrs. Edward Sar- 
gent), 254, 257, 263, 270. 

Wendell, Sarah, 245, 248, 269, 271. 

Wendell, Thomas, 245, 247, 248, 

Went worth, Benning, 245. 

Wentworth, John, 245. 

Wentworth, Joshua, 287. 

Wentworth, Sarah (Mrs. John 
Wendell), 245, 252. 

West Indies, newspapers acquired, 

"Western Monitor," Lexington, 
files acquired, 217. 

White, Andrew D., death an- 
nounced, 15; obituary, 27. 

Whitin, Albert H., gift, 207. 

Whitney, James L., Fund, 202; 
legacy, 207. 

Wigley, Mrs. F. Spencer, gift, 15, 

Wilkinson, James, 44, 53; letter to 
Burr, 123. 

Willard, Samuel, engraving of, 214. 

Willett, Marinus, letter to Burr, 
112; portrait of, 112. 

Winship, George P., on Spanish 
American collections, 2; Council- 
lor, 183. 

Woodbury, John, nominating com- 
mittee, 182; life membership, 

Woods, Henry E., death announced, 
185; obituary, 196. 

Woodward, Samuel B., Treasurer, 
183, and report, 199; gift, 207. 

Wooster, David, 45, 52; letters to, 
59, 67, 69, 73, 74; letter to H. 
McNeil, 68. 

Wooster, Thomas, 92. 


American Antiquarian Society. 

Worcester Historical Society, new 

name, 180. 
Worcester Society of Antiquity, 

name changed, 186. 
Wyeth, Nat, 237. 

Vale University, Latin American 
collection, 3, 11; biographical 
records, 218. 

Ymtun, 250.